Identifying and Overcoming Challenges of Cloud Computing from the Enterprise Architecture Perspective


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Identifying and Overcoming Challenges of Cloud Computing from the Enterprise Architecture Perspective

Dave Chen
Association of Enterprise Architects, HK Chapter

Presented at 2nd Annual Cloud Computing, 2011
Hong Kong Harbour Grand Hotel
19 Oct 2011

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  • Welcome Everyone.Welcome to the last topic of the conferenceThe topic I am going to talk is “Identifying and Overcoming Challenges of Cloud Computing from the Enterprise Architecture Perspective”.
  • First of all, here comes to the agenda. Let me introduce myself.My name is Dave Chen, I am the Chairman of Association of Enterprise Architect, Hong Kong Chapter. In the coming 30 mins, I will first give a brief introduction to our organizationAnd then we come to our topic, that is “Cloud Computing and the Enterprise Architecture”Finally goes to the Q&A session.
  • Okay, Association of Enterprise Architects, in short form AEA, previously is named as AOGEAIt is the definitive professional association for Enterprise Architects worldwideSome of you heard about the Open Group, which is leading the development of open, vendor-neutral IT standards and certifications.They have a very famous Enterprise Architecture (EA) Framework, called TOGAFAnd AEA currently got over 15000 (fifteen thousands) members are Open CA (Certified Architect) or TOGAF certifiedThere are also over 30 chapters worldwide
  • AEA HK is one of the local chapter under AEA.AEA HK is Founded and established in May this yearIt is a non-profit organization and committee formed by HK EA practitioners.Our missions is to bring the Enterprise Architecture experience from worldwide into Hong KongAnd most importantly, to establish a platform for HK Architects to share their experience and knowledge, finally promoting EA in Hong KongFor those who are interested, you could join us by visiting our website, anyone could join the LinkedIn Group and facebook for latest updates on EA news and events
  • Okay, let’s come to our topic today.Here we introduce to another perspective on Cloud Computing, which is from the Enterprise Architecture perspective.
  • First to understand what is Enterprise Architecture (we simply called EA here)?CLICK ***************Some of you may heard about EA this term, Is EA simply means we hiring some Technical or System Architects and dealing with technical problems to the organization? Is EA equals to Enterprise IT Architecture?CLICK ***************Some people may also think EA introducing complexity to the organization while existing IT plan is working fine within budget.CLICK ***************Also, what is the relationship between EA and Cloud Computing? We’ll then come to an answer.
  • Let’s look into the meaning and definitions between Enterprise and ArchitectureCLICK ***************Enterprise means any organizations has a common set of goals, usually means business goalsCLICK ***************For Architecture, refer to the ISO standard, we concern about the inter-relationships between components with principles and guidelines.CLICK ***************And the deliverables of EA is to identify gaps between current and future which is “measurable”, so we can provide a roadmap to achieve business goals So next we will look into what EA actually helps both IT and business
  • Traditionally, IT is more on the support role or enablement to the business.With EA, IT can align with the business objective, so that we can drive innovation and enrich business strategy.CLICK ***************Here comes a model to illustrate the belief of EA.What do we mean by Business driven? Business should have its own strategy, plan and initiatives. While IT has well-defined the process, systems and infrastructure ready to support the business. CLICK ***************Usually it’s very easy to start with technology and then try to view the technology itself as a solution. However, it’s probably not the best place to start. It’s a lot more useful if you start with the business concerns. CLICK ***************We look into Enterprise Architecture. EA is to base on the vision of how the company will operate (that is the operating model), business and IT can then define, utilize with constraints on the key architectural requirements of the foundation for execution (that is the enterprise architecture). CLICK ***************Inside EA: With reference to the EA framework, TOGAF by Open Group, EA includes different “architecture types”, they are:CLICK ***************Business Architecture: Business goals, objectives, functions, services, process, etc. CLICK ***************Technology Architecture: Technology components, platforms, network communications, hardware and software specification, etc.CLICK ***************CLICK ***************CLICK ***************Information System Architecture, including the data and application architectureCLICK ***************With EA, Business and IT strategies are considered jointly – IT is positioned as a way to drive innovation and enrich the shaping of business strategy. CLICK ***************We can then prioritize IT projects according to the business initiatives and at the same time IT could align and ultimately improving business strategy.
  • - Back to our topic in this conference, that is Cloud Computing, what is the relationship between EA and Cloud?IsCloud just treating as other enterprise applications / infrastructure?CLICK ***************1. To EA, Cloud computing is just an architectural style like SOA and can always be applied no matter what kinds of emerging technologies or styleCLICK ***************CLICK ***************2. To EA, Cloud computing simply is a service, but EA is about how you will organize and manage your services.CLICK ***************3. It is highly recommended to adopt EA framework, such as TOGAF, which is a well-defined layered architecture with interoperability. More than 60 percent of the Fortune 50 use TOGAF.Interoperability is the key to address the Cloud Computing integration challengeCLICK ***************4. EA helps figure out what, when and how to move to the cloud with less impact and risk, especially on the integration with on-premises IT resourcesCLICK ***************5. To certain extent, EA also ensures seamless operations to adapt to cloud-based services
  • Seems like EA is showing some business benefits to cloud-computing, in the coming couple of slides, we try to illustrate by combining EA and Cloud in an actual scenario.CLICK ***************Traditionally, business people would think of their business plan and budget, and IT people would think of their IT plan and budgetCLICK ***************IT people would build a lot of different systems either from scratch or buy commercial off the shelf software, these systems consists of monolithic systems,client-server and to tiered architectures.CLICK ***************CLICK ***************CLICK ***************However, as time goes by, more and more legacy systems with complex integration, and due to lack of a IT strategy aligning the dynamic change of business, systems created “Information Silo” leading to what we called the “Spaghetti-like architecture as just like this one as for example. CLICK ***************Such spaghetti-like architecture introduce serious “Integration Incapability”
  • So we look into how EA helps for spaghetti-like architectureEA not only helps standardize the components with layered architecture, it also helps define guidelines and relationship (this is align with the definition of “architecture”)CLICK ***************CLICK ***************CLICK ***************Business Units and EA Team can then share the common IT & Business Strategy (that is align with the definition of “enterprise”)CLICK ***************CLICK ***************With this IT & business strategy, it can drive into the Enterprise Architecture through some EA framework, here is an example based on TOGAF Architecture Content FrameworkCLICK ***************- With EA governance, EA team can manage and maintain the metamodel on different architectural types and requirements with EA artifacts.CLICK ***************With filling in the detail architectural requirements, with filling up with different architecture types (Business, Information System, Technology) with the sample Building Blocks and components putting inside. We could see EA can facilitate to IT enrich business strategy
  • In the previous slide, we could see that EA could probably address the problem due to the heterogeneous systems as well as the spaghetti architecture. However, with the nature of cloud computing especially for SaaS, we are moving to “Globally Decentralized Architecture” may become another type of spaghetti-like architecture. CLICK ***************- Here comes for an example: With the business benefits of SaaS, such as scalability, flexibility, pay-as-u-go, etc. Service are becoming more accessible and intuitive.CLICK ***************CLICK ***************- Business units may provision services outside of the scope of enterprise architecture and IT governance. Creating more and more information-silo. CLICK ***************And at the same time, IT is thinking of putting their IT infrastructure to the IaaS cloud, and IT platform / middleware to the PaaS cloud, etc. to support their current on-premises IT systems / business applications. To save effort on maintenance cost such as service patch management, DR, etc.CLICK ***************CLICK ***************And of course, inside the on-premises IT systems, some are custom-built and some are packaged software, some are coming with components and some are not. CLICK ***************CLICK ***************CLICK ***************Some adopt SOA based design with the business service and business process layer in-place. CLICK ***************CLICK ***************As time goes by, Business Units would need more data or process integration to complete an end-to-end transaction or reporting. They will then come to IT and ask for integration between different SaaS cloud and on-premises IT systems and business applications with the use of “Cloud specific APIs” introducing the complexity. CLICK ***************However, without coming back to the enterprise architecture stack, we will soon find out that they are just creating more information silos and disjointed processes that in return generate more operational overhead, and then by the time IT gets invited back to integrate it's a complicated mess.IT would fine difficult in integrating between cloud-to-cloud, cloud-to-on-premises aligning business objective.CLICK ***************CLICK ***************If we are having the EA, we first define our business architecture based on the business scenarios, we could have a better picture and understanding on the current and future of business services and processes.CLICK ***************And with the Information Systems Architecture, we know which applications are SOA ready with business services integrating with the cloud on certain protocol / API.CLICK ***************In addition, technology architecture provides the IT landscape and baseline technology platform standard for making the decision on moving to PaaS and IaaS in a more well-managed and less risk manner.
  • Besides tackling the spaghetti architecture due to the cloud computing adoption, EA also helps identify and address challenges in cloud computing from different perspective.CLICK ***************From IT governance perspective, as Cloud facilitates fast service provisioning, it has a higher chance to violate existing IT standardIt also easy to facilitate disjointed business process leading to incomplete application portfolioCLICK ***************And from System integration perspective, SOA readiness of on-premises IT infrastructure is a major concern, this might easy leading to integration incapability, finally creating information silo. Middleware management is also another challenges while more services, both in-house and cloud-based are required to integrate.CLICK ***************From security perspective, as the Cloud is exposed to the Internet, violation to the security policy may occur. In addition, cloud integration security and data jurisdiction are challenging too.CLICK ***************Finally, from IT infrastructure perspective, as for the maintenance, first who is maintaining the Cloud platform? Do IT folks be aware about it? Can the current SLA (service level agreement) be guaranteed?
  • EA not only help identify the challenges, EA helps overcome challenges of Cloud ComputingCLICK ***************For IT governance, business architecture in EA may help.- First of all, cloud strategy needs to be incorporated into your overall services strategy.- We can include the cloud management, e.g. define the roles and responsibilities, who is maintaining the cloud, etc. into the business and IT strategy.- We should always focus on business process and form the business architecture before going to cloud or consider other architectural styles- EA helps identify the business benefits and risks to identify the right candidate is the best for cloud adoptionCLICK ***************For System Integration, information system architecture in EA may help.- EA standard and guidelines facilitates a better service adoption and procurement align business objectiveWith the baseline and target architecture, impact to existing services (due to the repository) could be identified Data Architecture - is also recommended to determine Data and privacy classification and to prioritise the risk criteria of what goes in the cloud and what stays on-premise.CLICK ***************For the IT infrastructureTechnology architecture could provide all kinds of IT existing and future platform requirementsWe can understand the SLA requirements on performance and availabilityAnd Identify the required cloud computing resources and the cost calculations and comparisonsCLICK ***************For IT Security concern, Although IT security architecture is not part of the architecture domains of EA framework, such as TOGAF. Security concerns of the enterprise are always needed to be accounted for during the architecture development and process. It helps align IT security Policy and Compliance and it facilitates the need to update with the security concerns from Cloud
  • So we have looked into the Cloud Computing from EA perspective and how EA helps identify challenges on cloud computing and how to address them.Let us summarize the key thoughts and going forward.EA is always needed, no matter Cloud or notThink business objective first, Cloud Technology nextEA aligns IT and business strategy achieving business outcomesSOA readiness impacts to both Cloud and EAWithout EA, Spaghetti Cloud may occurEA provides information on Cloud evaluation, adoption, minimize risks on business process integrationAnd finally, remember this slogan:Cloud become easier with Enterprise Architecture!
  • Thank you. That’s all for today.You may visit our website at or e-mail to
  • Next is the Questions and Answers section.
  • Since we still have some time left, here are some points that we may look for more discussion to find out the answer. They are :Not mature to have all computer resources availableGood for newly developed apps, porting/migration is hardTight integration with on-premises system is a problem24x7 usage may not be cost-effective (pay-as-u-go)Highly secure apps may not be suitableROI and cost calculations are always importantPoC together with going through the EA ADM process
  • Identifying and Overcoming Challenges of Cloud Computing from the Enterprise Architecture Perspective

    1. 1. Identifying and Overcoming Challenges of Cloud Computing from the Enterprise Architecture Perspective 2nd Annual Cloud Computing 2011 Dave Chen, CSSLP, TOGAF Founder and Chairman Association of Enterprise Architects, HK Chapter
    2. 2. AgendaSpeaker’s IntroductionIntroduction of AEA and HK Chapter (5 mins)Identifying and Overcoming Challenges of Cloud Computingfrom the Enterprise Architecture Perspective (30 mins)Q&A Discussion (10 mins)
    3. 3. Association of Enterprise ArchitectsAEA (previous named AOGEA) is the definitive professionalassociation for Enterprise ArchitectsOpen Group - Leading the development of open, vendor-neutral IT standards and certificationsEnterprise Architecture Framework, TOGAF Certification15000 Memberships for the Open CA or TOGAF CertifiedOver 30 Chapters worldwide
    4. 4. Introduction to AEA HK ChapterAEA HK is non-profit local HK chapter of AEA and isgoverned by the AEA Bylaws.Committee formed by HK EA PractitionersOur mission is to bring the Enterprise Architectureexperience from worldwide into Hong Kong.Establish a platform for Hong Kong Architects toshare their experience and knowledge, ultimatelypromoting EA in Hong Kong.
    5. 5. Cloud Computing fromEnterprise Architecture Perspective
    6. 6. What is Enterprise Architecture?
    7. 7. Enterprise Architecture Definitions Enterprise Architecture An ‘enterprise’ is any (ISO/IEC 42010:2007) collection of The structure of organisations that has a components, their inter- common set of goals relationships, and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time - Identify gaps between current (baseline) and future (target) state - Provide a roadmap to achieve business goals and objectives
    8. 8. Enterprise Architecture Belief - EA help IT aligned to Business Objectives - IT & EA is to drive innovation and enrich business strategy Business Strategy Plan Initiatives constraints define Enterprise Architecture Aligning & Information System Improving Business Architecture Prioritizing Architecture Technology Architecture Application Data meta-model utilize IT Process System InfrastructureAdapted from Enterprise Architecture as Strategy, Creating a Foundation for Business Execution, Jeanne W. Ross, Peter Weill, David C. Robertson,Harvard Business School Press , Boston Massachusetts, 2005
    9. 9. Enterprise ArchitecturePerspective on Cloud- To EA, Cloud Computing is just an “Architectural STYLE”, like SOA- EA is the heart of change to organize and Enterprise Architecture manage your services- Adopt EA Framework, e.g. TOGAF well-defined layered architecture and interoperability Cloud Computing- EA help figure out what, when and how to move to the Cloud- EA ensures seamless operations to adapt to cloud-based services
    10. 10. Traditionally, - Heterogeneous ~ monolithic systems, client-server, tiered to distributed architectures - Becoming tightly coupled “spaghetti-like architecture” Biz IT Plan Plan maintain support IT Team Business UnitsGraphic source :
    11. 11. With EA, EA helps standardize components with layered architecture and define guidelines and relationships -> IT enrich business strategy Architecture Vision IT & Business Drive Strategy Biz IT Business Information System Technology Plan Plan Architecture Architecture ArchitectureBusiness EA Team maintain Security Architecture Units Architecture Realization TOGAF Architecture Content Framework with Sample Building Blocks
    12. 12. Combining with Cloud and EA, CRM BU HR DMS API BU FINANCE BU API BU API API SaaS Business Processes Process 1 Business Architecture Business Services Service 1 Components Information Component 1 Component 2 Systems Business Systems Architecture Application 1 Package 1 Application 2Enterprise Architecture On-premises IT Systems / Business Applications Technology On-Premises IT Platform / Middleware PaaS Architecture On-Premises IT Infrastructure IaaS
    13. 13. However with Cloud, challenges come •IT Standard •SOA Readiness Violation •Integration •Disjointed Business Incapability Process •Information Silo •Incomplete •Middleware Application Management Portfolio •Security Policy •Maintenance Violation •Performance •Cloud Integration •Availability Security •Data Jurisdiction
    14. 14. Something that EA may help •Define Cloud •IT Standard and Strategy and Guidelines Management •Integration impact •Business analysis to existing Architecture services •Cloud Service •Data Architecture Evaluation IT System Governance Integration Enterprise Architecture IT IT Security Infrastructure •Security along •SLA Requirements the Architecture •IT baseline and Process target platform •IT Security Policy •Cloud-Computing and Compliance Resources
    15. 15. Key Thoughts and going forward- EA is always needed, no matter Cloud or not- Think business objective first, Cloud Technology next- EA aligns IT and business strategy achieving business outcomes- SOA readiness impacts to both Cloud and EA- Without EA, Spaghetti Cloud may occur- EA provides information on Cloud evaluation, adoption, minimize risks on business process integration- Cloud become easier with EA!
    16. 16. Thank you http://www.aea-hk.orgE-mail :
    17. 17. Questions & Answers
    18. 18. To-Cloud Considerations Discussions- Not mature to have all computer resources available- Good for newly developed apps, porting/migration is hard- Tight integration with on-premises system is a problem- 24x7 usage may not be cost-effective (pay-as-u-go)- Highly secure apps may not be suitable- ROI and cost calculations are always important- PoC together with going through the EA ADM process