Teaching Listening


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Teaching Listening

  1. 1. TeachingListening<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Sources<br /> Berne, J. (1995). How Does Varying Pre-listening Activities Affect Second Language Listening Comprehension? Hispania, Vol. 78, No. 2<br />Popieszynska, M. (2000). Listening in FL Classrooms: A few recipes.  International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language . <br />Saricoban, A. (1999). The teaching of listening.  The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. V, No. 12<br />Thanajaro, M. (2000). Using authentic materials to develop listening comprehension in the ESL classroom. Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University<br /> Vandergrift, L. (2006). Second language listening: Listening ability or language proficiency?  The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 90, No. 1<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Definition<br />Listeningisanactive and interactionalprocessin which a listenerreceivesspeechsounds and tries toattachmeaningtothespokenwords.<br />Thelistenerattemptstounderstandtheintendedmessage of the oral text so that he/she can respondeffectivelyto oral communication.<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Background<br />Listening has been the forgotten language skill for generations<br />It has received little attention in language teaching and learning<br />Listening comprehension was usually characterized as a passive activity<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Theorists realized that listening is not a passive but an active process of constructing meaning from a stream of sounds<br />Listeners actively attempt to grasp the facts and feelings in what they hear by attending to:<br />what the speaker says<br />how the speaker says it<br /> the context <br />5<br />
  6. 6. Knowledge required for listening process<br /> Listening requires comprehension of the speaker's intended message.<br />Command over major components of the language: phonology, lexicon, syntax, semantics, and text structure<br />Socio-cultural competence<br />Strategic competence<br />Discourse competence<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Study: Listening comprehension ability<br />Both L2 proficiency and LI listening ability contribute substantially to L2 listening comprehension ability<br />L2 proficiency appears to be a much better predictor than LI listening comprehension ability<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Study: Listening comprehension ability<br />Limitation:<br />Most of the questions on the tests required students to read and choose from a list of potential choices. <br />Because of this test structure, the students' ability to read and understand was tested along with their ability to listen and understand.<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Study: Listening comprehension ability<br />Implications for Pedagogy:<br />Vocabulary development<br />Match aural form of a word with that of mental lexicon<br />Top-down skills/bottom-up skills<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Top-down vs. Bottom-up listening<br />Imagine the following situations:<br />Over lunch, your friend tells you a story about a recent holiday, which was a disaster. You listen with interest and interject at appropriate moments, maybe to express surprise or sympathy.<br />That evening, another friend calls to invite you to a party at her house the following Saturday. As you’ve never been to her house before, she gives you directions. You listen carefully and make notes.<br />How do you listen in each case? Are there any differences?<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Top-down vs. Bottom-up listening<br />11<br />Directions to a party<br />Holiday anecdote<br />http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/articles/listening-top-down-bottom<br />
  12. 12. Study: Listening comprehension ability<br />Implications for Pedagogy:<br />2. Reduce the gap in transfer of L1 inferencing skills to L2 inferencing tasks<br />how to use world knowledge in L2 listening <br />how to use context to infer logical outcome<br />nonthreatening environment<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Listening Process - Stages<br />Pre - listening<br />While – listening <br />Post - listening<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Pre - Listening<br />Purpose of listening <br />Necessary background information<br />Activities:<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Pre - Listening<br />Studying a vocabulary list may not be an effective way of improving listening comprehension<br />Suggestion: provide learners with some type of brief summary before listening <br />15<br />
  16. 16. While - Listening<br />The aim is to help learners listen for meaning <br />Attention on listening itself<br />Marking/checking the items in pictures<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Post - Listening<br />Allow learners to reflect on the language from the passage<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Performingtoindicateunderstanding<br />More effective if they are constructed around a task<br />Dependent upon students' skills in listening<br />Drawing a picture<br />Matchingexercises<br />Physicalmovement<br />18<br />
  19. 19. Teachingratherthantesting<br />The emphasis should be more on functional listening toward the development of listening process, and less on memory and recall of details heard<br />19<br />
  20. 20. Real-life situations<br />Use materials cast in real-life situations for listening comprehension exercises<br />As close as possible to a "slice of life"<br />20<br />
  21. 21. Aural authenticmaterials<br />Definition: Unaltered texts that are generated by native speakers and for native speakers<br />Positive results when given opportunities to interact with authentic oral texts<br />Listening-comprehension improves with increased exposure to authentic speech<br />21<br />
  22. 22. Aural authenticmaterials<br />Blend with instructional materials<br />Importance of authentic oral texts very early in the language experience.<br />22<br />
  23. 23. Aural authenticmaterials<br />Proper instructional planning by the teacher<br />Students experience the rewards of learning a language<br />Positive effect on both comprehension and motivation<br />23<br />
  24. 24. Aural authenticmaterials<br />Challenge for the second-language teacher:<br />To identify authentic materials of potential interest to students <br />To prepare the students for dealing with these texts in a meaningful way<br />24<br />
  25. 25. Thank you!<br />25<br />