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Chapter 12 - Team Leadership


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Chapter 12 - Team Leadership

  1. 1. Team Leadership
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Describe the major differences between groups and teams. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the group performance model. </li></ul><ul><li>List and explain the three dimensions of group types. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the three major roles played in groups. </li></ul><ul><li>State the differences between rules and norms. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe cohesiveness, and explain why it is important to teams. </li></ul><ul><li>List the four major stages of group development, and describe the appropriate leadership style usually associated with each. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the difference between a group manager and a team leader </li></ul>After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
  3. 3. Learning Outcomes (cont’d) <ul><li>Discuss the three parts of meetings. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the key terms listed at the end of the chapter. </li></ul>After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
  4. 4. IDEAS ON MANAGEMENT at W.L. Gore & Associates <ul><li>How does W. L. Gore & Associates benefit from the use of groups and teams? </li></ul><ul><li>How does W. L. Gore’s group structure facilitate teamwork? </li></ul><ul><li>How is group process managed at W. L. Gore? </li></ul><ul><li>What programs are in place at W. L. Gore to foster group development? </li></ul><ul><li>How does W. L. Gore ensure productive meetings? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Groups and Teams <ul><li>Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two or more members with a clear leader who perform independent jobs with individual accountability, evaluation, and rewards. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A small number of members with shared leadership who perform interdependent jobs with both individual and group accountability, evaluation, and rewards. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Exhibit 12 – 1 ● Groups versus Teams
  7. 8. Join the Discussion Ethics & Social Responsibility <ul><li>Team Players </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it necessary to be a team player to be a successful employee at JetBlue? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it ethical and socially responsible of JetBlue to reject job candidates because they are considered not to be team players? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Exhibit 12 –2 ● Group Performance Model
  9. 10. Group Types <ul><li>Formal Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created by an organization as part of its formal structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informal Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created spontaneously; not part of the formal structure of the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functional Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain members from a limited organizational area. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cross-Functional Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain members from different organizational areas and/or levels. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Exhibit 12 –3 ● Functional and Cross-Functional Groups
  11. 12. Group Types (cont’d) <ul><li>Command Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consist of managers and the employees they supervise. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Task Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consist of employees selected to work on a specific objective. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A temporary group formed for a specific purpose. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standing committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A permanent group that works on continuing organizational issues. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Global Virtual Team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Team members are located in different places but work together as a team using telecommunications technologies. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Group Size, Structure, Composition, and Leadership Leadership and Structure Group Composition Number in Group Leadership and Objectives Teams Groups versus Groups tend to be larger than teams. Teams tend to have few members. Groups are more formal and tend toward autocratic leadership. Teams are informal and tend to have participative leadership. Members should be diverse and have complementary skills. Diverse teams tend to outperform homogeneous groups. Groups have broadly-defined (organizational) objectives. Teams develop their own objectives.
  13. 14. Exhibit 12 –4 ● Dimensions of Group Structure
  14. 15. Group Process <ul><li>Group Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The patterns of interactions that emerge as members perform their jobs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group Process Dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include roles, norms, cohesiveness, status, decision making, and conflict resolution. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Group Process (cont’d) <ul><li>Group Roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Members who do and say things that directly aid in the accomplishment of the group’s objectives. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Members who do and say things to develop and sustain the group process. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-interest roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Members who do and say things to hurt the group and help themselves. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Group Process (cont’d) <ul><li>Group Norms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The group’s shared expectations of its members’ behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norms develop spontaneously through the interactions of group members. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliance with norms is enforced by the group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders should work toward maintaining and developing positive norms. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Join the Discussion Ethics & Social Responsibility <ul><li>Norms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should employees be able to “do their own thing” without group enforcement of norms? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it ethical and socially responsible for groups to develop and enforce norms? If yes, what type of ethical standards should a group have? </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Group Process (cont’d) <ul><li>Group Cohesiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The extent to which members stick together. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors positively influencing cohesiveness: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement with and commitment to objectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Homogeneity among group members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equal level of member participation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on external competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A successful group </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Group Process (cont’d) <ul><li>Status within the Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Status is the perceived ranking of one member relative to other members in the group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on performance, job title, wage or salary, seniority, knowledge or expertise, interpersonal skills, appearance, education, race, age, sex, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High status members have a strong influence on the group and its performance. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 23. Exhibit 12 –5 ● Dimensions of the Group Process
  21. 24. Stages of Group Development and Styles of Leadership 1. Orientation Autocratic leadership 2. Dissatisfaction Consultative leadership 3. Resolution Participative leadership 4. Production Empowering leadership 5. Termination
  22. 25. Exhibit 12 –6 ● Stages of Group Development and Leadership Styles
  23. 26. Developing Groups into Teams <ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Train the group in group process skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Management Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empower members to set objectives, develop plans, and make decisions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing and staffing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have members participate in selecting, evaluating, and rewarding members. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop team leaders who can change leadership styles as the group develops. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have members monitor progress, take corrective action, and perform quality control. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 27. Leadership Skills for Meetings <ul><li>Planning Meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select participants and make assignments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare the agenda. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set the time and place for the meeting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine who will lead the meeting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare to use technology. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conducting Meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The three parts of meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify objectives. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cover agenda items. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Summarize and review assignments. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 28. Exhibit 12 –7 ● Meeting Plan
  26. 29. Leadership Skills for Meetings (cont’d) <ul><li>Handling Problem Members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silent type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanderer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bored member </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arguer </li></ul></ul>
  27. 31. KEY TERMS <ul><li>group </li></ul><ul><li>team </li></ul><ul><li>group performance model </li></ul><ul><li>group structure dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>group types </li></ul><ul><li>command groups </li></ul><ul><li>task groups </li></ul><ul><li>global virtual teams </li></ul><ul><li>group composition </li></ul><ul><li>group process </li></ul><ul><li>group process dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>group roles </li></ul><ul><li>norms </li></ul><ul><li>group cohesiveness </li></ul><ul><li>status </li></ul><ul><li>stages of group development </li></ul><ul><li>team leaders </li></ul>