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Educators’ Perceptions of Twitter for
Educational Technology Professional
Development: A Uses and Gratifications
Expectanc...
“In an era of school reform,
many consider the education
and professional development of
teachers as the keystone to
educa...
 Perception of failing school systems
 Lack of quality teachers
 Need to meet student achievement goals
 No Child Left...
Statement of the Problem
 Substantial growth in the number of PD programs, but
some lack quality or are not continuous
 ...
Twitter & Online Professional Development
 Social Networking service that is a fusion of IM (Instant
messaging) and an SM...
The role of communication in the
learning process is critical –
which may influence students’
learning experience.
Uses and Gratifications Theory (UGT)
 An audience based theoretical framework, grounded on
the assumption that individual...
UGT Assumptions
 Active Audience
 Media effects are limited to attitude and behavior
 Media compete with other sources
...
UGT Criticisms & Extensions
 One of the primary criticisms of UGT is the lack of a
common theoretical base leading to man...
Uses and Gratifications Expectancy Model
 Mondi, Woods, & Rafi (2008)
 Study investigated communication behaviors on ‘ho...
Katz, Gurevitch, and Haas’ (1973)
Five Communicative Attributes
 Dropping the entertainment needs for my study
REVIEW OF ...
 The purpose of this study was to examine how
educators’ uses and gratifications expectancy of Twitter
for professional d...
Research Design
 Two-part survey
 Part One: Demographics & Twitter Usage
 Part Two: Uses and Gratifications Expectancy
...
Example Tweets
METHODOLOGY
Research Question & Null Hypothesis #1
RQ1: Are educators’ cognitive uses and gratification
expectancy of Twitter for prof...
Cognitive UGE
CUGE1. I use Twitter to help me
know many things
CUGE2. I use Twitter to search
for new information
CUGE3. I...
Research Question & Null Hypothesis #2
RQ2: Are educators’ affective uses and gratification
expectancy of Twitter for prof...
Affective UGE
AUGE1. I like to talk to others
about Twitter
AUGE2. I like showing others how
to use Twitter in different w...
Research Question & Null Hypothesis #3
RQ3: Are educators’ personal integrative uses and
gratification expectancy of Twitt...
Personal Integrative UGE
PUGE1. Using Twitter is easy for
me
PUGE2. Using Twitter allows me
to be virtually anywhere at an...
Research Question & Null Hypothesis #4
RQ4: Are educators’ social integrative uses and
gratification expectancy of Twitter...
Social Integrative UGE
SUGE1. Using Twitter gives me
feedback I need from others
SUGE2. I use Twitter to interact with
oth...
Data Analysis
 SPSS Version 22
 Descriptive Statistics for Demographic & Twitter
Usage data
 Pearson Correlation Analys...
Respondent Demographics
 Gender: 23.1% Male; 76.9% Female
FINDINGS
Respondent Demographics
FINDINGS
Respondent Demographics
FINDINGS
Respondent Twitter Usage
FINDINGS
Instrumentation & Reliability Analysis
 Internal consistency reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s
Alpha scores at a ...
Pearson Correlation Analysis
FINDINGS
Stepwise Multiple Regression
 Takes the independent variable that significantly
contributes to the variance and adds it t...
Stepwise Regression Analysis Results
FINDINGS
 Cognitive UGE significantly predicted perceived
e-learning experience
 Affective UGE, Personal UGE, & Social UGE did no...
 Participants’ in the #edtechchat primary need is
cognitive - related to strengthening information,
knowledge, and unders...
 Professional Development
 Provides results for perceived learning experience through
Twitter
 Provides insight into de...
 With OPD, need to further understand uses and
gratifications of electronic media for learning
 Anderson (1976) asserts ...
 Distribution of survey online
 Low response rate/small sample size
 Summer time
 Users only clicked/viewed link prima...
 A study could be conducted to develop a deeper
understanding of which measurement-items within each uses
and gratificati...
 A study could be conducted to examine different content areas
of Twitter chats
 A study could be conducted by adopting ...
Conclusion
 This exploratory study found that while all four uses and
gratification expectancy constructs were found to b...
Thank You
Special Thanks to my Committee:
Dr. David Carbonara, Chair
Dr. Rose Mary Mautino
Dr. Valerie Swarts
References
 Anderson, R. H. (1976). Selecting and developing media for instruction. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold C...
References
 Liu, I. L. B., Cheung, C. M. K., & Lee, M. K. O. (2010). Understanding Twitter Usage: What Drive People Conti...
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Educators' Perceptions of Twitter for Educational Technology Professional Development: A Uses and Gratifications Expectancy Model

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This exploratory study proposed to examine how educators’ uses and gratifications expectancy of Twitter for professional development influences their perceived e-learning experience. In addition, it sought to investigate the demographics of participants who were seeking educational technology knowledge through Twitter. Based on a review of literature, a uses and gratifications approach was the proposed theoretical model for evaluating how and why educators’ perceived e-learning experience was affected by four uses and gratification expectancy constructs.

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Educators' Perceptions of Twitter for Educational Technology Professional Development: A Uses and Gratifications Expectancy Model

  1. 1. Educators’ Perceptions of Twitter for Educational Technology Professional Development: A Uses and Gratifications Expectancy Model Douglas C. Strahler Dissertation Defense Doctoral Program in Instructional Technology and Leadership Duquesne University Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania October 23, 2014
  2. 2. “In an era of school reform, many consider the education and professional development of teachers as the keystone to educational improvement.” -Chris Dede, taken from Online Professional Development for Teachers
  3. 3.  Perception of failing school systems  Lack of quality teachers  Need to meet student achievement goals  No Child Left Behind Act A variety of professional development programs have been created to address major changes in education. INTRODUCTION Reasons for School Reform
  4. 4. Statement of the Problem  Substantial growth in the number of PD programs, but some lack quality or are not continuous  Traditional formats and online  Resistance to change  Fullan (1991), Sparks & Hirsh (1997), Guskey (2000) and other researchers identify a variety of reasons from personal habits to a lack of motivation and benefits  Growing need for “just-in-time” assistance and continuous support (Dede, 2006) INTRODUCTION
  5. 5. Twitter & Online Professional Development  Social Networking service that is a fusion of IM (Instant messaging) and an SMS-based (short messaging service) communications platform  140-character limit  Hashtags (#) = categories  @ replies = usernames  OPD programs has allowed the experience to be more customizable, real-time, and provides an outlet for ongoing support (Whitehouse et. al, 2006)  Anderson (1976) asserts “there is continuing need for aids to making decisions about media–what to use, when, and why” (p. 3) – based on the characteristics on a specific media. INTRODUCTION
  6. 6. The role of communication in the learning process is critical – which may influence students’ learning experience.
  7. 7. Uses and Gratifications Theory (UGT)  An audience based theoretical framework, grounded on the assumption that individuals select media and content to fulfill felt needs or wants.  Students/Adult Learners select a medium to satisfy their learning needs  These needs are expressed as motives for adopting particular medium use, and are connected to the social and psychological makeup of the individual (Papacharissi, 1996). REVIEW OF LITERATURE
  8. 8. UGT Assumptions  Active Audience  Media effects are limited to attitude and behavior  Media compete with other sources  Media users are able to identify their own needs and possess the ability to report their needs/motives REVIEW OF LITERATURE
  9. 9. UGT Criticisms & Extensions  One of the primary criticisms of UGT is the lack of a common theoretical base leading to many researchers referring to at as an “approach.”  Extensions  Expectancy-value theory (EVT) applies that “the gratifications you seek from media are determined by your attitudes toward the media–your beliefs about what a particular medium can give you – and your evaluations of this material” (Littlejohn & Foss, 2011, p. 351).  Dependency theory examines “the relationship among social systems, media systems, and audiences, and how each of these interacts and affects one another” (Rosenberry & Vicker, 2009, p. 127). REVIEW OF LITERATURE
  10. 10. Uses and Gratifications Expectancy Model  Mondi, Woods, & Rafi (2008)  Study investigated communication behaviors on ‘how and why’ students’ ‘Uses and Gratification Expectancy’ (UGE) for e-learning resources influenced their ‘Perceived e- Learning Experience’  Secondary-school level in Malaysia  Developed the “Uses and Gratifications Expectancy Questionnaire” (UGEQ) REVIEW OF LITERATURE
  11. 11. Katz, Gurevitch, and Haas’ (1973) Five Communicative Attributes  Dropping the entertainment needs for my study REVIEW OF LITERATURE
  12. 12.  The purpose of this study was to examine how educators’ uses and gratifications expectancy of Twitter for professional development influenced their perceived e-learning experience  Focus in educational technology professional development REVIEW OF LITERATURE Research Purpose
  13. 13. Research Design  Two-part survey  Part One: Demographics & Twitter Usage  Part Two: Uses and Gratifications Expectancy Questionnaire (UGEQ)  Web-based survey using Survey Monkey  Survey will be administered to educators’ who use or follow #edtechchat on Twitter  Survey link will be posted to Twitter once per day for four weeks METHODOLOGY
  14. 14. Example Tweets METHODOLOGY
  15. 15. Research Question & Null Hypothesis #1 RQ1: Are educators’ cognitive uses and gratification expectancy of Twitter for professional development positively related to their perceived e-learning experience? H1: Educators cognitive uses and gratification expectancy of Twitter for professional development is not positively related to their perceived e-learning experience. METHODOLOGY
  16. 16. Cognitive UGE CUGE1. I use Twitter to help me know many things CUGE2. I use Twitter to search for new information CUGE3. I carry out Twitter searches to answer questions CUGE4. I post questions to Twitter for answers CUGE5. I use Twitter to explore topics of interest, beyond my normal content area Perceived e-Learning PLEUGE1. Using Twitter allows me to learn at my own pace PLEUGE2. Using Twitter gives me control over what I want to learn and when I want to learn it PLEUGE3. When I discover new things on Twitter, I think about it critically PLEUGE4. I discover things on Twitter on my own PLEUGE5. I am able to access information that I need from Twitter METHODOLOGY Research Question 1 Measurement-Items
  17. 17. Research Question & Null Hypothesis #2 RQ2: Are educators’ affective uses and gratification expectancy of Twitter for professional development positively related to their perceived e-learning experience? H2: Educators affective uses and gratification expectancy of Twitter for professional development is not positively related to their perceived e-learning experience. METHODOLOGY
  18. 18. Affective UGE AUGE1. I like to talk to others about Twitter AUGE2. I like showing others how to use Twitter in different ways AUGE3. I enjoy working with Twitter Perceived e-Learning PLEUGE1. Using Twitter allows me to learn at my own pace PLEUGE2. Using Twitter gives me control over what I want to learn and when I want to learn it PLEUGE3. When I discover new things on Twitter, I think about it critically PLEUGE4. I discover things on Twitter on my own PLEUGE5. I am able to access information that I need from Twitter METHODOLOGY Research Question 2 Measurement-Items
  19. 19. Research Question & Null Hypothesis #3 RQ3: Are educators’ personal integrative uses and gratification expectancy of Twitter for professional development positively related to their perceived e-learning experience? H3: Educators personal integrative uses and gratification expectancy of Twitter for professional development is not positively related to their perceived e-learning experience. METHODOLOGY
  20. 20. Personal Integrative UGE PUGE1. Using Twitter is easy for me PUGE2. Using Twitter allows me to be virtually anywhere at any time PUGE3. I can search and navigate through Twitter content easily Perceived e-Learning PLEUGE1. Using Twitter allows me to learn at my own pace PLEUGE2. Using Twitter gives me control over what I want to learn and when I want to learn it PLEUGE3. When I discover new things on Twitter, I think about it critically PLEUGE4. I discover things on Twitter on my own PLEUGE5. I am able to access information that I need from Twitter METHODOLOGY Research Question 3 Measurement-Items
  21. 21. Research Question & Null Hypothesis #4 RQ4: Are educators’ social integrative uses and gratification expectancy of Twitter for professional development positively related to their perceived e-learning experience? H4: Educators social integrative uses and gratification expectancy of Twitter for professional development is not positively related to their perceived e-learning experience. METHODOLOGY
  22. 22. Social Integrative UGE SUGE1. Using Twitter gives me feedback I need from others SUGE2. I use Twitter to interact with other educators SUGE3. Using Twitter prepares me to join the extended learning community in the world SUGE4. Using Twitter improves my ability to communicate with other people SUGE5. Using Twitter keeps me from feeling lonely Perceived e-Learning PLEUGE1. Using Twitter allows me to learn at my own pace PLEUGE2. Using Twitter gives me control over what I want to learn and when I want to learn it PLEUGE3. When I discover new things on Twitter, I think about it critically PLEUGE4. I discover things on Twitter on my own PLEUGE5. I am able to access information that I need from Twitter METHODOLOGY Research Question 4 Measurement-Items
  23. 23. Data Analysis  SPSS Version 22  Descriptive Statistics for Demographic & Twitter Usage data  Pearson Correlation Analysis  Stepwise Multiple Regression RESULTS
  24. 24. Respondent Demographics  Gender: 23.1% Male; 76.9% Female FINDINGS
  25. 25. Respondent Demographics FINDINGS
  26. 26. Respondent Demographics FINDINGS
  27. 27. Respondent Twitter Usage FINDINGS
  28. 28. Instrumentation & Reliability Analysis  Internal consistency reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s Alpha scores at a level of .05 – exceed .70 min (Hair, et al., 1998)  Appropriate sample size (N=39)  Summated Scales created for each construct FINDINGS Constructs Items Alpha CUGE CUGE1, CUGE2, CUGE3, CUGE4, CUGE5 .862 AUGE AUGE1, AUGE2, AUGE3 .856 PUGE PUGE1, PUGE2, PUGE3 .791 SUGE SUGE1, SUGE2, SUGE3, SUGE4, SUGE5 .773 PLEUGE PLEUGE1, PLEUGE2, PLEUGE, PLEUGE4, PLEUGE5 .901
  29. 29. Pearson Correlation Analysis FINDINGS
  30. 30. Stepwise Multiple Regression  Takes the independent variable that significantly contributes to the variance and adds it to the first model, then the next variable is tested until the best set of predictor variables is determined (Hair, et al., 1998)  Assumptions tested and met  Outliers [Mahalanobis Distance & Cook’s Distance]  Multicollinearity [Tolerance & VIF]  Independence of the Residuals [Durbin-Watson]  Normality [Histogram]  Linearity [P-P plot] & Homoscedasticity [Scatterplot] FINDINGS
  31. 31. Stepwise Regression Analysis Results FINDINGS
  32. 32.  Cognitive UGE significantly predicted perceived e-learning experience  Affective UGE, Personal UGE, & Social UGE did not significantly predict perceived e-learning experience Interpretation of Regression Model FINDINGS
  33. 33.  Participants’ in the #edtechchat primary need is cognitive - related to strengthening information, knowledge, and understanding (Katz, Gurevitch, & Haas, 1973)  OPD through Twitter is satisfying the need for knowledge  Similar to previous UGT studies  Johnson and Yang (2009) – information motives significant, but not social motives  Liu, Cheung, and Lee (2010) – content & technology gratifications were factors; not social gratifications  Veletsianos (2011) – scholars primary activity on Twitter was sharing information, media, and resources CONCLUSION Key Study Findings
  34. 34.  Professional Development  Provides results for perceived learning experience through Twitter  Provides insight into designing/developing OPD through Twitter  Contribution to the field of adult learning by beginning to understand learners’ perceptions  UGT  Continue to extend the research in the field of UGT  For UGEM, provided an opportunity to further expand this model  Twitter  Provides results on how Twitter is being used for OPD CONCLUSION Contributions to the Field
  35. 35.  With OPD, need to further understand uses and gratifications of electronic media for learning  Anderson (1976) asserts “there is continuing need for aids to making decisions about media–what to use, when, and why” (p. 3) – based on the characteristics on a specific media.  The findings:  provide insights into why educators continue to use Twitter as a professional development tool, despite the negative perceptions that typically surround PD; and  begin to provide insights into how and why Twitter provides an environment conducive to learning. CONCLUSION Significance of Study
  36. 36.  Distribution of survey online  Low response rate/small sample size  Summer time  Users only clicked/viewed link primarily on Sunday- Tuesday  Focused on one content area (educational technology)  Respondents self-reported their perceptions CONCLUSION Study Limitations
  37. 37.  A study could be conducted to develop a deeper understanding of which measurement-items within each uses and gratifications expectancy (UGE) construct relate to educators’ perceived e-learning experience through Partial Least Squares or SEM analysis  Could provide valuable insights into which items play a role in the perceived e-learning experience  A study could be conducted to investigate demographic differences and how they contribute to the perceived e- learning experience through Twitter  Increase the sample size to provide a stronger representation of the larger population CONCLUSION Future Research
  38. 38.  A study could be conducted to examine different content areas of Twitter chats  A study could be conducted by adopting a qualitative research design to examine the “complexity of the social interactions” (Marshall & Rossman, 2011) and the culture of Twitter as a professional development tool  Content Analysis of Twitter chat archives could be conducted, which would provide “more directly how individual-level cognitive processes and effects relate to message characteristics” (Riffe, Lacy, & Fico, 2014)  A study could be conducted to evaluate Guskey’s (2000) second critical level of PD evaluation – Participants’ learning  Did participants’ acquired the intended knowledge or skill?  Assist in improving Twitter chat content, format, and organization CONCLUSION Future Research
  39. 39. Conclusion  This exploratory study found that while all four uses and gratification expectancy constructs were found to be statistically significant, a deeper analysis using a stepwise regression uncovered that cognitive uses and gratification expectancy to be the only significant predictor towards their perceived e-learning experience.  OPD through Twitter is satisfying the need for strengthening information, knowledge, and understanding
  40. 40. Thank You Special Thanks to my Committee: Dr. David Carbonara, Chair Dr. Rose Mary Mautino Dr. Valerie Swarts
  41. 41. References  Anderson, R. H. (1976). Selecting and developing media for instruction. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.  Dede, C. (Ed.). (2006). Online professional development for teachers: Emerging models and methods. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.  Fullan, M. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.  Guskey, T. R. (2000). Evaluating professional development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.  Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.  Johnson, P. R., & Yang, S. U. (2009). Uses and gratifications of twitter: An examination of user motives and satisfaction of twitter use. Paper presented at the Communication Technology Division of the annual convention of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Boston, MA.  Katz, E., Blumler, J. G., & Gurevitch, M. (1974). Utilization of mass communication by the individual. In J. Blumler & E. Katz (Eds.), The uses of mass communications: Current perspectives on gratifications research (pp. 19-32). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.  Littlejohn, S. W., & Foss, K. A. (2011). Theories of human communication (10th ed.). Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, Inc.
  42. 42. References  Liu, I. L. B., Cheung, C. M. K., & Lee, M. K. O. (2010). Understanding Twitter Usage: What Drive People Continue to Tweet). PACIS Proceedings (p./pp. 92). http://aisel.aisnet.org/pacis2010/92  Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. B. (2011). Designing qualitative research (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.  Mondi, M., Woods, P., & Rafi, A. (2008). A ‘uses and gratifications expectancy model’ to predict students’ ‘perceived e- learning experience.’ Educational Technology & Society, 11(2), 241-261.  Papacharissi, Z. (1996). Uses and gratifications. In D. Stacks & M.Salwen (eds.), An integrated approach to communication theory and research (pp.137-152). New York, NY: Routledge.  Riffe, D., Lacy, S., & Fico, F. (2014). Analyzing media messages: Using quantitative content analysis in research (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.  Rosenberry, J., & Vicker, L. A. (2009). Applied mass communication theory: A guide for media practitioners. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.  Veletsianos, G. (2012). Higher education scholars’ participation and practices on twitter. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28(4), 336-349. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00449.x  Whitehouse, P. L., Breit, L. A., McCloskey, E. M., Ketelhut, D. J., & Dede, C. (2006). An overview of current findings from empirical research on online teacher professional development. In C. Dede (Ed.), Online professional development for teachers (pp. 13-29). New York, NY: Routledge.

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