Origins of Digital Computers   earliest computing    devices designed to    aid numeric    computation   abacus, first  ...
Early Calculating Machines   William Schickard    (1592–1635),    mechanical calculator   Blaise Pascal (1623–    1662),...
Charles Babbage (1791–1871)              first true pioneer of               modern digital computing               machi...
Charles Babbage   Analytical Machine   He was explicitly inspired by Jacquard’s use of    punch cards to control a machi...
Babbage’s Difference Engine   automated both the    computation of tables    and their printing   employed the method   ...
World’s First Programmer   Ada King, daughter    of Lord Byron    wrote the    programs for the    Difference    Engine, ...
Legacy of Babbage   Designed the    first, general-    purpose digital    computing device   Unfortunately his    ideas ...
1880-1901 The Birth of the Modern      Mechanical Calculator    ..x100TriumphatorCNser113763.jpg
Early Pocket Calculators
Claude Shannon 1916-2001    In 1937, Claude Shannon introduces the concept of binary     logic for use in creating digita...
Konrad Zuse (1910–1995)   designed the “Z” series of    automatic general-purpose    computing machines   electro-mechan...
Alan M. Turing (1912–1954)               led the WWII                research group that                broke the code fo...
The Enigma Machine   Invented in 1918, it    was the most    sophisticated code    system of its day, and    was a priori...
Alan Turing and his Colossus   constructed an electronic computing    machine (1943) used to decrypt    German coded mess...
IBM Harvard Mark I- 1944   The IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled    Calculator after installation at Harvard    Universit...
Mauchly and Eckert   John W. Mauchly (1907–1980) and J. Presper    Eckert (1919– ) headed the ENIAC team at the    Moore ...
ENIAC      noted for massive       scale and redundant       design      decimal internal       coding      operational...
ENIAC• manual programming of  boards, switches, and  “function table”
Early Computer Programming was slow, tedious andrepetitious
John Von Neumann (1903–              1954)   Von Neumann visits the Moore School in 1944   prepares a draft for an autom...
Von Neumann Architecture   “stored program”   serial uniprocessor    design   binary internal    encoding   CPU–Memory...
UNIVAC I        first commercial         general-purpose         computer system        delivered in 1951        used t...
Even in the 1950’s, computers got smaller                    over time   Four different    generations of tube    compute...
Early Bell Labs Transistor 1947 / 1952“The most important invention of the 20th century…”
A hearing aid ! ….1953              Zenith Royal-T “Tubeless”               hearing aid. 3” tall, 2.5”                    ...
Followed immediately by the first “pocket radio” in 1954
Jack Kilby - Invents the  Integrated Circuit at TI….1957First commercial use of the IC was   in a pocket calculator - 1961
1960’s….IBM System/360   built using solid-state    circuitry   family of computer    systems with backward    compatibi...
Gordon Bell, Father of the Minicomputer, Digital            Equipment Corporation                            Developed th...
DEC PDP series          “minicomputers”          offered mainframe           performance at a           fraction of the ...
IBM fights back!   IBM 1130, their    “small” computer,    designed to    compete with    DEC’s minis
Specialized Supercomputers   First developed in the    late 1970’s   high-performance    systems used for    scientific ...
Intel 4004 Microprocessor -                1972   First commercially    available micro-    processor – first used    in ...
Desktop and Portable Computers                1975-   Microprocessors   all-in-one    designs, performance/price    trad...
Developed in the family garage, SteveWozniak and Steve Jobs with the First Apple              Computer 1976
Radio Shack TRS-80, 1978               The first plug and                play personal                computer available ...
The Apple II - 1978   The first commercially    available Apple   Initially sold to Wall    St. bankers who    wanted th...
The Osborne 1 - 1981             The first “portable”              personal computer             Came with lot’s of     ...
IBM PC - 1982   IBM’s first PC   Signaled a significant    shift for the giant    manufacturer   Established a new    s...
The Computer Company that          Wasn’t, Xerox   Many of the innovations that became part    of the Personal Computer s...
Apple MacIntosh - 1984   First PC with GUI    interface   Adopted from the    work that was done at    Xerox   Designed...
VideoMacIntosh 1984 Superbowl            Adhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OYecfV3ubP8
1984 MacIntosh Ad   Directed by Ridley Scott    • (Alien, Blade Runner)   Cost $1.5 M   Shown ONCE during „84 Superbowl...
Just Some of the Companies that definedthe Personal Computer Business early on   Xerox              Toshiba   IBM       ...
Comparison Shopping            How do they rate in cost and performance?Year   Name       Performance     Memory Price    ...
Moore’s Law•   In 1965, Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors that can be    integrated on a die would dou...
Clock Frequency                   Lead microprocessors frequency doubles every 2 years         10000                  1000...
Growth Speed of Key Technologies       Obeys Moore’s Law
Today’s Price/Performance   Over 3 Billion adds per second costs less than $1000   Memory is measured in Megabytes/Gigab...
Web Resources for Computing             History   http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/t   http://www.digitalcentury.com/encyc  ...
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
CR346-Lec00 history
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CR346-Lec00 history

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A description of the history of computing. Short overview.

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CR346-Lec00 history

  1. 1. Origins of Digital Computers earliest computing devices designed to aid numeric computation abacus, first developed in Babylonia over 5,000 years ago
  2. 2. Early Calculating Machines William Schickard (1592–1635), mechanical calculator Blaise Pascal (1623– 1662), addition and subtraction decimal calculator G. W. F. Leibniz (1646– 1716), “Stepped Reckoner,” full-featured calculator, (“Leibniz wheel” for multiplication) Pascaline
  3. 3. Charles Babbage (1791–1871)  first true pioneer of modern digital computing machines  built two prototype calculating machines  Difference Engine  Analytical Engine
  4. 4. Charles Babbage Analytical Machine He was explicitly inspired by Jacquard’s use of punch cards to control a machine. Unfortunately the only way to build it was using rods and gears and it was never made to work. In addition, it was powered by STEAM !
  5. 5. Babbage’s Difference Engine automated both the computation of tables and their printing employed the method of differences to calculate polynomials special-purpose calculating machine
  6. 6. World’s First Programmer Ada King, daughter of Lord Byron wrote the programs for the Difference Engine, thus making her the first programmer ….ever
  7. 7. Legacy of Babbage Designed the first, general- purpose digital computing device Unfortunately his ideas and achieve- ments were lost on his successors
  8. 8. 1880-1901 The Birth of the Modern Mechanical Calculator ..x100TriumphatorCNser113763.jpg
  9. 9. Early Pocket Calculators
  10. 10. Claude Shannon 1916-2001 In 1937, Claude Shannon introduces the concept of binary logic for use in creating digital computing machines In 1948 he publishes “A mathematical theory of communication” which sets forth the principals for encoding information so that it might be transmitted electronically He is affectionately thought of as the Father of the modern information age
  11. 11. Konrad Zuse (1910–1995) designed the “Z” series of automatic general-purpose computing machines electro-mechanical devices binary internal encoding Z3 (1941) was programmed using punched 35mm film
  12. 12. Alan M. Turing (1912–1954)  led the WWII research group that broke the code for the Enigma machine  proposed a simple abstract universal machine model for defining computability  devised the “Turing hypothesis” for AI
  13. 13. The Enigma Machine Invented in 1918, it was the most sophisticated code system of its day, and was a priority of the Allies to decipher before D-Day so that they could be certain that they had fooled the Germans about the Invasion of France
  14. 14. Alan Turing and his Colossus constructed an electronic computing machine (1943) used to decrypt German coded messages
  15. 15. IBM Harvard Mark I- 1944 The IBM Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator after installation at Harvard University, 1944. It is 51 feet long, weighs 5 tons, and incorporates 750,000 parts, including 72 accumulators and 60 sets of rotary switches
  16. 16. Mauchly and Eckert John W. Mauchly (1907–1980) and J. Presper Eckert (1919– ) headed the ENIAC team at the Moore School of Engineering, University of Pennsylvannia ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer), the first electronic general-purpose digital computer commissioned by the Army for computing ballistic firing tables
  17. 17. ENIAC  noted for massive scale and redundant design  decimal internal coding  operational in 1946
  18. 18. ENIAC• manual programming of boards, switches, and “function table”
  19. 19. Early Computer Programming was slow, tedious andrepetitious
  20. 20. John Von Neumann (1903– 1954) Von Neumann visits the Moore School in 1944 prepares a draft for an automatic programmable device (later called EDVAC) “stored program” concept publishes ideas (with Goldstine and Burks) in 1946 designed the IAS (Institute for Advanced Studies) machine which became operational in 1951
  21. 21. Von Neumann Architecture “stored program” serial uniprocessor design binary internal encoding CPU–Memory–I/O orgranization “fetch-decode- execute” instruction cycle
  22. 22. UNIVAC I  first commercial general-purpose computer system  delivered in 1951  used to forecast the 1952 presidential election
  23. 23. Even in the 1950’s, computers got smaller over time Four different generations of tube computer circuits showing the reduction in size over several generations of systems during the 1950’s
  24. 24. Early Bell Labs Transistor 1947 / 1952“The most important invention of the 20th century…”
  25. 25. A hearing aid ! ….1953 Zenith Royal-T “Tubeless” hearing aid. 3” tall, 2.5” widexdftrd A prehistoric iPod?
  26. 26. Followed immediately by the first “pocket radio” in 1954
  27. 27. Jack Kilby - Invents the Integrated Circuit at TI….1957First commercial use of the IC was in a pocket calculator - 1961
  28. 28. 1960’s….IBM System/360 built using solid-state circuitry family of computer systems with backward compatibility established the standard for mainframes for a decade
  29. 29. Gordon Bell, Father of the Minicomputer, Digital Equipment Corporation  Developed the first “Mini” computers 1960-83  Brought computing to small businesses  Created major competition for IBM, UNIVAC, who only built Mainframes at the time
  30. 30. DEC PDP series  “minicomputers”  offered mainframe performance at a fraction of the cost  PDP-8 introduced at $20,000! Vs. $1M for a Mainframe
  31. 31. IBM fights back! IBM 1130, their “small” computer, designed to compete with DEC’s minis
  32. 32. Specialized Supercomputers First developed in the late 1970’s high-performance systems used for scientific applications advanced special purpose designs Control Data Corporation, Cray Research, NEC, IBM and
  33. 33. Intel 4004 Microprocessor - 1972 First commercially available micro- processor – first used in a programmable calculator This technology made the personal computer possible Contained 2300 transistors and ran at 100 khz
  34. 34. Desktop and Portable Computers 1975- Microprocessors all-in-one designs, performance/price tradeoffs aimed at mass audiences personal computers workstations
  35. 35. Developed in the family garage, SteveWozniak and Steve Jobs with the First Apple Computer 1976
  36. 36. Radio Shack TRS-80, 1978  The first plug and play personal computer available at retail  Programmed in BASIC  Very successful  Very affordable  Limited commercial software  Created a cottage industry
  37. 37. The Apple II - 1978 The first commercially available Apple Initially sold to Wall St. bankers who wanted the Spread- sheet program called Visicalc which ran on the Apple II Put Apple on the Map
  38. 38. The Osborne 1 - 1981  The first “portable” personal computer  Came with lot’s of software bundled  Only weighed about 40 lbs and sold for $1795  Note the large 5” screen!
  39. 39. IBM PC - 1982 IBM’s first PC Signaled a significant shift for the giant manufacturer Established a new standard which is still being built on today Operating system written by Bill Gates & Co. at Microsoft
  40. 40. The Computer Company that Wasn’t, Xerox Many of the innovations that became part of the Personal Computer scene were actually invented at XEROX Parc (Palo Alto Research Center) Xerox was never able to successfully exploit those innovations that included the mouse, graphic user interface and the concept of WYSIWYG, (What you see is what you get)
  41. 41. Apple MacIntosh - 1984 First PC with GUI interface Adopted from the work that was done at Xerox Designed to be a computer appliance for “Real People” Introduced at the 1984 Superbowl
  42. 42. VideoMacIntosh 1984 Superbowl Adhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OYecfV3ubP8
  43. 43. 1984 MacIntosh Ad Directed by Ridley Scott • (Alien, Blade Runner) Cost $1.5 M Shown ONCE during „84 Superbowl at a cost of $500K Considered to be the best TV ad ever! Launched the Mac in grand style! http://www.uiowa.edu/~commstud/adclas s/1984.apple_ad.mov
  44. 44. Just Some of the Companies that definedthe Personal Computer Business early on Xerox Toshiba IBM Hitachi Commodore Sinclair Texas Instrument Hewlett Packard Osborne Sony MITS Apple AT&T Microsoft Compaq SWTP
  45. 45. Comparison Shopping How do they rate in cost and performance?Year Name Performance Memory Price Price/Performance (adds/sec) (KB) (dollars) (vs. UNIVAC)1951 Univac I 1,900 48 1,000,000 11964 IBM S360 500,000 64 1,000,000 2631965 PDP-8 330,000 4 16,000 10,8551976 Cray-1 166,000,000 32,768 4,000,000 21,8421981 IBM PC 240,000 256 3,000 42,1051991 HP9000/750 50,000,000 16,384 7,400 3,556,188
  46. 46. Moore’s Law• In 1965, Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors that can be integrated on a die would double every 18 to 24 months (i.e., grow exponentially with time).• Amazing visionary – million transistor/chip barrier was crossed in the 1980’s. – 2300 transistors, 1 MHz clock (Intel 4004) - 1971 – 42 Million, 2 GHz clock (Intel P4) - 2001 – 140 Million transistor (HP PA-8500) Source: Intel web page (www.intel.com)
  47. 47. Clock Frequency Lead microprocessors frequency doubles every 2 years 10000 1000 2X every 2 yearsFrequency (Mhz) P6 100 Pentium ® proc 486 10 8085 386 8086 286 1 8080 8008 4004 0.1 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year Courtesy, Intel
  48. 48. Growth Speed of Key Technologies Obeys Moore’s Law
  49. 49. Today’s Price/Performance Over 3 Billion adds per second costs less than $1000 Memory is measured in Megabytes/Gigabytes….not Kilobytes Magnetic Storage is measured in Gigabytes, not Megabytes or Kilobytes…soon to be Terabytes Communications speeds are measured in Megabits per second, not Kilobits or even lower  And so it continues !!!
  50. 50. Web Resources for Computing History http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~history/t http://www.digitalcentury.com/encyc lo/update/comp_hd.html http://www.hitmill.com/computers/c omputerhx1.html

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