PHI 204 - Genetics

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PHI 204 - Genetics

  1. 1. Genetics (Biomedical Ethics) Charles Lohman
  2. 2. Genetic Testing <ul><li>GENETIC TESTING is designed for individuals who are known to be at increased risk of having a genetic disorder with a familial mode of inheritance. </li></ul><ul><li>GENETIC SCREENING is designed to test members of a particular population for a disorder for which there may be no family history or other evidence for its presence. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PIGD) <ul><li>PIGD is a procedure that is performed on embryos prior to them being implanted in the uterine wall for pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PIGD allows prospective parents to select among different embryos for implantation and subsequent birth on the basis of their genetic status. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A PROGNOSIS can be given of the likely nature and severity of a genetic disease in the people who would develop from IVF embryos. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Gene Therapy Genetic Enhancement <ul><li>GENE THERAPY is an intervention aimed at restoring physical and mental functioning to an ADEQUATE LEVEL. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, a child with severe anemia and the risk of bone abnormalities and heart failure is given erythropoietin (EPO) to correct the condition, thus it is a TREATMENT. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GENETIC ENHANCEMENT is an intervention aimed at improving already ADEQUATE FUNCTIONING. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, an athlete with a normal blood count takes the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) to produce more oxygen-carrying red blood cells to be more competitive in his/her sport, thus it is an ENHANCEMENT. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Treatment -v- Enhancement The Baseline is Normal Functioning <ul><li>The BASELINE between TREATMENT and ENHANCEMENT has some deviation above or below what would be considered NORMAL FUNCTIONING. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An intervention aimed at raising one’s functioning to the baseline would be a TREATMENT. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An intervention aimed at raising one’s functioning above the baseline would be an ENHANCEMENT. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Treatment -v- Enhancement Based on Goals of Medicine <ul><li>The GOALS OF MEDICINE is to treat and prevent disease and thereby restore and ensure ADEQUATE FUNCTIONING. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GENE THERAPY falls within the GOALS OF MEDICINE. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, a TREATMENT is when a child with severe anemia and the risk of bone abnormalities and heart failure is give erythropoietin (EPO) to correct the condition. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GENE ENHANCEMENT falls outside the goals of medicine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, an ENHANCEMENT is when an athlete with a normal blood count takes the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) to produce more oxygen-carrying red blood cells to be more competitive in his/her sport. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Eugenics <ul><li>EUGENICS, literally meaning “good creation” in Greek. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EUGENICS can be defined as the use of science to improve the human genome. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NEGATIVE EUGENICS -v- POSITIVE EUGENICS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms of NEGATIVE EUGENICS prevent or control disease. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: genetic testing, genetic screening, PIGD, and gene therapy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms of POSITIVE EUGENICS improves people’s normal traits and capacities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: genetic enhancement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>It is an OBLIGATION to practice NEGATIVE EUGENICS if there is DECISIVE REASON to PREVENT or CONTROL diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>It is NOT an OBLIGATION to practice POSITIVE EUGENICS if there is NO DECISIVE REASON to IMPROVE normal capacities. </li></ul>

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