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Chapter Seven Motivating Yourself and Others
Chapter Preview: Motivating Yourself and Others <ul><li>Differences between internal and external motivators in the workpl...
The Complex Nature of Motivation <ul><li>Each person is motivated by different needs, at varying degrees, and at different...
Motivation Is Two-Dimensional <ul><li>Internal motivation comes when work is meaningful or gives sense of purpose </li></u...
Motivation Is Two-Dimensional <ul><li>External motivation usually involves an incentive or anticipation of a reward like m...
Total Person Insight <ul><li>Dependent people need others to get what they want. Independent people can get what they want...
Motivation to Satisfy Basic Desires <ul><li>Everything we experience as meaningful can be traced to one of sixteen basic d...
Figure 7.1 Sixteen Basic Desires in the Reiss Profile Source:  Steven Reiss,  Who Am I?  (New York: Berkeley Books, 2000),...
Characteristics of Motives <ul><li>The “why” of human behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Five characteristics of motives: </li></u...
Influential Motivation Theories <ul><li>Many psychologists have added to our knowledge of what motivates people </li></ul>...
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>People tend to satisfy their needs in a particular order, “The Hierarchy of Needs” </l...
Figure 7.2 - Maslow’s Hierarchy  of Needs
Physiological Needs <ul><li>Survival, or lower-order needs </li></ul><ul><li>Include needs for food, clothing, sleep, and ...
Safety and Security Needs <ul><li>Reflect peoples’ desire for predictability, order, and safety in life </li></ul><ul><li>...
Social or Belongingness Needs <ul><li>Involves emotional and mental well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Needs for affection, a se...
Esteem Needs <ul><li>People need respect and recognition form others and self-worth </li></ul><ul><li>Promotions, honors, ...
Self-Actualization Needs <ul><li>Represent a person’s need for growth </li></ul><ul><li>Fulfilling potential or realizing ...
Maslow’s Theory Reconsidered <ul><li>Criticized for not addressing need for leisure time and self-actualization through fa...
Table 7.1
Herzberg’s Motivation-Maintenance Theory <ul><li>Maintenance factors include things people consider essential to any job <...
Herzberg’s Motivation-Maintenance Theory <ul><li>Motivational factors are benefits above and beyond the basic elements of ...
Herzberg’s Motivation-Maintenance Theory <ul><li>When motivational factors are not met, workers ask for increased maintena...
Table 7.2
The Expectancy Theory <ul><li>Based on assumption that motivation is tied to whether one believes success is possible </li...
The Expectancy Theory <ul><li>Combining aspirations and expectations is even more powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Self-fulfilli...
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y <ul><li>Theory X managers  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are pessimistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y <ul><li>Theory Y managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are optimistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
The Goal-Setting Theory <ul><li>Goals tend to motivate in four ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide purpose by directing att...
Figure 7.3 - A Model of How Goals  Can Improve Performance Source: Robert Kreitner,  Management  (Boston: Houghton Mifflin...
Contemporary Employee Motivation Strategies <ul><li>The search for better ways to motivate employees has taken on a new le...
Contemporary Employee Motivation Strategies <ul><li>Strong connection between people-centered practices, and higher profit...
Motivation Through Job Design <ul><li>Job rotation allows employees to move through a variety of jobs over time </li></ul>...
Motivation Through Job Design <ul><li>Job design likely to appeal to Generation Y </li></ul><ul><li>Often do not value wor...
Motivation Through Incentives <ul><li>Incentives are used to  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>improve quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Motivation Through Incentives <ul><li>Intrapreneurship rewards the development of new ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage em...
Motivation Through Learning Opportunities <ul><li>Learning opportunities can be a strong motivational force </li></ul><ul>...
Motivation Through Empowerment <ul><li>Empowerment means sharing information, authority and responsibility to all ranks of...
Motivation Through Others’ Expectations <ul><li>Relationship between a person’s level of motivation and the expectations o...
Motivating the Generations <ul><li>Future majority of workforce will be Generation X and Y </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are ...
Figure 7.4 - Motivational factors  for generations
Self-Motivation Strategies <ul><li>Nurture a gritty nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grit, in the form of hard work and determ...
Self-Motivation Strategies <ul><li>Go outside your comfort zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t be afraid to move outside comf...
Self-Motivation Strategies <ul><li>Strive for balance  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-motivation decreases when we lose a sens...
Self-Motivation Strategies <ul><li>Take action  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take responsibility for the situation you are in and...
Total Person Insight <ul><li>People who feel in control of life can withstand an enormous amount of change and thrive on i...
Chapter Review <ul><li>Differences between internal and external motivators in the workplace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivat...
Chapter Review <ul><li>Five characteristics of motives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People are motivated by different things </li...
Chapter Review <ul><li>Five influential theories of motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory </...
Chapter Review <ul><li>Contemporary motivation strategies  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contemporary organizations attempt to mot...
Chapter Review <ul><li>Factors that influence different generations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are specific strategies to...
Chapter Review <ul><li>Self-motivation strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We are responsible to keep ourselves motivated </l...
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BA 15 Chapter 7

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Motivating Yourself and Others

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BA 15 Chapter 7

  1. 1. Chapter Seven Motivating Yourself and Others
  2. 2. Chapter Preview: Motivating Yourself and Others <ul><li>Differences between internal and external motivators in the workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Five characteristics of motives </li></ul><ul><li>Five influential theories of motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary motivation strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that influence different generations </li></ul><ul><li>Self-motivation strategies </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Complex Nature of Motivation <ul><li>Each person is motivated by different needs, at varying degrees, and at different times </li></ul><ul><li>It is the influences that account for the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Possible motives are endless: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Motivation Is Two-Dimensional <ul><li>Internal motivation comes when work is meaningful or gives sense of purpose </li></ul><ul><li>For some people intrinsic rewards are more important than external ones </li></ul><ul><li>External motivation is an action taken by another person </li></ul>
  5. 5. Motivation Is Two-Dimensional <ul><li>External motivation usually involves an incentive or anticipation of a reward like money, awards, and performance feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Most people need both </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations should strive to balance internal and external motivation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Total Person Insight <ul><li>Dependent people need others to get what they want. Independent people can get what they want through their own efforts. Interdependent people combine their own efforts with the efforts of others to achieve their greatest success. </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen R. Covey </li></ul><ul><li>Author, The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People </li></ul>
  7. 7. Motivation to Satisfy Basic Desires <ul><li>Everything we experience as meaningful can be traced to one of sixteen basic desires or combinations of desires </li></ul><ul><li>The challenge is to determine which five or six (core values) are most important to you </li></ul>
  8. 8. Figure 7.1 Sixteen Basic Desires in the Reiss Profile Source: Steven Reiss, Who Am I? (New York: Berkeley Books, 2000), pp. 17-18.
  9. 9. Characteristics of Motives <ul><li>The “why” of human behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Five characteristics of motives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>individualistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may be unconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are often inferred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are hierarchical </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Influential Motivation Theories <ul><li>Many psychologists have added to our knowledge of what motivates people </li></ul><ul><li>Basic problem is how to apply knowledge in the workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Several theories are influential </li></ul>
  11. 11. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>People tend to satisfy their needs in a particular order, “The Hierarchy of Needs” </li></ul><ul><li>Theory has three main assumptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People have a number of needs that require some measure of satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only unsatisfied needs motivate behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs are ordered according to prepotency </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Figure 7.2 - Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  13. 13. Physiological Needs <ul><li>Survival, or lower-order needs </li></ul><ul><li>Include needs for food, clothing, sleep, and shelter </li></ul><ul><li>In a good economy, these needs rarely dominate </li></ul>
  14. 14. Safety and Security Needs <ul><li>Reflect peoples’ desire for predictability, order, and safety in life </li></ul><ul><li>Security needs reflect the desire for job security in order to provide for an individual and his/her family </li></ul>
  15. 15. Social or Belongingness Needs <ul><li>Involves emotional and mental well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Needs for affection, a sense of belonging, and group identification are powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Two major aspects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>frequent, positive interaction with a consistent group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>framework of stable, long-term caring and concern </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Esteem Needs <ul><li>People need respect and recognition form others and self-worth </li></ul><ul><li>Promotions, honors, and awards are outside sources that satisfy this need </li></ul>
  17. 17. Self-Actualization Needs <ul><li>Represent a person’s need for growth </li></ul><ul><li>Fulfilling potential or realizing fullest capacities as human beings </li></ul><ul><li>Motivates by presence, others motivate by absence </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely fully attained </li></ul>
  18. 18. Maslow’s Theory Reconsidered <ul><li>Criticized for not addressing need for leisure time and self-actualization through family relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfied needs will not motivate people </li></ul><ul><li>Considered a classic in management theory </li></ul>
  19. 19. Table 7.1
  20. 20. Herzberg’s Motivation-Maintenance Theory <ul><li>Maintenance factors include things people consider essential to any job </li></ul><ul><li>Include: salary, benefits, social relationships, working conditions, policies, and administration </li></ul><ul><li>An absence of a maintenance factor can motivate </li></ul>
  21. 21. Herzberg’s Motivation-Maintenance Theory <ul><li>Motivational factors are benefits above and beyond the basic elements of a job </li></ul><ul><li>Include: recognition, advancement, and more responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>They tend to increase worker satisfaction and can motivate employees to higher production levels </li></ul>
  22. 22. Herzberg’s Motivation-Maintenance Theory <ul><li>When motivational factors are not met, workers ask for increased maintenance factors </li></ul><ul><li>Critics point to Herzberg’s assumption that all people are motivated only by higher-order needs </li></ul>
  23. 23. Table 7.2
  24. 24. The Expectancy Theory <ul><li>Based on assumption that motivation is tied to whether one believes success is possible </li></ul><ul><li>Perception is an important element </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of self-efficacy concept </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Expectancy Theory <ul><li>Combining aspirations and expectations is even more powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Self-fulfilling prophecy reflects a connection between your expectations of yourself and your achievement </li></ul><ul><li>If you can conceive it and believe it, you can achieve it </li></ul>
  26. 26. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y <ul><li>Theory X managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are pessimistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think workers are lazy and need only pay or punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think workers have little or no ambition and avoid responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only do as much work as they have to in order to keep their jobs </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y <ul><li>Theory Y managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are optimistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think workers are ambitious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think workers are creative, want to work, are self-directed, and accept responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Often Expectancy Theory kicks in and workers perform to managers’ expectations </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Goal-Setting Theory <ul><li>Goals tend to motivate in four ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide purpose by directing attention to a specific target </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>encourage to make the effort to achieve something specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requires sustained effort and therefore encourages persistence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connects the dream and reality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should be challenging, but not impossible </li></ul>
  29. 29. Figure 7.3 - A Model of How Goals Can Improve Performance Source: Robert Kreitner, Management (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000). Reprinted by permission of Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
  30. 30. Contemporary Employee Motivation Strategies <ul><li>The search for better ways to motivate employees has taken on a new level of importance </li></ul><ul><li>International competition and the age of information require different and more effective motivation strategies </li></ul>
  31. 31. Contemporary Employee Motivation Strategies <ul><li>Strong connection between people-centered practices, and higher profits and lower turnover </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations that put people first and recognize wants, needs, passions, and aspirations find merit in contemporary strategies </li></ul>
  32. 32. Motivation Through Job Design <ul><li>Job rotation allows employees to move through a variety of jobs over time </li></ul><ul><li>Job enrichment is an attempt to make a job more desirable and satisfying </li></ul><ul><li>Job enlargement means expanding an employee’s duties or responsibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation is often increased when workers are encouraged to take on new skills and responsibilities </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Motivation Through Job Design <ul><li>Job design likely to appeal to Generation Y </li></ul><ul><li>Often do not value work for only external rewards </li></ul><ul><li>More apt to view work as a valuable learning experience that leads to something better </li></ul>
  34. 34. Motivation Through Incentives <ul><li>Incentives are used to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>improve quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce accidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improve attendance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>speed up production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizations often use incentives to drive results </li></ul>
  35. 35. Motivation Through Incentives <ul><li>Intrapreneurship rewards the development of new ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage employees to pursue ideas at work </li></ul><ul><li>The company provides funds, space, and time </li></ul><ul><li>Cash bonuses or awards for ideas and development often given to employee </li></ul>
  36. 36. Motivation Through Learning Opportunities <ul><li>Learning opportunities can be a strong motivational force </li></ul><ul><li>Education and training are critical to individual growth and opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Learning can help secure the future </li></ul><ul><li>More powerful if perceived as leading to something that motivates individual </li></ul>
  37. 37. Motivation Through Empowerment <ul><li>Empowerment means sharing information, authority and responsibility to all ranks of an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Can give employees a sense of pride, self-expression, and ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes employees want challenge and personal meaning from jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Requires long-term commitment from top management </li></ul>
  38. 38. Motivation Through Others’ Expectations <ul><li>Relationship between a person’s level of motivation and the expectations of others </li></ul><ul><li>High expectations from others leads to high performance </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisors can communicate high and low expectations </li></ul>
  39. 39. Motivating the Generations <ul><li>Future majority of workforce will be Generation X and Y </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are comfortable with diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-reliant and seek fun in their work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeptical and cynical about managers’ motives and authenticity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give them a goal and set them free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate in multi-media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coach them, do not lecture them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show them respect and they will perform </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Figure 7.4 - Motivational factors for generations
  41. 41. Self-Motivation Strategies <ul><li>Nurture a gritty nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grit, in the form of hard work and determination, is a major indicator of success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence accounts for only a fraction of success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gritty people are highly self-disciplined and focused on goal achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With self-discipline we can learn to delay gratification </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Self-Motivation Strategies <ul><li>Go outside your comfort zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t be afraid to move outside comfort zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To achieve your full potential, challenge yourself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staying comfortable may show fear of success </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Self-Motivation Strategies <ul><li>Strive for balance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-motivation decreases when we lose a sense of balance in our lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take time to reflect on what is important in your life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take stock of your most satisfying experiences and then try to make the necessary adjustments </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Self-Motivation Strategies <ul><li>Take action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take responsibility for the situation you are in and take action to improve it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to blame others, but you have power to do something that others won’t or can’t </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Total Person Insight <ul><li>People who feel in control of life can withstand an enormous amount of change and thrive on it. People who feel helpless can hardly cope at all. </li></ul><ul><li>Joan Borysenko </li></ul><ul><li>Author, Minding the Body, Mending the Mind </li></ul>
  46. 46. Chapter Review <ul><li>Differences between internal and external motivators in the workplace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation provides a framework for understanding why people do things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal motivation occurs when a task or duty is meaningful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External motivation is initiated by another person and is usually based on a reinforcement or reward </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Chapter Review <ul><li>Five characteristics of motives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People are motivated by different things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motives change over a lifetime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motives are sometimes unconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motives vary in strength and importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motives can only be inferred </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Chapter Review <ul><li>Five influential theories of motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herzberg’s Motivation-Maintenance Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectancy Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>McGregor Theory X and Theory Y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal-setting Theory </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Chapter Review <ul><li>Contemporary motivation strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contemporary organizations attempt to motivate through positive expectations and job design modifications such as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job rotation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job enlargement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job enrichment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They also use incentives like intrapreneurship opportunities, additional training and empowerment </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Chapter Review <ul><li>Factors that influence different generations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are specific strategies to motivate workers from various age brackets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Matures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Baby Boomers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generation X </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generation Y </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once you understand their motivating factors you can individualize your interactions with them </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Chapter Review <ul><li>Self-motivation strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We are responsible to keep ourselves motivated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nurture grit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>take action beyond our comfort zones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strive for balance between professional and personal lives </li></ul></ul></ul>

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