McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  All rights reserved.
Learning Objectives <ul><li>L01:  Behaviors managers need to motivate people </li></ul><ul><li>L02:  Principles for settin...
Motivating for Performance <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forces that energize, direct and sustain a person’s ef...
Goal Setting Theory <ul><li>Proposes that people have  conscious goals that energize them  and direct their thoughts and b...
Well-crafted goals are highly motivating <ul><li>Meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging but...
Stretch Goals <ul><li>Targets that are exceptionally demanding, and that some people would never even think of. </li></ul>...
Reinforcing Performance <ul><li>Law of effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law formulated by Edward Thorndike in 1911 </li></ul><...
Key Consequences of Behavior <ul><li>Positive reinforcement  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>applying a consequence that increas...
What do you want to reinforce? <ul><li>Solid solutions NOT quick fixes </li></ul><ul><li>Risk taking NOT risk avoiding </l...
Rewards <ul><li>Support the firm’s strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Relate people’s performance in relation to strategic objecti...
Should you punish mistakes? <ul><li>Appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Violation of law, ethical standards, important safety ru...
How to Manage Mistakes <ul><li>Recognize  that everyone makes mistakes  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle constructively by dis...
Performance-related Beliefs <ul><li>Expectancy theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people will behave based on their perceived li...
Managerial Implications of Expectancy Theory <ul><li>Increase expectancies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide work environment ...
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy 10-
Types of Motivation <ul><li>Extrinsic motivation   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rewards given to a person by the boss, the compan...
Designing Motivating Jobs <ul><li>Job rotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>changing from one routine task to another to alleviat...
Herzberg’s two-factor theory <ul><li>Proposed two broad categories of factors that affect people working on their jobs </l...
What is empowerment? <ul><li>The process of  sharing power with employees , thereby enhancing their confidence in their ab...
Equity Theory <ul><li>Proposes that people assess how fairly they have been treated according to two key factors </li></ul...
How people restore equity <ul><li>Reducing their inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Increase their outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Decrea...
Quality of work life programs <ul><li>Create workplace that enhances employee well-being and satisfaction </li></ul><ul><l...
 
Feedback should… <ul><li>Be useful  </li></ul><ul><li>Address your employee’s request for feedback </li></ul>10-
YOU should be able to <ul><li>L01:  Identify the kinds of behaviors managers need to motivate people </li></ul><ul><li>L02...
YOU should be able to <ul><li>L05:  Discuss ways in which people’s individual needs affect their behavior. </li></ul><ul><...
10-
Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Describe the characteristics of goals that most effectively motivate people.  </li></ul>10-
Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Identify four examples of people advertently </li></ul><ul><li>reinforcing the wrong behaviors...
Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Discuss the managerial implications of </li></ul><ul><li>expectancy theory.  Relate them speci...
Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>A difference between Maslow's Need Hierarchy and Alderfer's ERG Theory is that  </li></ul><ul>...
Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Compare and contrast job enlargement, job enrichment, and job rotation.  Give an example of ea...
Procedural Justice <ul><li>Using a fair process in decision making and making sure others know that the process was as fai...
Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Describe a time when you felt unfairly treated and explain why.  How did you respond to the in...
Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Identify the cause and consequences of a satisfied workforce. </li></ul>10-
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BUS137 Chapter 10

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BUS137 Chapter 10

  1. 1. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>L01: Behaviors managers need to motivate people </li></ul><ul><li>L02: Principles for setting goals that motivate employees </li></ul><ul><li>L03: How to reward good performance effectively </li></ul><ul><li>L04: Key beliefs that affect people’s motivation </li></ul><ul><li>L05: Ways in which people’s individual needs affect their behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>L06: Ways to create jobs that motivate. </li></ul><ul><li>L07: How people assess fairness and how to achieve fairness. </li></ul><ul><li>L08: Identify causes and consequences of a satisfied workforce. </li></ul>10-
  3. 3. Motivating for Performance <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forces that energize, direct and sustain a person’s efforts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizations want to motivate people to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Join the organization, and stay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Come to work regularly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work hard to achieve high output and high quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhibit good citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>be committed and perform above and beyond the call of duty to help the company </li></ul></ul></ul>10-
  4. 4. Goal Setting Theory <ul><li>Proposes that people have conscious goals that energize them and direct their thoughts and behaviors toward a particular end </li></ul>10-
  5. 5. Well-crafted goals are highly motivating <ul><li>Meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable </li></ul><ul><li>Challenging but Attainable </li></ul><ul><li>Specific and quantifiable </li></ul>10-
  6. 6. Stretch Goals <ul><li>Targets that are exceptionally demanding, and that some people would never even think of. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical stretch goals are aligned with current activities including productivity and financial results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal stretch goals involve people’s professional development, such as attempting and learning new, difficult things </li></ul></ul>10-
  7. 7. Reinforcing Performance <ul><li>Law of effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law formulated by Edward Thorndike in 1911 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior that is followed by positive consequences will likely be repeated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reinforcers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive consequences that motivate behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational behavior modification (OB mod) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application of reinforcement theory in organizational settings </li></ul></ul>10-
  8. 8. Key Consequences of Behavior <ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>applying a consequence that increases the likelihood that the person will repeat the behavior that led to it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>removing or withholding an undesirable consequence. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>administering an aversive consequence. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Extinction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>withdrawing or failing to provide a reinforcing consequence. </li></ul></ul></ul>10-
  9. 9. What do you want to reinforce? <ul><li>Solid solutions NOT quick fixes </li></ul><ul><li>Risk taking NOT risk avoiding </li></ul><ul><li>Applied creativity NOT mindless conformity </li></ul><ul><li>Decision action NOT analysis paralysis </li></ul><ul><li>Smart work NOT busywork </li></ul><ul><li>Simplification NOT needless complication </li></ul><ul><li>Quietly effective behavior NOT squeaky wheels </li></ul><ul><li>Quality work NOT fast work </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty NOT turnover </li></ul><ul><li>Working together NOT working against </li></ul>10-
  10. 10. Rewards <ul><li>Support the firm’s strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Relate people’s performance in relation to strategic objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Can be nonmonetary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intellectual challenge, greater responsibility, autonomy, recognition, flexible benefits, and greater influence over decisions </li></ul></ul>10-
  11. 11. Should you punish mistakes? <ul><li>Appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Violation of law, ethical standards, important safety rules </li></ul><ul><li>When employees perform like a slacker </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate </li></ul><ul><li>When poor performance is not the individual’s fault </li></ul><ul><li>When managers take out their frustrations on the wrong people </li></ul>10-
  12. 12. How to Manage Mistakes <ul><li>Recognize that everyone makes mistakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle constructively by discussing and learning from them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Praise people who deliver based news to their bosses </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t punish, unsuccessful good-faith efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage people to try new things and don’t punish them if what they try doesn’t work out. </li></ul>10-
  13. 13. Performance-related Beliefs <ul><li>Expectancy theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people will behave based on their perceived likelihood that their effort will lead to a certain outcome and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on how highly they value that outcome. </li></ul></ul>10- <ul><ul><li>Effort  Performance  Outcome </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Managerial Implications of Expectancy Theory <ul><li>Increase expectancies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide work environment that facilitates good performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set realistically attainable performance goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify positively valent outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand want people want to get out of work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make performance instrumental toward positive outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow good performance by personal recognition and praise, favorable performance reviewers, pay increases, and other positive results </li></ul></ul>10-
  15. 15. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy 10-
  16. 16. Types of Motivation <ul><li>Extrinsic motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rewards given to a person by the boss, the company or some other person - EXTERNAL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rewards a worker derives directly from performing the job itself - INTERNAL </li></ul></ul>10-
  17. 17. Designing Motivating Jobs <ul><li>Job rotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>changing from one routine task to another to alleviate boredom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job enlargement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving people additional tasks at the same time to alleviate boredom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job enrichment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing a task to make it inherently more rewarding, motivating, and satisfying </li></ul></ul>10-
  18. 18. Herzberg’s two-factor theory <ul><li>Proposed two broad categories of factors that affect people working on their jobs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hygiene factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workplace characteristics that can make people dissatisfied </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Company policies, working conditions, pay, and supervision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Factors that make a job more motivating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Additional job responsibilities, opportunities for personal growth and recognition, and feelings of achievement </li></ul></ul></ul>10-
  19. 19. What is empowerment? <ul><li>The process of sharing power with employees , thereby enhancing their confidence in their ability to perform their jobs and their belief that they are influential contributors to the organization. </li></ul>10-
  20. 20. Equity Theory <ul><li>Proposes that people assess how fairly they have been treated according to two key factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcomes – various things the person receives on the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs – contributions the person makes to the organization </li></ul></ul>10-
  21. 21. How people restore equity <ul><li>Reducing their inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Increase their outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease others’ outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Increase others’ inputs </li></ul>10-
  22. 22. Quality of work life programs <ul><li>Create workplace that enhances employee well-being and satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfy the full range of employee needs </li></ul>10-
  23. 24. Feedback should… <ul><li>Be useful </li></ul><ul><li>Address your employee’s request for feedback </li></ul>10-
  24. 25. YOU should be able to <ul><li>L01: Identify the kinds of behaviors managers need to motivate people </li></ul><ul><li>L02: List principles for setting goals that motivate employees </li></ul><ul><li>L03: Summarize how to reward good performance effectively </li></ul><ul><li>L04: Describe the key beliefs that affect people’s motivation </li></ul>10-
  25. 26. YOU should be able to <ul><li>L05: Discuss ways in which people’s individual needs affect their behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>L06: Define ways to create jobs that motivate. </li></ul><ul><li>L07: Summarize how people assess fairness and how to achieve fairness. </li></ul><ul><li>L08: Identify causes and consequences of a satisfied workforce. </li></ul>10-
  26. 27. 10-
  27. 28. Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Describe the characteristics of goals that most effectively motivate people. </li></ul>10-
  28. 29. Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Identify four examples of people advertently </li></ul><ul><li>reinforcing the wrong behaviors, or </li></ul><ul><li>punishing or extinguishing good behaviors </li></ul>10-
  29. 30. Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Discuss the managerial implications of </li></ul><ul><li>expectancy theory. Relate them specifically </li></ul><ul><li>to expectancy theory. </li></ul>10-
  30. 31. Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>A difference between Maslow's Need Hierarchy and Alderfer's ERG Theory is that </li></ul><ul><li>A) ERG theory states that various needs operate simultaneously. </li></ul><ul><li>B) Maslow's hierarchy has more scientific validity. </li></ul><ul><li>C) Maslow's hierarchy reminds managers that even if one need seems to motivate people, other needs may still need attention. </li></ul><ul><li>D) ERG theory focuses on five levels of need. </li></ul><ul><li>E) only Maslow's theory serves to remind managers of the types of reinforcers that can be used to motivate people. </li></ul>10-
  31. 32. Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Compare and contrast job enlargement, job enrichment, and job rotation. Give an example of each. </li></ul>10-
  32. 33. Procedural Justice <ul><li>Using a fair process in decision making and making sure others know that the process was as fair as possible. </li></ul>10-
  33. 34. Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Describe a time when you felt unfairly treated and explain why. How did you respond to the inequity? What other options might you have had? </li></ul>10-
  34. 35. Test Your Knowledge <ul><li>Identify the cause and consequences of a satisfied workforce. </li></ul>10-

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