Chapter 5 - Organizing and Delegating Work


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Chapter 5 - Organizing and Delegating Work

  1. 1. Organizing and Delegating Work
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Explain the difference between a flat organization and a tall organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the similarities and differences among liaisons, integrators, and people in boundary roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the difference between formal and informal authority and centralized and decentralized authority </li></ul><ul><li>List and briefly explain the four levels of authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the relationship between line authority and staff authority. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what an organization chart is and list the four aspects of a firm that it shows. </li></ul>After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
  3. 3. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Discuss the difference between internal and external departmentalization. </li></ul><ul><li>State the similarities and differences between matrix and divisional departmentalization. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the difference between job simplification and job expansion. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the job characteristics model. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how to set priorities by answering three priority questions and determining whether activities have high, medium, or low priority. </li></ul><ul><li>List the four steps in the delegation process. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the key terms listed at the end of the chapter. </li></ul>After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
  4. 4. IDEAS ON MANAGEMENT at Post & Schell <ul><li>What key organizational principles guided Post & Schell in its reorganization? </li></ul><ul><li>How has authority changed at Post & Schell? </li></ul><ul><li>What organizational design did Post & Schell adopt? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of job design does Post & Schell use? </li></ul><ul><li>What prioritization and delegating issues does Post & Schell face? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Exhibit 5 – 1 ● Organizing Questions
  6. 6. Exhibit 5 –2 ● Principles of Organization <ul><li>Unity of command and direction </li></ul><ul><li>Chain of command </li></ul><ul><li>Span of management (flat and tall organizations) </li></ul><ul><li>Division of labor (specialization, departmentalization, integration) </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced responsibility and authority </li></ul><ul><li>Delegation </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul>
  7. 7. Coordination Methods Direct Contact Liaisons Integrators Committees Boundary Roles
  8. 8. Balanced Responsibility and Authority <ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The obligation to achieve objectives by performing required activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The right to make decisions, issue orders, and use resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The evaluation of how well individuals meet their responsibilities. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Balanced Responsibility and Authority (cont’d) <ul><li>Delegation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of assigning responsibility and authority for accomplishing objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to adapt to exceptions to the rules, policies, and procedures of the organization. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Authority <ul><li>Formal Authority (or Structure) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The organizationally-sanctioned way of getting the job done. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational charts illustrate formal lines of authority in firms. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Informal Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The patterns of relationships and communication that evolve as employees interact and communicate that is not sanctioned by the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scope of Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A hierarchy that narrows as it flows down the organization. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Exhibit 5 –3 ● Scope of Authority Responsibility and Authority
  12. 13. Join the Discussion Ethics & Social Responsibility <ul><li>Breaking the Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it unethical to be flexible and break the law against kickbacks? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why are kickbacks illegal? Who benefits from kickbacks, who gets hurt by them, and how? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What would you do in this situation? (Would you start giving kickbacks yourself? Blow the whistle on sales reps to their managers? Blow the whistle to an outside source like the government or the media? Do nothing?) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Levels of Authority <ul><li>Authority to Inform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform a superior of alternative actions and the superior makes the decision. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authority to Recommend </li></ul><ul><ul><li>List alternative decisions/actions and recommend one action; the superior makes action decision. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Authority to Report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select and implement a course of action, and report the action to the superior. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Full Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act independently without supervision. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Line and Staff Authority <ul><li>Line Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The responsibility to make decisions and issue orders down the chain of command. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Staff Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The responsibility of staff personnel to advise and assist other personnel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The right of staff personnel to issue orders to line personnel in established areas of responsibility. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual line and staff authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staff personnel exercise line authority within their own departments. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Line and Staff Authority (cont’d) <ul><li>Staff Authority (cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work for only one manager and help the manager in any way needed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialist staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Help anyone in the organization who needs it. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Centralized and Decentralized Authority <ul><li>Centralized Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important decisions are made by top managers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decentralized Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important decisions are made by middle and first-line managers. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Exhibit 5 –4 ● Types and Levels of Authority
  18. 20. Organizational Design <ul><li>Contingency Factors Affecting Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment (mechanistic versus organic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy (“structure follows strategy”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of the organization (larger = more formal) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organization Chart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A graphic illustration of the organization’s management hierarchy and departments and their working relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The level of management hierarchy, chain of command, the division and type of work, and departmentalization. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Exhibit 5 –5 ● Organization Chart
  20. 22. Departmentalization <ul><li>Departmentalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The grouping of related activities into units. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Departmentalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing departments around essential input activities, such as production, sales, and finance, that are managerial or technological functions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product (Service) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing departments around goods (or services). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing departments around the needs of different types of customers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Territory (Geographic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing separate unites in each area in which the enterprise does business. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Exhibit 5 –6 ● Types of Departmentalization
  22. 24. Multiple Departmentalization <ul><li>Multiple Departmentalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid structures using combinations of functional and product departmentalization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Matrix Departmentalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combines functional and product departmentalization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unity of command violation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Divisional Departmentalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on semiautonomous strategic business units. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a conglomerate structure of unrelated business units: autonomous profit centers. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Exhibit 5 –7 ● Matrix Departmentalization
  24. 28. New Approaches to Departmentalization Departmentalization Virtual Organizations Learning Organizations Network Structures Horizontal Team Organizations
  25. 29. Job Design <ul><li>Job Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of identifying tasks that each employee is responsible for completing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects job satisfaction and productivity. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 30. Exhibit 5 –8 ● Job Design Options Integrated Self-managed Work Teams Rotate jobs (job rotation) Add tasks (job enlargement) Increase task variety and employee responsibility (job enrichment) Job Expansion Eliminate tasks Combine tasks Change task sequence Job Simplification
  27. 31. Exhibit 5 –9 ● The Job Characteristics Model
  28. 33. Setting Priorities <ul><li>Priority-Determination Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do I need to be personally involved because of my unique knowledge or skills? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the task my responsibility, or will it affect the performance or finances of my department? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When is the deadline—is quick action needed? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assigning Priorities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delegate (D) priority: The task is delegated if the answer to question 1 is no. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High (H) priority: Assign the task a high priority if you answer yes to all three questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medium (M) priority: Assign the task a medium priority if you answer yes to question 1 but no to one of the remaining two questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low (L) priority: Assign the task a low priority if you answer yes to question 1 but no to both questions 2 and 3. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 34. Exhibit 5 – 10 ● Prioritized To-Do List <ul><li>Write the task that you must perform on the task line. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the three priority questions by placing a Y (yes) or N (no) in the relevant column. </li></ul><ul><li>Assign a priority to the task by placing the letter D (delegate), H (high), M (medium), or L (low) in the priority column. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine which task to complete now . </li></ul>
  30. 35. Delegation <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More time for other high-priority tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trains employees and improves their self-esteem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enriches jobs and improves personal and work outcomes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Obstacles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reluctance to stop doing tasks personally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of employee’s failure to accomplish task. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threatened by employee’s success. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 36. Exhibit 5 – 11 ● What to Delegate and What Not to Delegate
  32. 37. Join the Discussion Ethics & Social Responsibility <ul><li>Delegating Destroying Documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it ethical and socially responsible to delegate the task of destroying documents that may potentially be used as evidence of wrongdoing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What would you do if your boss asked you to destroy documents and you thought the goal was to cover up evidence of wrongdoing by the firm? (Would you just do it? Say nothing but neglect to do it? Question your boss’s motives? Look closely at what you were asked to destroy? Check with your boss’s boss to make sure it's okay to do it? Tell the boss you will not do it? Tell the boss to do it himself or herself? Blow the whistle to an outside source?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you were charged with destroying evidence, do you believe it would be a good defense to say, “I was only following orders”? </li></ul></ul>
  33. 38. Exhibit 5 – 12 ● The Delegation Process 1. Explain the need for delegating and the reasons for selecting the employee. 2. Set objectives that define responsibility, the level of authority, and the deadline. 3. Develop a plan. 4. Establish control checkpoints and hold employees accountable.
  34. 39. KEY TERMS <ul><li>span of management </li></ul><ul><li>responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>authority </li></ul><ul><li>delegation </li></ul><ul><li>levels of authority </li></ul><ul><li>line authority </li></ul><ul><li>staff authority </li></ul><ul><li>centralized authority </li></ul><ul><li>organization chart </li></ul><ul><li>departmentalization </li></ul><ul><li>divisional structure </li></ul><ul><li>job design </li></ul><ul><li>job enrichment </li></ul><ul><li>job characteristics model </li></ul><ul><li>priority-determination questions </li></ul>