City dialogue on Clean air and sustainable mobility, a half day workshop conducted in Chandigarh in partnership with Chandigarh Administration on 24th May 2013. The presentation shows the CSE findings and citizen perception survey.
AIr quality and urban mobility challenges, Chandigarh
Air quality and urban mobility challengesAnumita RoychowdhuryRuchita BansalVivek ChattopadhyayaCentre for Science andEnvironment1EnvironmentWorkshop on clean air andsustainable mobility-- A joint initiative of:Chandigarh Administrationand Centre for Science andEnvironmentChandigarh, May 24, 2013
December 2012:Global Burden of Disease estimated by 450 scientistsfrom 300 global organisations including WHO found -- Airpollution related deaths have increased by 300 per cent since2000. About 65 per cent of these deaths occur in Asia.Air pollution is among the top 10 killers in the worldGlobal Burden of disease:High impacts in India……………….Air pollution is among the top 10 killers in the worldTwo-thirds of the death burden in developing Asia. South Asiamost vulnerable………….February 2013:GBD findings for India: 620,000 premature deaths a year.More than 18 million healthy life years lost due to air pollution.Air pollution triggers stroke, cardiovascular and respiratorydiseases, cancer…..
More Indian cities in grip of pollution4-- PM10 monitoring increased from 96 cities in2005 to 180 cities in 2010.-- Low polluted cities fallen from 10 to 2. --Critically polluted cities (1.5 times the standards)increased from 49 to 89 cities.-- 2005: 75% of cities exceeded the standard.2010: -- 78% of citiesNO2 monitoring increased from 100cities to 177 cities2005: Only 1 city exceeded thestandard. 2010: 19 citiesSource: CSE based on CPCB data
Killer breathe: Need strong preventiveaction………8action………
Chandigarh: Air pollution rising again9Source: Chandigarh Dept. Of Environment
Chandigarh: Air pollution rising again10Source: Chandigarh Dept. Of Environment
Chandigarh: Air pollution strongly corelates with economicgrowth11Source: CSE
Where is pollution coming from?•There is no official assessment of the pollution sources in Chandigarh•Independent research studies (Georgia Tech 2004) show high concentration of tiny particles(PM2.5). They have found high share of elements from combustion sources in the overall PM2.5.•Also close to a quarter of PM 2.5 comes from petrol and diesel combustion in the city. This showshigh impact of vehicles.12http://etd.gatech.edu/theses/available/etd-07112004-203716/unrestricted/chowdhury_muhammed_z_200407_phd.pdf
Motorisation based on outdated technology-- Bharat Stage III 12 years behind Europe-- Bharat stage IV seven years behindDiesel car emission norm trajectory and India’s positionSpecial problem of diesel:In June 2012 the WHO/International Agency on CancerResearch have reclassifieddiesel emissions as class 1carcinogen, -- same class astobacco for its strong link with13Source: CSE compilation from European Commission, MORTH, India, Diesel Nettobacco for its strong link withlung cancer.Diesel cars are 60 per cent ofthe new car sales in India.Bus and trucks also use dirtydieselCities need clean diesel (10 ppmsulphur) with advancedparticulate traps
What about our health?Considerable reportage onrespiratory problems due to airpollution in the region….14pollution in the region….CSE campaignSource: CSE
Most studies in India done by doctorsthemselves…….Maximum health studies in India have been carried outby doctors themselvesAbout 60% studies in India have focused15Source: CSEon exposure to traffic pollution…speciallythose occupationally exposed…………
Mounting global health evidences…..Scale of studies ---- Eg. the Arden Pope study (Journal ofAmerican Medical Association 2002) based on AmericanCancer Society data …..16 years, about 500,000 peopletracked in 116 metropolitan areas to arrive at irrefutablefindings.findings.……… a mere increase of 10 microgramme per cum of PM2.5can increase the risk of lung cancer by 8 percent, cardiopulmonary deaths by 6 per cent, all deaths by 4percent.These findings are equally valid for South Asia …Our lungs are same…….
43No.ofstudiesStudies looking at more diverse set of diseases….Broadens from respiratory health symptoms to other health end points –cardiovascular, eye disorders, cellular changes, cancer, premature deaths….7 6 4 6 38Effects studiedNo.ofstudiesRespiratory Cardio Cancer Related Eye relatedCytogenetic Mortality OthersSource: CSE
Diabetes: First large-scale population-based study links diabetes with air pollution.Increase in insulin resistance in lab test …. and an increase in markers of inflammation(which may contribute to insulin resistance) after particulate exposure.Strong and consistent association between diabetes prevalence and PM2.5concentrations. For every 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 exposure, there was a 1 percentincrease in diabetes prevalence. Counties with highest versus the lowest levels ofPM2.5 pollution had a more than 20% increase in diabetes, which remained aftercontrolling for diabetes risk factors. (Diabetes Care 2011)Heart:Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on Cardiac Arrhythmia:Conclusion: PM2.5 exposureGlobal studies ….Looking beyond lungs ……Acute Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on Cardiac Arrhythmia:Conclusion: PM2.5 exposurewithin approximately 60 min was associated with increased PVC counts in healthy individuals. (HeF et al 2011The APACR Study. Environ Health Perspect)Blood pressureTraffic-related Air Pollution and Blood Pressure in Elderly Subjects With Coronary Artery Disease:Found positive associations of systolic and diastolic BP with air pollutants. The strongestassociations were with organic carbon, multiday average exposures, ect. (Delfino, Ralph J.a et al2010,, Epidemiology, May 2010)Effect on foetus: Studies have shown damaging impact of PAH on even fetusSource: CSE
Vehicles: special concern• Vehicular emissions contribute to significanthuman exposure. Pollution concentration inour breathe is 3-4 times higher than theambient air concentration.• In three cities World Bank review foundvehicles contributing an average 50% of thedirect PM emissions and 70% of PM exposure.• The WHO report of 2005: Epidemiological20• The WHO report of 2005: Epidemiologicalevidences for the adverse health effects ofexposure to transport related air pollution isincreasing.• Public transport users, walkers and cyclistsare the most exposed groups.• Poor have a higher prevalence of someunderlying diseases related to air pollution andproximity to roadways increases the potentialhealth effects.
People living close to roads are most exposed to vehicular fumeEvidence from Delhi….Given the large numberof peopleliving within 300- 50021living within 300- 500meters of a major road,the Panel concluded thatexposures to primarytraffic generatedpollutants are likely to beofpublic health concernand deserve attention.Source: Health Effect Institute
Lessons from first generation action in22Lessons from first generation action inDelhi………
Delhi has fought hard to get breathing spaceOn vehiclesIntroduced low sulphur fuels and petrol with 1 per cent benzeneMandated pre-mix petrol to two- and three-wheelersMoved from Euro I to Euro IV over the last decadeImplemented largest ever CNG based public transport programmeCapped the number of three-wheelersPhased out 15 year old commercial vehiclesFirst generation reforms in Delhi…..23Phased out 15 year old commercial vehiclesStrengthened vehicle inspection programme (PUC)Efforts made to divert transit trafficSet up independent fuel testing laboratories to check fuel adulterationOn industryRelocated polluting unitsTighter controls on power plants. No new power plants.Air quality monitoringAdopted new ambient air quality standardsExpanded air quality monitoring and reportingOther sourcesEmissions standards for generator setsBan on open burning of biomass
Delhi got cleaner air: it avoidedpollutionPM10 at ITO Traffic Intersection500600MicrogrammepercubicmetrePM10 trend projectionpre Supreme CourtdirectionsPM10 trend March 98- Dec 05,Post Supreme Court directions240100200300400MicrogrammepercubicmetreSource: CSE
Delhi has lost its gains.After a short respite pollution curve turns upwardPM10 levelsPM10 levels Nitrogen dioxide levelsNitrogen dioxide levels25Source: CSE Based on CPCB data
Energy guzzling and climate concern in IndiaCars threaten energy security and climateFuture CO2 increase from transport will bedominated by cars and trucks. (IEA)26Transport energy demand grown at 1.2 times the GDP growth rate. Transport sector use 40% of total oilconsumption. Fuel consumption by vehicles in 2035 could be six times that of the 2005 level.Urban car travel consumes nearly twice as energy on average as average urban bus travelShift of freight from railways to trucks: Share of railways down to 26%. Transport energy demand in Indiawould grow even faster if all highways planned are constructed. (WEO 2006)
Chandigarh ranks high in per capitatransport CO2 emissions• A study of 46 Indian cities that assessed urban structure, travel pattern and transportemission for different city classes found category 3 cities with population ranging from10 Lakh to 20 Lakh cause maximum per capita transport CO2 emissions• Among all category-3 cities, Chandigarh witnesses maximum transportemissions/capita. Urban structure has a strong influence.27Source: http://www.urbanmobilityindia.in/Upload/Conference/207ec6ee-4b67-4791-bf3a-4be42acee01c.pdf
Is affluence a barrier or an opportunity?Chandigarh: Among the wealthiest in India and China29Source: Regional Growth, Disparity and Convergence in China and India: A Comparative Study Yanrui Wu School of Economics and Commerce University of Western Australia Australia
Less roads than Delhi. But higher vehicle densityCan hit saturation sooner•Chandigarh has 441,284 vehicles per 1000 km of road length. Delhi has243,783 vehicles per 1000 km of road length.30Source: CSE Based on MOSPI data
Chandigarh: Very high vehicle ownershipNumber of vehicles per 1000 peopleIf two-wheelers andcars areincluded then31Chandigarhhas 878personalvehicles/1000people vs 362personalvehicles/1000peoplein Delhi.Source: CSE
-- 43 per cent own cars inChandigarh vs close to 20 percent in Delhi-- Multiple ownership of cars andChandigarh: More households own carsthan Delhi32two wheelers increasing-- There is still a challenge ofequity: Design mobility strategiesfor urban majoritySource: CSE Based on CMP data
City designed for speed. Compromise safetyDistribution of Peak/Off-Peak Hour Journey SpeedDistribution of Peak/Off-Peak Hour Running Speed33•In absolute numbers the total number of road accidents is much higher inDelhi (7260) than Chandigarh (456). But for comparable road length roadaccidents in Chandigarh are close to Delhi -- 201 road accidents per 1000 km ofroad length in Chandigarh vs and 245 in Delhi.Source: CSE Based on CMP data
Strength of our citiesStrength of our cities……..34Source G Tiwari, TRIP, 2010
Different trend in Chandigarh:High dependency on personal vehiclesModal share in Chandigarh (without walktripsNearly 73% of traveltrips carried bypersonal transport –cars and two-35Source: CMPcars and two-wheelers
How people feel about the emerging challengesCSE’s rapid survey to understand people’s perception of air pollution andmobility problems in Chandigarh. The preliminary results capture themood….• About 30% say air pollution is worsening. About 15% feel incidences ofrespiratory diseases are rising.• More than 60% have complained of increased delays during peak hours• About 30-40% percent are in favor of cycle and cycle rickshaw infrastructure.• Nearly 10-15% have rated public transport as good, 30% have rated city public36• Nearly 10-15% have rated public transport as good, 30% have rated city publictransport services average.• About 30% rated the auto/tempo services as average but say they areimportant.• About one third think parking is causing encroachment of footpaths andcausing congestion• Nearly half -- 50%, think government should make efforts to reducedependence on personal vehicles.• Around 90% want more action to increase public transport and non motorisedinfrastructure.• Nearly 20% find the cycling infrastructure well maintained, clean and usableonly in some areas of the city
City Mobility Plan charts the way forwardScale up and modernise public transport-- Provision of high capacity mass transport corridors and integration with othermodes of transport-- Medium level mass transport system -- BRT beyond the Metro network-- Rationalisation of local bus system and its augmentation.-- Improvement in traffic management through TSM measures.Address urban planning and designChandigarh charting a roadmap…………38Address urban planning and design-- Landuse adjustments and densification of corridors along mass transportcorridors where possible; Commuter rail system-- Special facilities for pedestrians within the entire network specially in the coreareas-- Pedestrian subways, footpaths and road furniture along the roadsCommercial traffic-- Diverting through traffic on bypasses, providing transport hubs at the periphery-- Improving primary, arterial and other important roads (particularly radial and ringroads) by providing grade separation in the form of underpasses, junctionInform this process from the experience in other cities……….Source: CMP
- Can we set targets for public transport modalshare?- Delhi Master Plan targets 80% public transport shareby 2020; Pune 80% by 2020; Kolkata 90% by2020.................39- Chandigarh needs a target too. Travel trips areexpected to nearly double in the coming decades inChandigarh. What share of this should be on publictransport?- Learn from Delhi: Travel trips to increase from 15million a day today to 28 million by 2020. Butdisproportionate focus on road building is reducingshare of public transport ridership……….
Roads hitting dead end in DelhiRoads hitting dead end in DelhiRoads expansion cannot keep pace with rising number of vehicles. Delhi hasbuilt 65 flyovers…….Yet congestion is getting worse by the day20000250003000035000Roadlengthinkms8101214Roadlengthper1000vehicles400500010000150001971-72.1980-81.1990-91.1993-94.1994-95.1995-96.1996-97.1997-98.1998-99.1999-00.2000-01.2001-02.2002-03.2003-04.2004-05.2005-06.Roadlengthinkms0246Roadlengthper1000vehiclesRoad length in kmsRoad length per 1000 vehiclesSource: CSE based on data from Economic Survey, Delhi Govt
Reality check in DelhiReality check in DelhiPublic transport losing groundPublic transport losing groundIn Chandigarh buses meet onlyIn Chandigarh buses meet only16 per cent of the travel demand16 per cent of the travel demand41Source: Anon 2008, transport demand forecast study: study and development of an integrated cum multi modal public transport network for NCT of Delhi, RITES, MVA Asia Ltd, TERI, September
Need big transition…………….DelhiBus fleet requires massive renewal and modernizationDelhi has initiated a massive renewal processNew buses to meet the urban bus specifications of theMinistry of Urban Development.42Need credible, reliable and quality bus serviceImprovement in service level of bus service -- Technicalplanning for routereorganisation, frequency, reliability, coverage, reliableinformation, ITS enabled passenger informationservice, improvement in ticketing system, buspriority, signaling, GPS enabled deploymentstrategy, Performance monitoring system, Innovativecontracting and tendering, among others.
Change in Delhi…………Average number of buses on road, 2002-03 to 2011-12, DTC Revival of bus numbers: Averagenumber of buses augmentedto 5892 in 2011-12. ….Revival of ridership: Within aspan of one year -- 2010 -2011, the ridership of DTChas increased by 25%. Theturn around happened when it43turn around happened when itincreased to 2.4 million in2009-10 and hit 3.0 million in2010-11.Revival of earnings: DTCearnings show major gains.During 2005-06 this was Rs279 crores. This hasincreased three times toRs794 Crore in 2010-11.Yet long way to go….Source: CSE based on DTC stats and op data
859095100%fleetuse% fleet useFleet utilisation: % fleet useBus in Chandigarh:A paradox: Efficient yet deficientChandigarh bus transport corporation isthe most efficient compared to other bustransport corporation-- 95 per cent of its fleet is utilised-- Carries at least 90 per cent of itspassenger carrying capacityBut scale of its operation is very small.44707580Delhi Chandigarh%fleetuseCity% fleet useLoad factor (%)0102030405060708090100Delhi Chandigarh%loadfactorCity% load factorBus numbers stagnating around 400Bus purchase and deliveries gettingdelayedShortage of staff. Not enough conductorsand drivers. Affecting bus operationsOld fleet requires replacement
Buses: burden of costsSpareparts, tyres, tubes, batteries5%Taxes8%InterestPayments1%Depreciation4%45Personnel costs54%Fuel costs28%
Fuel cost is a serious barrierRecent diesel price hike for buses staggering andmindless. For cars its pittanceDiesel cost is about a quarter of the total costThis will push up demand for bus fares. But that willerode bus ridership…. Minimum bus fares are Rs5-7. The running cost of a two wheeler is Re 1 to46Source: CSE - based on data from Operational Statistics5-7. The running cost of a two wheeler is Re 1 toRs 2 per kmHigh costs can compromise quality of bus servicesNeed fiscal measures to reduce the costs of busoperations.Reduce fuel costs for buses and rationalise othertaxes
Fuel economy of buses worseningFuel economy performance of the bus fleet in BangaloreFigure: HSD KMPL Figure: KMPL comparison ofLeyland and Tata BS-I vehicles47Need fuel economy standards for buses Source: BMTC
-- Improve overall economic efficiency of bus transport-- Reduce tax burden on buses-- Waive off interest payment that is weighing down DTC-- Rationalise budgetary allocation in the transport sector. A lot money tied to signalfree roads and flyovers that impede bus routes can be ploughed into bus transport.This will release enormous amount of money.-- Reform rates and policy of some key revenue heads likeadvertisement, parking, and vehicle taxation to be able to tap substantial amount ofNeed funding strategy forpublic transport48advertisement, parking, and vehicle taxation to be able to tap substantial amount ofearnings from them.-- Mandate bus companies to undertake commercial development in their depotsand terminals-- Apply travel demand management measures to increase taxes on personalvehicles. Use the additional revenue for public transport.-- Explore best practice model in other cities -- like tax on wage bill, stationnaming, fuel surcharge, congestion tax etc, TDM measures to generaterevenue, and increase bus ridership-- All future bus agreement and contracts must be based on high quality servicelevel guaranteeWe cannot afford to miss the bus………….
Rationalise taxes on transportBuses bear significantly higher tax burdenin India than cars and two-wheelers...2,90,4315.692.391500002000002500003000003500003456Tax perChandigarh: The one time registrationtax that cars costing upto Rs 6 lakhspay works out to be Rs.533.33-Rs.8004930,5212,7250.44050000100000150000Two wheeler Cars Bus012Total annual tax per vehicle Total tax per vehicle-kmTax pervehicle-kmAnnualtaxpay works out to be Rs.533.33-Rs.800per year.But bus pays Rs.4,200 a year. Thisneeds to be reversed to reduce theoverall cost of bus operations andmake it viable.Buses must not be penalised formeeting their intended objectives --carry more people
0%20%40%60%80%100%NH-21 OutsideDera Bassi(Ambala road)NH-64 NearZirakpur(Patiala Road)Sarhind Road NH-21 (OutsideKharar)NearChandigarh OutSide KhudaComposition of trafficSlow moving vehicleGoods vehiclesBusAutoTwo-wheelersCar/JeepMore cars can reduce people carryingcapacity of the road……………….51(Ambala road) (Patiala Road) Side KhudaLohraCar/Jeep0%20%40%60%80%100%NH-21 OutsideDera Bassi(Ambala road)NH-64 NearZirakpur (PatialaRoad)Sarhind Road NH-21 (OutsideKharar)Near ChandigarhOut Side KhudaLohraDaily passenger tripsMini BusBusAutoTwo-wheelersCar/Jeep
The Transition………Reallocation of road space. Morespace to low carbon and clean modes and majoritycommutersDistribution of Vehicles - By Mode52Delhi Bus Corridor2%23%75%Motor VehiclesBusesCycle & Cycle RkshwDistribution of People - By Mode55%33%11%Motor VehiclesBusesCycle & Cycle RkshwMoving vehicles vs. moving people
Delhi is developing guidelines for modalinterchange location Design for integration of modesDelhi-- UTTIPEC/DDA guidelinesBus stop, cycle rental: within 50 meter levelwalk from station exitCycle and two wheeler parking :within 100meter level walk from station exitAuto rickshaw stand: within 150 meter levelwalk from station exitPrivate car/taxi/auto rickshaw “drop off”:53Private car/taxi/auto rickshaw “drop off”:with barrier-free of exiting pedestrians andNMTPedestrian exits, bus-stops and Cycle-rickshawstands must be closest to main pedestrianexits from station.Car parking if provided, must be BEYOND 250M distance of Station/ or PT interchange pointPairing of Origin-Destination (O-D) Nodes:Provide cycle/ auto stands at nearbyimportant destinations.Signages at both end locations.Private car parking only at Terminal Stations.Metrostation/Publictransportinterchangepoint
35Total trips-- Chandigarh: More thanhalf of all daily trips fall within4 km distance.Inherent advantage of our cities: Shorttrip lengthAverage trip length in Chandigarh5532.0820.9216.6411.195.923.591.492.81.041.360.950.650.261.1105101520253035<=23--45--67--89--1011--1213--1415--1617--1819--2021--2526--3031--35>=36total trips-- More than 40 to 50 percent of the daily trips in manyIndian cities have distancesless than 5 kilometers.-- These have enormouspotential to convert to walkingand non-motorised trips.
400050006000Triplength(inkms)Mode of travel based on trip lengthCarTwo WheelerLarge number of walk and cycle trips inshort distances ranges: Naturally5601000200030004000Triplength(inkms)Two WheelerAutoShared AutoBusCycleCycles RickshawTrainWalk<=2 kms 3-4 kms 5-6 kms 7-8 kms 9-10 kms
Chandigarh: More people walk and cyclethan those use carsModal Split - 2009 (Including W alk)Cycle11%Rick3%W alk17%T.W .Car15%57Bus11%S. Auto6%Auto1%T.W .36%Modal Split - 2009 (Excluding Walk)Bus14%Cycle13%Rick3%S. Auto7%Auto2%T.W.43%Car18%2009Source: CSE Based on CMP data
S.no. Footpath Road length (km) Percentage (%)1 Present 182.83 37.582 Absent 303.69 62.42Total 486.52 100.00But 62% of the road length do nothave footpaths!...58Source: CMP and RITES Primary Surveys – 2008 – 09
Public transport cannot work withoutwalk infrastructure…59Urbanity and life style:Corelation between active transportation(walking and cycling) and obesity.China – 1.8kg weight gain after and twiceas likely to get obese for a Chinese whoacquired a car.King County – people weigh 7 pounds lesson an average in walkable neighbourhoods
We took a walk……….We looked at residential and commercial neighbourhoods and alongJan Marg to understand the•Engineering features -- continuity of sidewalks, their width, clearview, headroom provided, buffer between NMV and MV lanes, streetsignanges and parking spaces for cycles.•Crossings facilities traffic calming measures at the60•Crossings facilities traffic calming measures at thejunctions, pedestrian signals, raised crossing at slip roads anddesignated traffic signal for NMV.•Environmental conditions --safety, maintenance, enforcement, encroachment, concentratedlighting and amenities including gender sensitive publictoilets, telephone facilities, drinking water facilities, foodkiosks, dustbins, arcades, and trees.….. To understand the way forward
A snap shotJan MargJan Marg:The cycle tracks and footpaths score well on engineering features.Good environmental conditions with tree shading, adequate space forwalking and cycling, proper signages.Good enforcement -- traffic police guides people using the cycle tracksand walking.But ….61Source: CSE
Jan MargPoor crossing facilitiesPoor crossing facilities• Noraised crossings on slip roads• Lacks pelican signals• Lack of traffic calming measures• Poor lighting conditions makesthe track unsafe to walk or cycle inthe evenings.62the evenings.Source: CSE
Residential Sector 22 & 26The cycle tracks and footpaths show poorengineering featuresVery low usage.Surface is very uneven and difficult tonegotiate.Has better environmental conditions. Thickfoliage of trees provides good shade;proper signages are provided63proper signages are providedSource: CSE
Sector 4 and sector 22o Footpaths are either encroached by parking or are not paved.o Engineering features do not reflect compliance with IRCguidelines.o Individual house owners have encroached on the footpath tomake gardens or to park cars. No sign of safe crossings.64Source: CSE
Residential Area, sector 9•Gardens on footpath…………… No protection of public space65Source: CSE
Areas with heavy footfalls:High modal conflict and unsafeo Around PGI hospital and Punjabuniversity: This has large numberof walkers. But motor vehicles areallowed very high speed -- 65Km/h. There is no traffic calmingmeasures. Crossing facilities arepoor.66PGI at one side and Punjab university on the other; No safe crossings for people, Source: CSE
Design bars……67Parking meant for whom, really??Dare to CROSS!!Snapshots from perception survey-- Many want to walk and cycle to the sector market (700-800 meters away) buthigh speed vehicles and inadequate footpaths and cycle tracks deter them-- Many want cap on speed limit in the residential areas-- People do cycle and walk on weekends but the crossings are not designed forNMV users…………Footpath hits deadendSource: CSE
Round abouts need improvement`Rotaries at theintersection needdesignimprovement tomake it safer andcalmer: Thesewill require designimprovement andExample London: Global innovations…………improvement andtraffic calmingmeasures safetyof all road users.Becomingaccident prone.
No lights on many roadsStreet Lighting Type Street Lighting Location70Source: CMP
Onus on whom?Experience fromDhakaBangladesh RoadTransport71TransportRegulations andRules 2012 requirespedestrians to carryindicators includingreflector, lamp etcPeople arecomplying to protest
The make overExisting and proposed NMT tracksOn anvil-- Footpaths along 220 km of roads tobe taken up.-- About 60 Km of cycle network hasbeen identified72This can be at risk if car centricinfrastructure expandsThe traffic engineering andmanagement measures underdiscussion: -- Corridor improvementthrough traffic circulationmeasures, ban on certain turningmovements, one way streetsunderpasses at junctions etc. Theseimpede natural flow of walker, cyclistsand public transport users.
Lesson from Delhi73VIKAS MARGTUGHLAKABAD FORTSource: CSE
Car infrastructure severingneighbourhoods and pedestrian routes(All India Institute of Medical Sciences intersection)74Cloverleaf flyover disrupt at-grade continuity and direct shortestroute, increase walking distance for the ailing visitors using public transportAt least in one direction use of subway is unavoidableBefore AfterSource: CSE
It is possible to changeRedesigned streets in a small town of Nanded inMaharashtraAfter75Source: Pradeep SachdevaBeforeAfter
Retrofitting changes…..• Sidewalks beingrerebuilt in Delhi76Connaught PlaceSource: CSE
Global rich transforming public spacesAdding Human dignity and respect77BRT CorridorSource: GIZ
Delhi has adopted street design guidelinesUTTIPEC guidelines79
Devil in detailVIKAS MARGDelhi:Even when newinfrastructureis created80Source: CSEis createdaccording toguidelines anydesign flaw canmake thefacilityunusable
Going beyond – planning for a compact cityDelhi setting norms for high density requirementsDelhi framing Transit Oriented Development Policy (DDA/UTTIPEC)Density minimums as per the table below:Source: UTTIPEC
National Habitat Standard Mission of the Ministry of Urban DevelopmentGuidelines for compact mixed land use-- 95% of residences should have daily needs retail, parks, primary schools and recreational areasaccessible within 400m walking distance.-- 95% residences should have access to employment and public and institutional services by publictransport or bicycle or walk or combination of two or more.Build compact and accessible citytransport or bicycle or walk or combination of two or more.-- At least 85% of all streets to have mixed use development.-- Need small block size with high density permeable streets etcUTTIPEC TOD guidelines
Excerpts:Initiate planning and road design schemeswhere unwatched streets can betransformed... to make safe urban areas:• Get rid of walls and setbacks. Add streetedge uses -- for road safety at night,Transparent fencing shall be used above 300Safety and urban planning…Transparent fencing shall be used above 300mm high toe wall from ground level.• Add planned hawker zones.• Adhere to IRC 103:2012 for Street Design.• Introduce planned mixed-use housing …alongroad edges of major vulnerable roads.Slow down vehicles on Roads :• No more signal free corridors- signalizeexisting ones.• Remove gates on public streets from gatedcolonies from vulnerable areas.
With seamless traffic and FOBs pedestriansdisappear from the roads. Cities become unsafe8484
Where will you feel more safe to walk?Why do we have building setbacks and boundary walls?Source: CSE
86Do not underestimate para transit……. The lifelineAutos and rickshaws
Cycle rickshaws are part of thesolution….High share of short trips make para transitconvenient and affordable. Even buses areCan we have zero emissions street?87convenient and affordable. Even buses arenot convenient for short distances.Delhi is reorganising this sector:Cycle rickshaw policy in Delhi underpreparation.Environmentally Sustainable streets inDhaka
BVisionary interventionsThe Delhi High Court ruling:-- The Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD)‟s policy of restricting cyclerickshaw licenses was unconstitutional as it violated the right to earn88rickshaw licenses was unconstitutional as it violated the right to earnlivelihood.Since cars were not regulated, cycle rickshaws could not be blamedfor causing congestion.Punjab, Haryana and Chandigarh: 2012, Punjab and Haryana HighCourt took suo motu action to introduce Ecocabs in 22 districtheadquarters in Punjab, Haryana and Chandigarh with the objective toimprove environmental quality in urban areas.Source: http://www.idfc.com/pdf/publications/Policy-Group-Qtly-no-17-Sep2012-IPT.pdf
Patiala Green Cabs Fazilka EcocabVehicle of the future……..89Amritsar Ecocab-- Also other para transit need integrationThree-wheeler policy in Delhi:All three-wheeler drivers to get public service vehiclebadge and smart cards.-- GPS connectivity to improve the meters andcompliance.-- In-use vehicle fitness and emission testing systems--Integrate with mass transit system.
Chandigarh identifying parkingspacesCSE mapping of some parking lots……91SECTOR 17 SECTOR 9In Chandigarh new annual registration of cars creates demand for additional landfor parking – that equals to 58 football fields………………Source: CSE
400500600700800900Demand supply gapCoventional paradigm – demandsupply gap920100200300400Infront of HighCourtInfront of PostMasterGeneralOfficeBackside ofMickyChhabraShop Sec. -17E, (SCO-5-6)Parking demand (ECS)Parking supply (ECS)Source: CSE analysis of CMP data
0%50%100%Infront of High Court Infront of Post MasterGeneral OfficeBackside of MickyChhabra Shop Sec. -17E, (SCO-5-6)Peak time parkingOthersTwo-wheelerCarParking demand as per durationCars and two-wheelers dominateparking. Most vehicles are shortduration930%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Car Two wheeler Car Two wheeler Car Two wheelerInfront of High Court Infront of Post Master GeneralOfficeBackside of Micky ChhabraShop Sec. -17E, (SCO-5-6)Parking demand as per duration>8 hrs6-8 hrs4-6 hrs2-4 hrs0-2 hrsSource: CSE analysis of CMP data
Parking strategy is identified as the first gen car restraintmeasure in Delhi……2006“Land is limited and there is a limit to the additional parking space thatcan be created in the city. This will also require …. well thought outpricing policy to control the demand for parking.”• The provision of parking for personal motorised vehicles cannot beconsidered as a matter of public good.• Individual user of personal vehicle should pay for the use of thespace for parking and parking facilities. The ‘user pays’ principle94space for parking and parking facilities. The ‘user pays’ principleshould govern the pricing of parking.• Government should not subsidise this cost• Use a wide variety of tools for pricing parking -- time variablerates –etc.• On the basis of these principles MCD, DDA, NDMC should framethe rationalised pricing policy for all types of parking facilities…Supreme Court takes this on board. Issues directives for aparking policy as a demand management tool…….
Enforcement: The first steps……Find method in the madness….Tamethe chaosEPCA directives to MCD, NDMC in Delhi-- Demarcate legal parking spaces.Organise them well.-- Inventorise the parking spaces. Put outthe list on the website-- Prevent encroachment of walkways95-- Prevent encroachment of walkways-- Put up signages and informationsystems-- Introduce metering-- Impose penalty-- Similar moves in other cities –Chennai, Pune, Pimpri Chinchwad etcOn-street parking cannot be eliminated.Needs to be managed well. Pune, Pimpri Chinchwadgetting organised
Proposed Asaf Ali Road, New Delhi96Off street car and auto rickshaw parking area along the roadSource: I Trans, Anvita Arora
PET RO L PUMPSCO O TER PAR KI NGNeed local area management plan………..Harmonise parking rates for MLP and surface parkingEROSFOR CARSRs 20 for 2 hrs,Rs 40 : 2-4 hrsRs 60 : 4-6Rs 100 : 6-10 hrsRs 250 : 24 hrsNehru Place ParkingC H I R A G D E L H I − K A L K A J I R O A D ( 4 5 . 0 M R / W )Survey LocationsAUGUST 200511:1000LAYOUT PLANPAH ARPU R BU SIN ESS CENT REAN SALO VER HEAD W ATER TANK6.006.0024.00Green AreaPublic UtilityCommercial/Semi Commercial Area On-Street ParkingNo On-Street ParkingProposed Multilevel Parking SiteExisting Multilevel ParkingCar: Rs 10 for 12 hrs2Ws: Rs 5 for 12 hrs No “on-street” parkingproposed but notimplementedSource: CSE study
How pricing can influence this street?99Source: CSE
On-street parking pricing has majorimpact...............10029.05.2013No meters Meters Prices quadrupledGrosvenor square, London Source: TRL in ITDP (2011): Europe‘s Parking U-Turn
No cars without parking• Sikkim transport department: Notification making it mandatory for buyers to producean availability-of-parking-space certificate before they can get their vehiclesregistered• The superintendent of police (traffic) issues certificates after physical verification ofthe parking space. Outside the city responsibility has been given to panchayats• This is followed by an inspection by motor vehicles inspector, who will submit detailsWhiff of change….Sikkim101• This is followed by an inspection by motor vehicles inspector, who will submit detailsto the transport department along with a rough map of the site• Traffic police frames guidelines to implement the notification in Gangtok• The notification aims to encourage people to have parking spaces in their housesand parking along roads is not advisable• In the hills, car owners often park along the road and walk to their houses, which maybe located higher up or lower down• Only people who live along NH31A or other state roads have the luxury of parkingspaces in front of their houses• Two car dealers received notices from the transport department directing them not tosell cars without first asking for the availability-of-parking-space certificate
Whiff of change….AizawlAizawl: Regulation and Control of Vehicles ParkingTo own and buy a car…..• the owner of any type of motor vehicle including two wheelers shall have agarage within his own residential or business compound or in some otherplace, or a garage hired from any other person, for parking the vehicle (TheMizoram Gazette, Vol XL, Issue No. 52, February 2011)102• Purchaser, before purchasing any type of motor vehicle including twowheelers or the person intending to purchase any such motor vehicle shallobtain a certificate from the ….transport department…that he has agarage, within his own residential or business compound or in some otherplace, or a garage to hire from other person, for parking the vehicle heintends to purchase (The Mizoram Gazette, Vol XXXIX, Issue No.295, August 2010)Other parts of India learn…………..High Court of Jodhpur makes availability of parking space mandatory to carownership. But need strategy for enforcement
Other countries are limiting and pricingparkingCapping parking supplyPortland, Oregon Overall cap of 40,000 parking spaces downtown. This increased publictransport usage from 20-25 per cent in the 1970s to 48 per cent in mid 1990s.Seattle allows a maximum of one parking space per 100 square metres at downtown officeSan Francisco limits parking to seven per cent of a downtown building’s floor areaParking pricing strategy to reduce car usage. Benefits public transportNew York: Very high parking fees and limited parking supply lowers car ownership far belowthe US average.Bogota Removed limit on the fees charged by private parking companies. The revenue goes103Bogota Removed limit on the fees charged by private parking companies. The revenue goesto road maintenance and public transit improvement.Shenzhen: Hike in parking fees during peak hours leads to 30% drop in the parking demand.Bremen: No free parking in city centre. Parking charges higher than public transport cost.Barcelona– Parking revenue directed to a special fund for mobility purposes.London: parking income channeled to transportation projects.Strong enforcement and penaltyTokyo: Enforcement against parking violations cuts congestion drastically . Private firmsallowed to issue tickets for parking violations. This makes on-street parking expensive.Antwerp: parking fines are invested into mobility projectsFree up public spaceParis: Street space freed for bike sharing and tramsCopenhagen: Streets freed up for bike lanes etc
Adopt parking policy as a demandmanagement measure• Adopt flexible parking standards and move towards maximum caps to account forimproved public transport access and reduction in personal vehicle travel.• Integrate parking design with multi-modal integration• More stringent controls and enforcement• Reforms parking pricing -- Minimise free parking, restrict on-street parking, usevariable parking rates, avoid fixed annual payment, price parity between surface andmulti-level parking etc. Discard one time parking charge104multi-level parking etc. Discard one time parking charge• No parking on green spaces, pavement, NMT lanes etc. Non-negotiable.• Need parking strategy for residential areas and mixed land use areas. Promotepriced, shared, common parking• Use parking revenue for public transport, and local area improvement• Stringent penalty on parking violations.• Develop parking strategy for special localities like hospitals, railwaystation, cinemas, shopping malls, schools, high impact events etc• Parking strategy for buses, IPT, freight• EIA of large commercial buildings to assess parking impacts and seek mitigation
Our cities need upscaled transitionAvoid future emissionsShift to sustainable modes of mobilityIndian cities have begun to work towards policies for low carbon and cleantransportation. This will have to be enabled and scaled up.Opportunity to provide scaled up alternativesPublic transportInfrastructure for walking and cyclingReduce demand for travel and vehicle usage105Reduce demand for travel and vehicle usageLand-use planningRoad pricingTax rationalisationParking policy and chargesLeapfrog technologyEmissions standardsFuel economy standardsFund the transition: Need tax measures to allocate resources efficiently and raiserevenue. Taxes on public transport is 2.6 times higher.
Change is possible: Early Singapore• Severe Traffic Congestion• Rising travel demand• Unreliable bus servicesSome of the SIA slides have been provided byMonhinder Singh, Director LTA Academy106Source: GIZ
Rich cities have less cars…………….Relationship between GDP per Capita and Individual MotorisedModal Share107Source: IEA, Energy Technology Perspectives, Paris 2008Decoupling of economic growth and individual motorisedtransport achievable!