G325 Section B Glossary (Online Age and We Media) BlogFrom ‘web log’, meaning a website updated regularly and chronologically bythe author giving their views and opinions. Blogs have now become animportant part of online journalism, The Huffington Post blog sold in early2011 for $315 million.Casual GamingThis refers to games played online without a console, either on a PC or phone.Casual gamers do not fit the normal stereotype of gamers, most are female.Despite the name casual games can involve lots of financial and timecommitment, Farmville for example. Citizen JournalismWhen members of the public engage in journalism. Examples includeproviding pictures or film of events to news organisations or reporting eventsin blogs. A key part of democratic media.The CloudCloud storage allows users to store data on a company’s servers rather thantheir own hardrives. This has now evolved into a service where games can beplayed from the Cloud (Onlive or Steam) or music can be stored and playedfrom the Cloud (Amazon Music, Google Music or iCloud).ConvergenceDevices are no longer used for just one thing, new media technologies are notlimited by how they can be consumed or distributed. Convergence means PCsnow play music, iPods can play games and phones are internet devices.Sometimes institutions plan convergence (the iPhone) but sometimes it’s theconsumers who start it, Nook readers used as tablets for example.
Democratic mediaThe media used to be controlled by large institutions that had the money andpower to print, publish and broadcast. Home computing and cheap mediaproduction means that anyone can be a journalist, film maker or broadcaster,making the media democratic. Blogs, video services, easy app developmentand podcasts make it easy to produce user generated content.Long tailChris Anderson defined the Long Tail as an economic state where productshave a longer sales pattern when they don’t rely on shop storage becausethey’re either downloadable (iTunes for example) or they’re sold online(Amazon). An Amazon employee described the Long Tail as “We sold morebooks today that didn’t sell at all yesterday than we sold today of all the booksthat did sell yesterday.” The long tail is important for niche items. AnitaElberse criticised the Long Tail by claiming that it’s still mainstream and massmarket products that dominate internet sales.Net NeutralityNet neutrality is the principle requiring Internet providers to act as commoncarriers and not discriminate among content or users — for example, byproviding degraded service to rich-media sites, by throttling file-sharingservices, by penalizing customers who watch or download a lot of videos or byblocking Internet applications and content from competitorsPeer to peerA system where content is shared between users across a network. Peer topeer can be used for illegal downloads with a central hub like the Pirate Baylinking users to other users’ content.
Social MarketingMarketing and advertising that reaches potential consumers via socialnetworking website, such as MySpace, Facebook and Bebo. They appear at theedges of users’ profiles and can be targeted based on keywords in their profilesto match their stated interests or recent activities.StreamingDelivery and distribution of media content over an internet connection directto your device without being saved. Youtube and Spotify are both streamingservices. Onlive is an example of a streaming games service.SynergySynergy is the working together of two different institutions, often relying oneach other’s expertise and reputation. Synergy has been around for a longtime now but in the online age it’s evolved into something more pervasive;Vevo on Youtube, Facebook and Spotify are to work together in Europe andFifa 12 will feature more affiliates than ever before (Real Madrid and Evertonused the trailer to launch their 11/12 season kits).Top down/bottom up newsTop down news focuses on news that focuses on groups in power;governments and business for example. Twitter and blogs now allow news tobe ‘bottom up’. The revolution in Syria is a good example; traditional mediahas been gagged there so news focuses on individuals because it’s beingreported by them.
TrendingHappens when a topic is widely discussed on microblogs like Twitter.Trending allows a subject to become big news without pushing from anestablished news agency. Think about Ryan Giggs, the traditional mediacouldn’t discuss him but it was trended on Twitter.Viral marketingA marketing strategy that encourages the audience to pass on the marketingmaterial themselves. Examples include short films and clips sent by email.Web 2.0Web 2.0 is commonly associated with web development and web design thatfacilitates interactive information sharing, interoperability, user-centereddesign and collaboration on the World Wide Web. It is understood to be ademocratic forum, a flat arena in which all users may contribute and speak.