BA 15 Chapter 14


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Responding to Personal and Work-Related Stress

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BA 15 Chapter 14

  1. 1. Chapter Fourteen Responding to Personal and Work-Related Stress
  2. 2. Chapter Preview: Responding to Personal and Work-Related Stress <ul><li>Major personal and work-related causes of stress </li></ul><ul><li>Warning signs of too much stress </li></ul><ul><li>Stress management strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Stress-related psychological disorders and therapy options </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Stress Factor in Your Life <ul><li>Stress is the behavioral adjustment to change that affects you psychologically and physically </li></ul><ul><li>Stress can come from your environment, body and mind </li></ul><ul><li>Stress can be a powerful stimulus for growth if it motivates you to do your best </li></ul><ul><li>The most common type of stress comes from our minds, through negative thinking and faulty reasoning </li></ul>
  4. 4. Total Person Insight <ul><li>Most people seem to agree that these are high pressure times. Employees complain of being burned out. Used up. Overloaded. Too many of us are just plain tired, overdosed on change, sick of ambiguity and uncertainty. </li></ul><ul><li>Price Pritchett and Ron Pound </li></ul><ul><li>Authors, The Stress of Organizational Change </li></ul>
  5. 5. Responding to Stress <ul><li>Three elements of stress: the stressor, perception of it and response to it </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to respond in ways that help you establish mental, physical and emotional balance </li></ul><ul><li>Our natural response to stress is called the fight or flight syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Syndrome causes us physical and mental health problems today </li></ul>
  6. 6. Major Causes of Stress <ul><li>Change </li></ul><ul><li>Technostress </li></ul><ul><li>Noise pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Long hours/irregular schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Incompetent leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Work and family transitions </li></ul>
  7. 7. Change <ul><li>Many companies do not consider the impact of change on employees </li></ul><ul><li>Companies should try to help employees balance job change with personal and family life </li></ul><ul><li>Surrendering to change demands a higher level of adaptability to our ever-changing workplace </li></ul>
  8. 8. Technostress <ul><li>Technostress is the inability to cope with computer and related technologies in a healthy manner </li></ul><ul><li>One of the greatest stressors today </li></ul>
  9. 9. Tether Anxiety <ul><li>Never-ending desire to access information </li></ul><ul><li>Work demands your attention via </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal digital assistants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laptop computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pagers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employees are too accessible, creating imbalance between personal and professional life </li></ul>
  10. 10. Monitoring Anxiety <ul><li>Companies may track performance and activity with technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video surveillance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Internet Addiction <ul><li>Compulsive surfers, 6-10% of users </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to other addictions </li></ul><ul><li>Signs of the techno-centered state include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Machinelike mind-set </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal from relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor health </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Information Overload <ul><li>Data smog describes the information-dense society that can cause sensory overload </li></ul><ul><li>Crowds out quiet moments and contemplation time </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves us feeling confused </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Computer Workstation <ul><li>Many employees spend the entire day on a computer terminal </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-related ailments </li></ul><ul><li>Ergonomics is the study of optimal work-area layout, lighting, furniture design, machine structure, and task limits </li></ul>
  14. 14. Figure 14.1 - Suggestions for Alleviating Some of the Effects of Workstation-Related Technostress
  15. 15. Noise Pollution <ul><li>Noise can be defined as unwanted sound </li></ul><ul><li>The uncontrollability of noise, rather than its intensity is the greatest irritant </li></ul><ul><li>Affects people more than any other work area pollutant </li></ul><ul><li>Noise can cause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety - Sleep disturbances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headaches - Depression </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Figure 14.2 - Contribution to Workspace Distractions Overall
  17. 17. Long Hours/Irregular Schedules <ul><li>Compared to other developed countries, Americans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take fewer and shorter vacations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work more hours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additional demands on workers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reductions in staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>24/7 economy </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Incompetent Leaders <ul><li>The most talented technically are not necessarily the best supervisors </li></ul><ul><li>Can be a major source of stress at work </li></ul><ul><li>Incompetent leaders may </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fail to recognize employee ideas and concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withhold information from employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fail to clarify roles and responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set unreasonable deadlines and then blame employees for not meeting them </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Work and Family Transitions <ul><li>Transition is being forced to give something up and face a change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitions are inevitable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today, we are in a constant state of transition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some common transitions are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marriage or divorce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth or death </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Total Person Insight <ul><li>Our lives are complex, but we are not helpless to do something about the stress we feel. In fact, we often choose to intentionally overcrowd our schedules as a means of avoiding difficult feelings and choices. The something forces us to slow down. We must listen to our hearts and bodies, and face a dawning awareness: My job, my spouse, my lifestyle—something—is not right for me. </li></ul><ul><li>Carol S. Pearson </li></ul><ul><li>Editor, The Inner Edge </li></ul>
  21. 21. Warning Signals of Too Much Stress <ul><li>Physical symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Relational symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>90% of illness is stress related </li></ul>
  22. 22. Table 14.1
  23. 23. Stress Management Strategies <ul><li>Not possible to eliminate stress </li></ul><ul><li>We can manage our reactions to stressors </li></ul><ul><li>There are many stress management strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Do not wait to use techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make them part of your daily routine </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Sleep <ul><li>Sleep is one of the most effective strategies for managing stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a ritual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentally wind down before sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid stimulants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep your bedroom cool, dark and well ventilated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Get 7-8 hours of sleep at night </li></ul>
  25. 25. Exercise <ul><li>Is the number one treatment for stress and tension </li></ul><ul><li>Choose an exercise you enjoy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swimming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tennis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jogging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check with your physician before you begin any exercise program </li></ul>
  26. 26. Deep Breathing <ul><li>Deep breathing exercises force you to focus on the present moment rather than things that are causing you stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete cycle breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominal breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse abdominal breathing </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Meditation <ul><li>Relaxation techniques that slow your pulse, respiration, brain-wave activity and blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Involves quiet and intentional detachment from emotional reactions so you can respond appropriately </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select a quiet place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relax the muscles of your body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on your breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about calm, peaceful present </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Laugh and Have Fun <ul><li>When you laugh you </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boost your immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce stress-related hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve you respiratory system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People can have fun at work without being silly or inappropriate </li></ul><ul><li>The goal is to create a fun-loving atmosphere </li></ul>
  29. 29. Table 14.2
  30. 30. Solitude <ul><li>Individuals who have constant contact with others can benefit from solitude </li></ul><ul><li>An emotional breather and form of rest </li></ul><ul><li>Time to process and unravel problems </li></ul><ul><li>Take 20 minutes in the morning to journal, meditate or enjoy the silence </li></ul>
  31. 31. Resilience <ul><li>Resilience is being able to bounce back when confronted with stress </li></ul><ul><li>Planning ahead is needed to take control of your life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recharge your parenting batteries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many people create their own stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They want more leisure time, but they also want that new SUV </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Total Person Insight <ul><li>Culturally and individually, somewhere in our history, we chose to make material possessions important, not realizing that we would pay for all these things—consumer goods, improvements, technology—at the cost of our time. </li></ul><ul><li>Jacob Needleman </li></ul><ul><li>Author, Time and the Soul </li></ul>
  33. 33. Common Psychological Disorders <ul><li>Ideally when a stressful situation ends, hormonal signals switch off, and the body returns to normal </li></ul><ul><li>If you are under daily stress, your hormonal response never shuts down </li></ul><ul><li>That can have a hazardous, even lethal effect on your body and mental health </li></ul><ul><li>Mental illness affects one-quarter of the U.S. population </li></ul>
  34. 34. Anxiety <ul><li>Condition in which intense feelings of apprehension are long-standing and usually disruptive </li></ul><ul><li>Phobia is an irrational fear of a specific object or situation </li></ul><ul><li>Self-help through stress management skills such as relaxation techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Professional help </li></ul>
  35. 35. Figure 14.3 - Getting Professional Help
  36. 36. Depression <ul><li>A mood disorder that impacts a person’s productivity or relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overwhelming sadness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hopelessness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A treatable disorder that often requires exercise, medication and/or therapy </li></ul>
  37. 37. Burnout <ul><li>Burnout is a response to continuous flow of stressors </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detachment from coworkers and clients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tardiness, absenteeism, cynicism and moodiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorientation and forgetfulness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased personal problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Often impacts successful people who hold high-level positions </li></ul>
  38. 38. Burnout Guidelines <ul><li>If nearing burnout, act immediately at home and at work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop trying to do everything </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify your value priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make time to participate in stress management techniques </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Therapy Options <ul><li>Employee assistance programs address negative effects of psychological disorders before employees become dysfunctional </li></ul><ul><li>Twelve-step programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working the steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attending meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web-based counseling is growing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No guarantee of legitimacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Chapter Review <ul><li>Major personal and work-related causes of stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When individuals cannot successfully adapt to change, stress is usually the result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technostress is a significant threat to individuals and organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise pollution, irregular schedules, incompetent leaders, as well as work and family transitions add to stress </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Chapter Review <ul><li>Warning signs of stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some stress is motivating and exciting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal is to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learn to manage various stressors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce negative effects on the body and mind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Become familiar with signals of too much stress </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Chapter Review <ul><li>Stress management strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You are more likely to handle stress when </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You maintain a sleep routine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practice deep breathing and mediation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laugh and have fun </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seek solitude </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learn to recover once the stress is reduced </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Chapter Review <ul><li>Stress-related psychological disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When stress is persistent it can lead to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burnout </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-management techniques may help, or medication and therapy may be necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee assistance programs and Twelve-step programs offer support </li></ul></ul>