Hitler used the Nazi symbol and the phrase ‘Heil
Hitler’ to continue nationalism. The symbols were
all over the place and the people of Germany
constantly had to repeat ‘Heil Hitler’ while
Benito Mussolini hoped to make
Italy an empire. He believed
that classic antiquity (the
influence of classic era figures
on modern Italy) was vital to
Italy’s expansion. From classic
antiquity came the development
of “Romanità or “Romanness”
of the Italian people. As Italian
fascism grew, so did this
connection to Romanità, which
became a cult like belief of
Hitler suppressed human rights when he murdered
people and passed laws to take away rights from
Jewish people. Germans looked the other way as
Hitler slaughtered Jews, claiming they were inferior. He
used the saying, “Every man is master in his own
house. You have no right to know what I am doing with
my own citizens.”
were better than
Mohamed Suharto is linked directly to
the deaths of over half a million people
around the period when he first came to
power in the1960s. The number of
citizens killed during the period of
Indonesian occupation has been
estimated at around 200 000, which is
about a third of the total population of
the country. Major human rights abuses
by sections of the Indonesian military
also continued in many parts of the
country. These abuses occurred most
notably in West Papua.
Hitler used people of the
Jewish faith as scapegoats.
He believed that they all
had to be exterminated to
purify the ‘master race.’
Concentration camps were
created to contain all
In the case of Spain and
Franco’s rule, there wasn’t one
strong scapegoat that served the
role of unifying the country.
There were several enemies of
the fascist groups and its
ideologies. In the Spanish Civil
War, fascists fought along with
the Nationalists against the
Liberal-led Republic. With their
conservative ideas, Liberal
leftists always came to clashes.
The Third Reich formed an army. This
army flourished while other parts of the
country were neglected. Funding not only
came from Germany’s government, but
also from Italy and Japan.
Instead of simply building up an army,
Suharto formed a government which was
military dominated. This was under his ‘New
Order’ administration. Suharto greatly
increased military funding and ignored
widespread problems throughout Indonesia.
Women were considered inferior
while Hitler reigned. During the Third
Reich, Hitler promoted the idea that
women of the Aryan race should
have as many children as possible.
This was in order to build good
bloodlines. Death was the
consequence for Aryan women who
had an abortion.
Under fascist regimes women were urged to
perform their traditional gender role as wives and
mothers and to bear many children for the
nation. Mussolini instituted policies severely
restricting women’s access to jobs outside the
home and he distributed gold medals to mothers
who produced the most children.
Many forms of propaganda were
implemented while Germany was
under Hitler’s dictatorship. Much of the
propaganda was brought about
through the recently invented radio, as
well as through speeches from the
main Nazi leaders. Posters were also
widely circulated. Much other material,
such as books and leaflets, were only
circulated to Nazi party members or
While introducing economic policies to
strengthen Italy's various industries, Mussolini
also introduced strict censorship. Eventually he
took control of all mass media. His control of
the media became so strong that he personally
approved almost every newspaper editor in the
entire nation, and made all school teachers
swear an oath to the Fascist Party. Press,
radio, education and films were all carefully
supervised to manufacture the illusion that
fascism was the doctrine of the 20th century,
replacing liberalism and democracy. With this
control of the media, he built up the legend of Il
Duce. On the political front, he took control of
all Italy. He became the absolute ruler of Italy.
Hitler’s reign of terror included a strong
importance placed on national security.
Informers and force were used to bring the
country under total control. Laws were
constantly changing in regard to what kind
of people were acceptable. This fear was
utilised to keep everyone in line. However,
the church opposed the Nazis. One
important segment of the Protestant Church
(the Confessing Church) refused to pray for
military victory, and by the war's end many
hundreds of clergymen had died in
Mussolini was able to exploit
fears regarding the survival
of capitalism in an era in
which postwar depression
was an issue. Also, the rise
of a more militant
government and a feeling of
national shame and
humiliation because of their
loss in WWI caused fear in
Hitler and the Nazis promoted a
Christian nationalism, anti-
communism, anti-Semitism, and
return to traditional values which
most Christians appreciated. The
Nazi party platform specifically
endorsed 'positive' Christianity.
Hitler commonly used religion in
his speeches and believed his
actions were divinely mandated.
Francisco Franco highly favoured the Catholic
Church and he eventually restored it back to
the official religion of Spain. The church
regained its dominate position in education
and laws conformed to the Catholic dogma.
The regime also abolished regional
governmental bodies and enacted measures
against the use of the Basque and the
After WWI, Germany had a recession
which led to a decline in
manufacturing. Hunger was
widespread. The economy continued
to slide. Hitler, meanwhile, was looking
good to many Germans because he
seemed to be a man who believed in
something and wanted radical change.
It was in this way that the industrial
segment of Germany put Hitler in
In Italy fascism allowed private property and business
ownership. However, a government-business relationship
existed, where the government had an advantage that allowed
them to control business. Mussolini's concept of fascism
resulted in a corporate state that was organized by groups.
The government would deal with corporate groups of workers
and industrialists together. These groups secured
collaboration between government and businesses. This
system allowed government-controlled collaboration between
the various categories of producers in each industry which
was needed for a successful industrial-political policy.
Labour unions were outlawed in the Third
Reich, as were all non-Nazi organizations.
Church youth groups, farmers’ unions and
labour unions were all made into affiliates
of the Nazi Party.
Mussolini failed to provide economic prosperity
and an improvement of living standards for
workers and peasants in Italy. The corporations
benefited only the employers. The workers were
not allowed to go on strikes. If they had a problem
with their wage they could only appeal to the
Labour Courts of the Corporations, which were
dominated by the employers and state officials
who always sided with the employers. Workers
had to work without protest.
Censorship was a large part of
Hitler’s control. Libraries were
systematically destroyed; public
book pyres were common. In
order to cleanse the minds of
people and society, any book
written by a Jewish author, or a
communist or humanist, was fed
to the flames.
The church under Franco’s regime, with royal
cooperation, censored books, and students were
prohibited from studying abroad to prevent
Protestant ideas coming into Spain. These
practices eventually cut the country off from
intellectual developments in Europe and turned
Spanish universities into academic backwaters.
This isolation made it more difficult for Spain to
modernize in later centuries.
In Nazi Germany the police were allowed to arrest people
on suspicion that they were about to do wrong. This gave
the police a lot of power. The Nazi Police State was to
ensure that everybody did as they were told - or paid the
price. The Nazi Police were controlled by Heinrich
Himmler and his feared secret police - the Gestapo - did
as it pleased.
There was no freedom of religion, no voting rights and
limited freedom of speech in Franco’s regime. Franco
became known as a brutal and cruel leader. He abused
his political prisoners and many ended up dying
because of starvation and overwork. He went to great
lengths to keep his political opponents suppressed, and
later he ordered for there to be a constant military
police presence in every town. This police force was
called la Guardia Civil. They carried guns and patrolled
around the city. Franco used them as his main way of
controlling the people.
People all over Germany worshipped Hitler as
they were caught up in the emotions of the Nazi
campaign. This devotion continued throughout
the elections. That was when the Nazis began a
systematic takeover of the state governments
throughout Germany, which ended a centuries
old tradition of local and political independence.
Armed militaries barged into local government
offices using the state of emergency decree as
a pretext to throw out legitimate office holders
and replace them with Nazi Reich
commissioners. Next, the Nazi controlled
Reichstag passed the "Enabling Act." This act
finally established Adolf Hitler as the total
dictator of Germany.
Franco’s Army was supported by the Nazis under
Condor Legislation. The German forces also
helped Franco's army with maintenance, personnel
and trainers. A lot of the Italian and German
soldiers actually helped so much that they stayed
in Spain the entire war. Throughout the war they
continued to keep helping Franco. The Falange
Española political party also joined with Franco.
The Catholic Church also supported Franco.
In order to become ‘Führer’ of Germany, Hitler felt that speeches and
propaganda were not enough to win him the election. His own private
army, the SA, helped him; they beat Communists up, interrupted their
meetings and deterred their campaigning. Next, Hitler had about 4000
Communists arrested and imprisoned. The newspapers were shut down.
SA were waiting in the streets to beat anti-Nazis up. Meanwhile, Goebbels
worked hard with propaganda distribution. Giant swastikas, torchlight
parades, mass rallies and radio flashes all hammered home the message
to vote Nazi.
On 16 February 1936, under Francisco Franco’s rule, the
Popular Front won the election by a narrow margin. It was later
found out that the Popular Front had illegally obtained 200
seats. After the loss of 200 seats, the opposition parties
claimed the government represented only a small minority, also
adding that the Popular Front's parliamentary majority was the
result of an electoral fraud, government sponsored terror and
intimidation. According to the right wing opposition, the
enemies of the Republic were on the Left, Spain was in danger
of falling under a Communist dictatorship, and by fighting the
Popular Front they were defending law and order and the
freedom of the Spanish people.