HLT 200: Human Sexuality Chapter 2


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HLT 200: Human Sexuality Chapter 2

  1. 1. Human Sexuality Chapter 2
  2. 2. The Penis SEE Figure 2.2 (b) – p. 40 <ul><li>The Penis – the primary male anatomical sexual structure (p. 40) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 functions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To ejaculate semen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To transport urine from the inside of the body to the outside </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Penile glans – the end or tip of the penis, its most sexually sensitive part (p. 40) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulation to this glans is primarily responsible for male orgasm and ejaculation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corona – the raised edge at the base of the penile glans (p. 40) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most men report that the corona is somewhat more sexually sensitive than the rest of the tip of the penis </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Penis SEE Figure 2.2 (b) – p. 40 <ul><li>Frenulum – the band of tissue connecting the underside of the penile glans with the shaft of the penis (p. 40) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reported to be even more sexually sensitive than the glans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Penile shaft – the area of the penis between the glans and the abdomen (p. 40) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The skin on the penile shaft is loose to allow for expansion during erection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All males are born with skin covering the penile glans, called the foreskin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Male circumcision involves the removal of the foreskin covering the glans of the penis (p. 41) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proper care of the intact penis can be summarized in one sentence: Leave it alone. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Penis SEE Figure 2.3 – p. 41 <ul><li>The penis consists of 3 spongy, cavernous tubes running along its length (p. 41) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corpora cavernosa – 2 parallel chambers that run the length of the penis and become engorged with blood during erection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corpus spongiosum – a middle chamber running the length of the penis into the glans that engorges with blood during erection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urethra – the tube that runs the length of the penis and into the body to carry semen or urine from the inside to the outside of the body </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The Scrotum and Testicles <ul><li>Scrotum – The sac of thin skin and muscle containing the testicles in the male (p. 45) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The scrotum is divided into 2 sacs, one for each testicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s function is to house and protect the testicles and help provide them with optimal conditions to produce sperm cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The scrotum has an active role in male sexuality and reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Testicles – made up of microscopic tubes in which sperm cells and testosterone are produced in the male (p. 46) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each testicle floats freely in each sac within the scrotum (SEE Figure 2.5) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Anus <ul><li>Anus – The end of the digestive tract and outlet for bodily excretions (p. 47-48) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The anus and the area around it contain nerve ending that are sensitive to stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is sexually stimulating area for some people </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some men and women consider it to be part of their sexual anatomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some have positive views of the anus sexually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are repulsed by the idea that this area would even be considered part of sexual anatomy or behaviors </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Male Internal Structures SEE Figure 2.7 – p. 48 <ul><li>Vas Deferens – is a tube that connects each testicle and epididymis with the internal reproductive structures (p. 48) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For a vasectomy, each Vas Deferens is severed and sealed off </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semen – the fluid produced primarily by the prostate gland and seminal vesicles that is ejaculated with the sperm cells by men during orgasm (p. 48-49) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semen is a whitish or yellowish, viscous fluid composed of water, salt, and fructose sugars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s designed to nourish and sustain sperm cells </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Male Internal Structures SEE Figure 2.7 – p. 48 <ul><li>Seminal Vesicles – a structure that produces fluid that becomes part of the semen that is expelled during ejaculation (p. 49) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ejaculatory duct – a continuation of the tube that carries semen into the urethra for ejaculation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prostate gland – a gland in males surrounding the urethra that produces the largest proportion of seminal fluid (ejaculate) (p. 49) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Male Internal Structures SEE Figure 2.7 – p. 48 <ul><li>Urethral bulb – the prostatic section of the urethra that expands with collected semen just prior to expulsion, creating the sensation of ejaculatory inevitability (p. 50) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At orgasm, the semen that has been gathering from these various structures is forced into the urethral bulb </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cowper’s Gland – small glands near the penile urethra that produce s slippery mucus-like substance during male sexual arousal (p. 50) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-ejaculate – the fluid produced by the Cowper’s glands well before ejaculation </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Vulva SEE Figure 2.9 (a) – p. 51 <ul><li>Vulva – the female external genitals (p. 51) </li></ul><ul><li>Mons veneris – a slightly raised layer of fatty tissue on the top of a woman’s pubic bone (p. 51) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of its function is to cushion the impact with the public bone during sexual intercourse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Labia major – folds of skin and fatty tissue that extend from the mons down both sides of the vulva, past the vaginal opening to the perineum (p. 52) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The labia majora close over and protect the more sensitive and delicate genital structures underneath them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Labie minora – the smooth, hairless, inner lips of the vulva (p. 52) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The labia minora are sexually sensitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During sexual arousal, they become engorged with blood and darken in color </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Vulva SEE Figure 2.9 – p. 51 & 2.10 p. 52 <ul><li>Clitoris – an erectile sexual structure consisting of the clitoral glans and 2 shafts (crura) (pp. 52-53) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The clitoris is primarily responsible for triggering orgasm in most women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clitoral glans – the outer end or tip of the clitoris (p. 52) </li></ul><ul><li>Clitoral hood – tissue that partially or fully covers the clitoral glans (p. 52) </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Vulva SEE Figure 2.9 – p. 51 & 2.10 p. 52 <ul><li>Urethral opening – an opening in the midsection of the vulva, between the clitoral glans and the vagina, that allows urine to pass from the body (p. 53 & 56) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a sensitive structure and can provide pleasurable sexual sensations for some women when stimulated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hymen – a ring of tissue surrounding, partially covering, or fully screening the vaginal opening (p. 56 7 58) </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Vulva SEE Figure 2.9 – p. 51 & 2.10 p. 52 <ul><ul><li>Myths about the hymen (pp. 56-58) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Myth: The condition of a woman’s hymen is indicative of whether or not she is a virgin (p.56) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Myth: Upon first sexual intercourse, the hymen will “break” and bleed (p. 56) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Myth: Intercourse is very painful the first time due to the rupturing of the hymen (p. 58) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Myth: If a woman has an intact hymen, she cannot become pregnant (p. 58) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Perineum – the area of skin in the female between the vulva and the anus and in the male between the scrotum and the anus (p. 58) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some women and men find that manual stimulation of this area during sexual activity enhances feelings of sexual arousal </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Breasts SEE Figure 2.12 – p. 59 <ul><li>Breast have 3 major functions: (p. 58) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They may supply nourishment for newborn inffants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They may provide sexual pleasure for both the woman and her partner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In most Western cultures, they play a role in a woman’s perceived attractiveness and self image </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nipples – the normal size and shape of the nipples vary greatly (p. 58 & 59) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They may protrude, lie flat, or turn inward (inverted nipples) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Areola – the darker skin encircling each nipple (p. 59) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s part of the skin of the nipple </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Vagina SEE Figure 2.13 – p. 61 <ul><li>Vagina – A flexible, muscular canal or tube, normally about 3 to 4 inches in length, that extends into the woman’s body at an angle toward the small of the back, from the vulva to the cervix (p. 61-62) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The vagina is not an open “tunnel” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When not sexually aroused, the walls of the vagina lie very closed together and collapse upon one another along most of its length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During sexual arousal, the tissue lining the vagina become engorged with blood and secrete a clear, slick fluid along its entire length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G-spot – an area of tissue located about a third of the way in from the opening of the vagina in the anterior vaginal wall (the “upper” wall if the woman is lying on her back) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Vagina SEE Figure 2.13 – p. 61 <ul><li>Cervix – the lower end of the uterus that connects it to the vagina (pp. 62-63) </li></ul><ul><li>Os – The very narrow passageway through the cervix from the vagina to the uterus (p. 62-63) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About as wide as the thickness of the lead of inside a pencil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>So contrary MYTH: an object in the vagina, such as a tampon, a “lost” condom, or a diaphragm, cannot accidentally travel higher up into the reporductive tract because these objects are all far too large to pass through the cervical os </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Vagina SEE Figure 2.13 – p. 61 <ul><li>Uterus (womb) – a very flexible organ with strong muscle fibers where a fertilized egg implants and an embryo and fetus grow from a few days after fertilization until birth (pp. 63-64) </li></ul><ul><li>Fallopian tubes – the tubes that carry the female ovum from the ovaries to the uterus and in which fertilization occurs (p. 64) </li></ul><ul><li>Ovaries – the female organs that produce sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone and where follicle cells are stored and mature into ova (p. 64-65) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovaries are gonads, as are the testicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gonads means produce cells for reproduction </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Menstruation <ul><li>Menstrual cycle – the hormone-controlled reproductive cycle in the human female (pp. 65-66) </li></ul><ul><li>Menarche – the beginning of menstruation during puberty; a girl’s first period (p. 65) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This typically occurs between the ages of 11 and 16 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ovulation – the release of an egg, or ovum, from the ovary into the fallopian tube (p. 65) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Source <ul><li>Human Sexuality (Second Edition) by Roger R. Hock (ISBN-10: 0-205-66071-1) </li></ul>