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BA 15 Chapter 12

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Team Building: A Leadership Strategy

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BA 15 Chapter 12

  1. 1. Chapter Twelve Team Building: A Leadership Strategy
  2. 2. Chapter Preview: Team Building— A Leadership Strategy <ul><li>Teamwork in an organizational setting </li></ul><ul><li>Common types of work teams </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of an effective work team </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral science principles that support team building </li></ul><ul><li>Team-building skills leaders need </li></ul><ul><li>Team-member skills employees need </li></ul>
  3. 3. Leadership Challenges in a Changing Workplace <ul><li>Rapid changes and demand for increased productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Greater employee stress and tension </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term strategies versus short-term demands </li></ul><ul><li>Increased diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Employment stability </li></ul>
  4. 4. Team Building: An Introduction <ul><li>Most organizations are trying to develop a spirit of teamwork </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership style that promotes team building is positively associated with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profitability </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Team Building: An Introduction <ul><li>Teamwork </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job gets done efficiently and harmoniously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer interpersonal relations problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive effect on the physical and psychological well-being of employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher levels of job satisfaction and less stress </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Team Building: An Introduction <ul><li>Synergy is another positive outcome of teamwork </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The interaction of two or more parts to produce greater results than the sum of the parts taken individually </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Especially important when organizations value creativity </li></ul>
  7. 7. Teamwork Doesn’t Come Naturally <ul><li>Most jobs today require ongoing interaction between coworkers and managers </li></ul><ul><li>Requires meaningful employee participation in planning, solving problems, and developing ways to improve the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork flourishes under strong leadership </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Transition to Team-Based Structures <ul><li>Teams have become popular because they effectively reduce costs, foster innovation, and improve quality </li></ul><ul><li>There are two common types of teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-managed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-functional </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Self-Managed Teams <ul><li>Assume responsibility for traditional management tasks as part of regular work routine </li></ul><ul><li>Increases accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces time on dull and repetitive tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Taps employees full potential </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cross-Functional Teams <ul><li>Task groups are staffed with a mix of specialists who are focused on a common objective </li></ul><ul><li>Involve developing new work procedures or products, devising work reforms, or introducing new technology </li></ul><ul><li>Often make decisions that directly influence improvements </li></ul>
  11. 11. Teams Take Time to Develop <ul><li>Using teams is not a quick fix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can take one or two years for members to learn all the tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes time for team to become comfortable making decisions, scheduling work, hiring, training, and problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Team effectiveness determinants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People-related factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization-related factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task-related factors </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Basic Beliefs About Teamwork <ul><li>One Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine careers of successful leaders who demonstrate ability to develop teamwork </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Second Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review the findings of scholars who have identified the characteristics of successful leaders </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. McGregor’s Influence <ul><li>Emphasized “unity of purpose” as the main feature of productive work units </li></ul><ul><li>Suggests several characteristics of an effective work team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal and relaxed atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They discuss work-related issues and have comfortable disagreements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks and objectives are well understood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members listen to each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People freely express feelings and ideas </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Total Person Insight <ul><li>The day soldiers stop bringing you their problems is the day you have stopped leading them. They have either lost confidence that you can help them or concluded that you do not care. Either case is a failure of leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>General Colin Powell (Ret.) </li></ul><ul><li>United States Army </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Leadership Grid® <ul><li>The Leadership Grid® is based on two leadership style dimensions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern for people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern for productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Five most important styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impoverished management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Country club management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle-of-the-road management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team management </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Leadership Grid® <ul><li>Team management style is most positively associated with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity and profitability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Career success and satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical and mental health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Hall’s Contributions <ul><li>High-achieving managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have deep interest in both people and productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rely heavily on participative approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low/moderate-achieving managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid involving subordinates in planning and decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Participative managers have confidence in workers’ potential </li></ul>
  18. 18. Behavioral Science Principles <ul><li>Shared participation in problem solving is basis for growth, development, and contribution </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual trust and respect underpins productive human relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Open communication supports mutual understanding </li></ul>
  19. 19. Behavioral Science Principles <ul><li>Conflict management by direct problem-solving confrontation promotes personal health </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility for one’s own actions stimulates initiative </li></ul>
  20. 20. Total Person Insight <ul><li>Life is good when trust is present. Life hurts when trust disappears. We understand this at a level so deep it is indistinguishable from our very being. </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Crom </li></ul><ul><li>Vice President, Dale Carnegie & Associates, Inc. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Team-Building Skills for Leaders <ul><li>Successful leaders share some behavioral characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Two of the most important are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consideration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These dimensions are separate and independent of each other </li></ul>
  22. 22. Figure 12.2 - Basic Leadership Styles from the Ohio State Study
  23. 23. Consideration <ul><li>Extent to which a manager’s relationships with workers are characterized by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutual trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect for employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consideration of feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warmth in interpersonal relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good rapport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-way communication </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Structure <ul><li>Extent to which a supervisor is likely to direct workers toward goal attainment </li></ul><ul><li>Managers actively direct activities by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating performance </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Improving Consideration Skills <ul><li>Leaders with consideration skills follow law of empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Practices that can improve consideration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize accomplishments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide for early and frequent success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take a personal interest in each employee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish a climate of open communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discover individual employee values </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Improving Structure Skills <ul><li>The team builder gives the group direction, standards and maintains accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Practices that develop structure skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate your expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide specific feedback often </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deal with poor performance immediately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coach for peak performance </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Situational Leadership <ul><li>Theory that most effective leadership occurs when leader’s style matches the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes the need for flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Two dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship behavior </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Model Similarities <ul><li>Relationship behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Concern for people </li></ul><ul><li>Task Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Concern for production </li></ul>
  29. 29. Model Differences <ul><li>When attempting to influence others: </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnose readiness level in the follower for specific task </li></ul><ul><li>Provide appropriate leadership style for that situation </li></ul>
  30. 30. Total Person Insight <ul><li>… the most effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: They all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>Daniel Goleman </li></ul><ul><li>Author , Working With Emotional Intelligence </li></ul>
  31. 31. Figure 12.4 – Additional Leadership Qualities
  32. 32. Additional Leadership Qualities <ul><li>Character-- personal standards of behavior including honesty, integrity, and moral strength </li></ul><ul><li>Impossible to build trusting relationships without character </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional intelligence-- Ability to monitor your own and others’ emotions and deal with them effectively </li></ul>
  33. 33. Teamwork: The Employee’s Role <ul><li>Most valued employees are willing to assume leadership roles and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Each team member should </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assume an active part in helping the work unit achieve its mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be a team builder </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Employees as Leaders <ul><li>Effective leaders help work team members develop leadership skills </li></ul><ul><li>The team’s success does not always ride on one person </li></ul><ul><li>There is merit in establishing a diversity of leadership within the work group </li></ul>
  35. 35. Becoming a Valued Team Member <ul><li>Avoid becoming part of a clique or subgroup within the team </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid any action that might sabotage the team </li></ul><ul><li>Keep in mind that effective team membership depends on honest, open communication </li></ul><ul><li>Do not feel the need to submerge your own strong believes, creative solutions, and ideas </li></ul>
  36. 36. Total Person Insight <ul><li>Great challenges require great teamwork, and the quality most needed among teammates amid the pressure of a difficult challenge is collaboration….Each person brings something to the table that adds value to the relationship and synergy to the team. </li></ul><ul><li>John C. Maxwell </li></ul><ul><li>Author, The 17 Essential Qualities of a Team Player </li></ul>
  37. 37. Managing the Relationship with Your Boss <ul><li>Relationships are usually more effective when both parties assume responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Burden for managing relationships should not fall solely on supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisor will become more effective at performing his or her job </li></ul>
  38. 38. Managing the Relationship with Your Boss <ul><li>Assess your own strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an understanding of your boss </li></ul><ul><li>Flex your communication style </li></ul><ul><li>Be frank and candid </li></ul>
  39. 39. Chapter Review <ul><li>Teamwork in an organization setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teamwork ensures that a job gets done efficiently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful teamwork often is the difference between profitable and unprofitable operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The team-building leadership style is suited to most of today’s employees </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Chapter Review <ul><li>Common types of work teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-managed teams assume responsibility for traditional management tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produce a well-defined product or service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Members usually rotate among the various jobs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-functional teams are a mix of specialists focused on a common objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often temporary units with members from different departments </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Chapter Review <ul><li>Characteristics of an effective work team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective teams tend to be informal and relaxed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People are involved, interested, and eager to participate in problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group also has clearly understood goals and objectives </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Chapter Review <ul><li>Behavioral science principles that support team building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two ways to learn about teams is to study leaders who promote it and scholars who discuss it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>McGregor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blake </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mouton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hall </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Chapter Review <ul><li>Team-building skills leaders need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two important dimensions of supervisory leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consideration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Leadership Grid and the Situational Leadership Model clarify these two dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective leaders must also have character and emotional intelligence </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Chapter Review <ul><li>Team-member skills employees need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective work groups assume effective leadership and membership roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members help the group achieve its mission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone is a team member and team builder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees give guidance and support to their supervisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most bosses need this assistance and support to achieve success </li></ul></ul>

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