HLT 138: Nutrition Chapter 1


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HLT 138: Nutrition Chapter 1

  1. 1. Nutrition for Healthy Living Second Edition Chapter 1 The Basics of Nutrition
  2. 2. Nutrition: The Basics <ul><li>Nutrition: scientific study of nutrients and how the body uses these nutrients (substances) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients: are the chemicals necessary for proper body functioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In general, your body uses certain nutrients for energy, growth and development, and regulation of processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See Table 1.1 for major functions of nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 6 Nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.) Carbohydrates, 2.) Lipids, 3.) Proteins, 4.) Vitamins, 5.) Minerals, 6.) Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Metabolism: chemical processes that take place in living cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells: smallest living functional units in an organism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cells in your body needs the chemicals (nutrients) in food to carry out their metabolic activities </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Essential Nutrient, Phytochemicals, Dietary Supplements <ul><li>Essential Nutrient: a nutrient that must be supplied by food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See Table 1.2 for the nutrients that are generally considered to be essential </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phytochemicals: compounds made by plants that are not nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many are antioxidants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antioxidant – substance that protects other compounds from being damaged or destroyed by certain factors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are Toxic or can interfere with the absorption of nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Table 1.3 for some of the phytochemicals of Scientific Interest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dietary supplements : nutrient preparations, certain hormones, and herbal products </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See ‘Dietary Supplements’, p. 6 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Calorie <ul><li>Calorie – heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water 1 degree Celsius: measure of food energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A calorie is such a small unit of measurement, the amount of energy in food is reported in 1000-calorie units called kilocalories (kcal) – AKA – Calories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See the YouTube Video Link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fkYbrxEnCLc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You can estimate the number of kcal if you know how many grams of carbohydrates, protein, fat and/or alcohol are in a food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrate = 4 kcal per gram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein = 4 kcal per gram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat = 9 kcal per gram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol = 7 per gram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example : If a food contains 10 grams of carbohydrate and 5 grams of fat, you can determine it has 85 kcal per serving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 x 4 = 40 kcal (10 is the grams of carbs and the 4 is the kcal per gram) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 x 9 = 45 kcal (5 is the grams of fat and the 9 is the kcal per gram) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>40 + 45 = 85 kcal/serving </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Macro, Micro and Water <ul><li>Macronutrients: carbohydrates, fats, and proteins; they are needed in large amounts (grams) daily; they supply energy </li></ul><ul><li>Micronutrients: vitamins and minerals; they are need in very small amounts to function properly; they do not supply energy </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water is required in large amounts, but this nutrient does not provide energy so it is not usually a macronutrient </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Empty-Calorie and Nutrient-Dense <ul><li>Empty-calorie: describes food or beverage that is poor source of micronutrients in relation to its energy value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It contributes a large portion of its energy from fat, sugar, and/or alcohol in relation to its supply of micronutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consuming too much food energy in relation to one’s need can result in depositing body fat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutrient-dense: describes food or beverage that has more vitamins and minerals in relation to its energy value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It contains more vitamins and minerals in relation to its fat, sugar, and/or alcohol contents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>See Table 1.7 Key Basic Nutrition Concepts, p. 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Read 1.4 Key Nutrition Concepts, pp. 12-18 </li></ul>