BA 15 Chapter 15


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Valuing Work Force Diversity

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BA 15 Chapter 15

  1. 1. Chapter Fifteen Valuing Work Force Diversity
  2. 2. Chapter Preview: Valuing Work Force Diversity <ul><li>Primary and secondary dimensions of diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of prejudiced attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination in the workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational cultures that value diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Individual and organizational enhancement of diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmative action programs </li></ul>
  3. 3. Work Force Diversity – A Definition <ul><li>The U.S. is a kaleidoscope of the world’s cultures </li></ul><ul><li>American work force is becoming more racially and ethnically diverse, increasingly female and older </li></ul><ul><li>Focus today is on valuing diversity </li></ul>
  4. 4. Figure 15.1 - Foreign-Born Population Trend
  5. 5. Dimensions of Diversity <ul><li>Primary dimensions are core characteristics of each individual that cannot be changed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical and mental abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forms the individual’s self-image and the filters through which each individual views the world </li></ul>
  6. 6. Secondary Dimensions of Diversity <ul><li>Elements that can be changed or modified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education/training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic customs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Figure 15.2 - Primary and Secondary Dimensions of Diversity
  8. 8. The Dimensions of Diversity <ul><li>They add depth to the individuals and shape values, priorities and perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Building effective human relationships is possible only when we value and accept these differences </li></ul><ul><li>Without acceptance, both dimensions of diversity can become roadblocks to further cooperation and understanding </li></ul>
  9. 9. Prejudiced Attitudes <ul><li>Prejudice is a premature judgment or an opinion that is formed without examination of the facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often based on primary or secondary dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prejudiced people tend to think in terms of stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Generalizations made about all members of a particular group </li></ul>
  10. 10. Total Person Insight <ul><li>No matter who you are, you’re going to have to work with people who are different from you. You’re going to have to sell to people who are different from you, and buy from people who are different from you, and manage people who are different from you. </li></ul><ul><li>J.T. “Ted” Childs, Jr. </li></ul><ul><li>Vice President, IBM Global Workforce Diversity </li></ul>
  11. 11. Prejudiced Attitudes <ul><li>Most common and powerful stereotypes focus on observable attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes are likely to change when we learn more about specific members of a group </li></ul>
  12. 12. Figure 15.3 - Declaration of Tolerance
  13. 13. How Prejudiced Attitudes Are Formed and Maintained <ul><li>Major factors that contribute to formation of prejudice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Childhood experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnocentrism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic factors </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Childhood Experiences <ul><li>Children learn attitudes and beliefs from family, friends, and other authority figures </li></ul><ul><li>They learn how to view and treat different racial, ethnic, religious, and other groups </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudices can be unlearned later in life </li></ul>
  15. 15. Total Person Insight <ul><li>To bring Chinese music to an African American church, it means that when we leave Chinatown we are promoting our culture. If we stay in Chinatown, we’re only preserving it. If you’re going to promote cultural understanding, it has to be to all people of all walks of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Sheryln Chew </li></ul><ul><li>Creator, The Purple Bamboo Orchestra </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ethnocentrism <ul><li>Ethnocentrism is the tendency to regard our own culture or nation as better or more correct than others </li></ul><ul><li>The standards or values of one culture are being used as a standard to measure the worth of other cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity refers to condition of being culturally rather than physically distinctive </li></ul><ul><li>Iceberg analogy </li></ul>
  17. 17. Economic Factors <ul><li>Hard to eliminate </li></ul><ul><li>Rooted in basic survival needs </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforced by wide wealth and income gap between whites and nonwhites </li></ul><ul><li>People’s prejudice against each other increases when the economy goes through a recession or depression and housing, jobs, and other necessities become scarce </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Many Forms of Discrimination <ul><li>Discrimination is behavior based on prejudiced attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals or groups that are discriminated against are denied equal treatment and opportunities offered to people in the dominant group </li></ul>
  19. 19. Gender <ul><li>Focus of much attention </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional roles for women in society have been changing </li></ul><ul><li>Women in the work force </li></ul><ul><li>New roles for men </li></ul>
  20. 20. Age <ul><li>Perception that older workers have difficulty adapting to change </li></ul><ul><li>Takes nearly twice as long for workers over 50 to find new jobs compared to younger people </li></ul><ul><li>Age discrimination on the rise in the US </li></ul><ul><li>Older employees have valuable knowledge and experience </li></ul>
  21. 21. Table 15.1
  22. 22. Race <ul><li>Race denotes a category of people perceived as distinctive on the basis of biologically inherited traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>skin color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hair texture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People cannot change these traits </li></ul><ul><li>A difficult discrimination to overcome </li></ul>
  23. 23. Myth of Race <ul><li>Critics view categories as social inventions that reinforce racism </li></ul><ul><li>No scientific justification in human biology </li></ul><ul><li>Some race categories include people who vary greatly in ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in mixed-race identity </li></ul>
  24. 24. Table 15.2
  25. 25. Race as Social Identity <ul><li>Although not scientifically defensible </li></ul><ul><li>Race is “real” socially, politically, and psychologically </li></ul><ul><li>Proponents of race categories believe it is the only way to ensure all groups will be treated equally </li></ul><ul><li>Racial pride – viewed as positive reinforcement </li></ul>
  26. 26. Religion <ul><li>Religious discrimination has been an issue throughout history </li></ul><ul><li>Intolerance for other religions </li></ul><ul><li>Intolerance for different denominations within a religion </li></ul><ul><li>Intolerance for religious practices </li></ul>
  27. 27. Disability <ul><li>Mentally or physically challenged people find it difficult to enter the job market </li></ul><ul><li>Their rights to do so are protected by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Some employers still unwilling or unable to make reasonable accommodations </li></ul>
  28. 28. Sexual Orientation <ul><li>Discrimination based on a person’s sexual orientation is motivated by homophobia </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual orientation is not the big secret it once was </li></ul><ul><li>When we are comfortable being ourselves, we are usually more productive and creative </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive companies are taking steps to provide a more open atmosphere </li></ul>
  29. 29. Table 15.3
  30. 30. Subtle Forms of Discrimination <ul><li>Discrimination based on gender, age, race, or disability is prohibited by law </li></ul><ul><li>No legal protection for more subtle forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value differences </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. What Can You Do? <ul><li>Decide if you want to stay with the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Determination whether the “difference” is something you can change </li></ul><ul><li>Address it directly if you cannot or will not change </li></ul><ul><li>Review assertiveness skills </li></ul><ul><li>Compensate by excelling </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Economics of Valuing Diversity <ul><li>There has been a shift away from treating everyone the same and movement toward valuing diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Valuing diversity means that an organization intends to make full use of all employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Talents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perspectives </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Valuing Diversity <ul><li>Diverse customers require diverse employees to know and meet their needs </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity programs reduce turnover, absenteeism, complaints, litigation and improve public image </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of not helping employees learn to respect and value each other is enormous </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing the value of diversity can help eliminate negative effects </li></ul>
  34. 34. Total Person Insight <ul><li>More and more, organizations can remain competitive only if they can recognize and obtain the best talent; value the diverse perspectives that come with talent born of different cultures, races, and genders; nurture and train that talent; and create an atmosphere that values its workforce. </li></ul><ul><li>Lewis Brown Griggs and Lente-Louise Louw </li></ul><ul><li>Authors, Valuing Diversity: New Tools For A New Reality </li></ul>
  35. 35. Managing Diversity <ul><li>Process of creating an organizational culture where the primary and secondary dimensions of diversity are respected </li></ul><ul><li>As workforce becomes more diverse, this becomes more challenging </li></ul>
  36. 36. What Individuals Can Do <ul><li>We cannot totally eliminate prejudices that have been deeply held and developed over time </li></ul><ul><li>We can learn to change negative attitudes and behaviors </li></ul>
  37. 37. What Individuals Can Do <ul><li>Learn to look critically and honestly at the particular myths and preconceived ideas you have been conditioned to believe about others </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a sensitivity to differences </li></ul><ul><li>Develop your own diversity awareness program </li></ul>
  38. 38. What Organizations Can Do <ul><li>A well-planned and well-executed diversity program can promote understanding and diffuse tension </li></ul><ul><li>A comprehensive diversity program has three pillars: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational commitment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employment practices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training and development </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Figure 15.4 - Three Pillars of Diversity
  40. 40. Organizational Commitment <ul><li>Diversity programs designed for competitive advantage usually have strong commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity programs seen as an event, or quick-fix can do more harm than good </li></ul><ul><li>Key to success is long-term commitment </li></ul>
  41. 41. Employment Practices <ul><li>Actively recruit diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Plug into alternative networks </li></ul><ul><li>Foster a climate for retention </li></ul><ul><li>Subtle biases create unnecessary stress </li></ul><ul><li>An organization that makes every effort to make all employees comfortable will reduce stress </li></ul>
  42. 42. Training and Development <ul><li>Give managers and employees the tools they need to work more effectively with one another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncover unconscious behavioral patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn to value differences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diversity training programs can promote harmony, reduce conflict, and help give the organization a competitive advantage </li></ul>
  43. 43. Affirmative Action: Yesterday and Today <ul><li>Affirmative action can be defined as a program that encourages the hiring and promotion of members of groups that have been discriminated against in the past </li></ul><ul><li>It is an effort to make up for past wrongs </li></ul>
  44. 44. Table 15.4
  45. 45. Protected Individuals <ul><li>Sex/gender </li></ul><ul><li>Racial or ethnic origin </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Military experience </li></ul><ul><li>Marital status </li></ul>
  46. 46. Affirmative Action Plans (AAP) <ul><li>Formal documents that employees compile annually for submission to various enforcement agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifies activities to seek out, employ, and develop talents of individuals from protected classes </li></ul>
  47. 47. Common Elements of AAPs <ul><li>Active recruitment of women and minorities </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of prejudicial questions on employment applications </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of specific goals and timetables for minority hiring </li></ul><ul><li>Validation of employment testing procedures </li></ul>
  48. 48. The Affirmative Action Debate <ul><li>Some people believe it is time to rethink affirmative action </li></ul><ul><li>Critics argue that no preferential treatment should be given to any groups </li></ul><ul><li>Common arguments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferences are discriminatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferences do not make sense, given changing demographics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The debate will continue </li></ul>
  49. 49. Chapter Review <ul><li>Primary and secondary dimensions of diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary dimensions include gender, age, race, physical and mental abilities, and sexual orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary dimensions include health habits, religious beliefs, ethnic customs, communication style, relationship status, income, general appearance, education, and training </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Chapter Review <ul><li>Formation of prejudiced attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prejudice is an attitude based on others’ difference and ignorance, fear, and cultural conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prejudiced people tend to see others as stereotypes rather than individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prejudicial attitudes are formed through childhood experiences, ethnocentrism, and economic factors </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Chapter Review <ul><li>Discrimination in the workplace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrimination is behavior based on prejudicial attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups protected by law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gender, age, race, disabilities, religion, military and sexual orientation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtle discrimination based on different appearances or educational backgrounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtle forms of discrimination not illegal, but they are disruptive to productive work </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Chapter Review <ul><li>Organizational cultures that value diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Valuing diversity is an economic issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The work force will soon consist of a minority of white men and a majority of women, people of color, and immigrants </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Chapter Review <ul><li>Organizational cultures that value diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive organizations must value diverse workers their ideas and talents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations need to understand their equally diverse customers’ needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valuing diversity is a business imperative </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Chapter Review <ul><li>Individual and organizational diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Let go of their stereotypes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Honestly evaluate their prejudiced attitudes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop sensitivity to differences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop their personal diversity programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations must </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Value individual differences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implement practices that respect diversity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Training should be a committed process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seek out, employ, and develop diversity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Chapter Review <ul><li>Affirmative action programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative action guidelines have helped bring fairness in hiring and promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critics say affirmative action is discriminatory because it allows preferential treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These preferences may no longer make sense given the changing demographics of today’s work force </li></ul></ul>