WHAT IS KNOWLEDGE?<br />“Knowledge is what we know”<br />??<br />“knowledge is a justified true belief”<br />Plato, ~ 400 BC<br />“We can know more that we can tell”<br />Michael Polanyi, 1966<br />“We know it when we use it”<br />Dewire, 1999<br />
Fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, and expert insight that provides a framework for evaluating and incorporating new experience and information<br />Davenport and Prusak, 1999<br />Knowledge is justified belief that increases<br />an entity's capacity for effective action<br />Nanoka, 1995<br />
<ul><li> Data are symbols inscribed by human hands or by instruments
Information is a judgment, by an individual or groups, that given data resolve questions, disclose or reveal distinctions, or enable new action
Knowledge is the capacity for effective action in a domain of human actions</li></ul>Context, Relevance<br />Manipulation of data<br />
The analogy of train schedules<br />Swan, Newell, and Galliers(1999)<br />Train timetable is data<br />A platform announcement that the next train to the desired location leaves in 5 minutes is information<br />A passenger‘s realization that the first train to reach the destination may not be the first to leave is knowledge<br />19<br />
EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE<br /><ul><li>Codified knowledge that can be transmitted in formal, systematic language
Captured in records of the past such as libraries, archives and databases
It can be expressed in words and numbers and shared in the form of data, scientific formula, specifications, manuals etc.</li></li></ul><li>TACIT KNOWLEDGE<br /><ul><li>Highly personal and hard to formalize, making it difficult to communicate or share with others. Subjective insights, intuitions and hunches fall into this category of knowledge.
It is deeply rooted in and individuals‘ actions and experience as well as in the ideals, values, or emotions he or she embraces</li></li></ul><li>Tacit knowledge dimensions:<br /><ul><li>Technical dimension, which encompasses the kind of informal personal skills of crafts often referred to as ‗know-how‘
Cognitive dimension. It consists of beliefs, ideals, values, schemata and mental models which are deeply ingrained in us and which we often take for granted</li></li></ul><li>The Subjective view of K<br />Reality depends on human perception, and is socially<br />constructed through interactions with individuals.<br /><ul><li> K does not exist independently of social practices and human experiences.
K is an ongoing accomplishment, continuously affecting and being affected by social practices.</li></li></ul><li>The Objective view of K<br />Reality is independent of human perceptions and can be structured in terms of a priori categories and concepts. K can be seen as an object.<br /><ul><li> Knowledge as object. It can be located, stored, transferred, and manipulated.
Knowledge as Access to Information. It enables access and utilization of information.
Knowledge as Capability. It not only provides assess to information but highlights a strategic capability.</li></li></ul><li>Declarative vs. procedural K<br />Declarative knowledge focuses on beliefs about relationships among variables (‘Know-what’).<br />Procedural knowledge focuses on beliefs about procedures for achieving outcomes (‘Know-how’).<br />
Role of K in organization<br /><ul><li> Supportknowledge relates to organizational infrastructure and facilitates day-to-day operations
Tactical knowledge pertains to the short-term positioning of the organization relative to its markets, competitors, and suppliers
Strategic knowledge pertains to the long-term positioning of the organization in terms of its corporate vision and strategies for achieving that vision</li></li></ul><li>Where does K reside?<br />People – individuals, groups, communities, formal organizations<br />Artifacts – design objects, in the object’s context, practices, information repositories<br />Objective / subjective or both<br />
Socialization<br /> Capturing knowledge through physical proximity- direct interaction with people<br />
Externalization<br /> Articulation of tacit - involves techniques to express one‘s ideas or images as words, concepts, figurative language and visuals.<br />May require reasoning and creative inference <br />
Combination<br /><ul><li> Capturing and integrating new explicit K
Disseminating explicit K directly in presenting and discussing
Editing or processing explicit K, making it more usable</li></li></ul><li>Internalization<br /> Explicit K is embodied in action and practice. <br />Embodying the explicit knowledge by using simulations or experiments to trigger learning by doing. <br />
Nonaka’s Spiral model<br />Dynamic interaction between the different modes of knowledge conversion (SECI model)<br />Knowledge creation centers on the building of tacit and explicit knowledge<br />A failure to build a dialog between tacit and explicit knowledge can cause problems<br />The interaction between tacit and explicit knowledge will tend to become larger in scale and faster in speed as more actors in and around the organization become involve<br />