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The Eurobachelor and Euromaster Children of the Bologna Process


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As part of the work in the EU project "Tuning Educational Structures in Europe", the European Chemistry Thematic Network ECTN developed a framework for a first cycle qualification in chemistry, the "Eurobachelor®". Following on from the successful introduction of the Eurobachelor® Label, the European Chemistry Thematic Network ECTN has now also developed a framework for a second cycle qualification in chemistry, the "Euromaster®".
The Chemistry Quality Eurolabels Official Website for the Eurobachelor®, Euromaster® and Eurodoctorate is

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The Eurobachelor and Euromaster Children of the Bologna Process

  1. 1. Dr Ray Wallace School of Biomedical and Natural Sciences Nottingham Trent University, UK ECTN Management Committee ASET Executive Committee
  2. 2. The Eurobachelor® and Euromaster – Children of the Bologna Process
  3. 3. Presentation divided into 3 parts <ul><li>‘ The story of the chemists’ </li></ul><ul><li>The wider picture </li></ul><ul><li>Visions of the future for sandwich education </li></ul>
  4. 4. Part 1: The Story of the Chemists
  5. 5. The Eurobachelor Cometh Raymond G Wallace The Nottingham Trent University & The European Chemistry Thematic Network At a sometime UK Chemistry meeting in 2004………
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Eurobachelor ® has arrived </li></ul>18 months later at an Irish Chemistry meeting ………
  7. 7. Eurobachelor® A Trademark registered by the European Chemistry Thematic Network Association
  8. 8. The beginnings …………… TUNING
  9. 9. The ‘Tuning Project’ is the HE institutions answer to the political decisions underlying the Bologna process It involves almost 150 HE institutions in 9 subject area groups; apart from chemistry, these are: physics, mathematics, history, earth sciences, business, education sciences, nursing, European studies The chemistry Eurobachelor® is a product of Tuning
  10. 10. Aspects of the degree programme considered in the Chemistry Eurobachelor <ul><li>Learning outcomes (adapted from QAA benchmarks–UK) </li></ul><ul><li>Modularisation </li></ul><ul><li>Credit distribution </li></ul><ul><li>ECTS and student workload </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of Teaching and Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment, Grading </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Assurance </li></ul>
  11. 11. Credit distribution: <ul><li>At least 150 of the 180 credits should deal with chemistry, physics, biology or mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory modules (total of at least 90 credits): </li></ul><ul><li>Organic chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Physical chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Biological chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Physics, Mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-optional modules (a minimum of 3 modules - 15 credits) from: </li></ul><ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Computational chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical technology </li></ul><ul><li>Macromolecular chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>… .and others, depending on the institution </li></ul>
  12. 12. The developers ………….. ECTN Association
  13. 13. ECTN is a network with over 120 members from 33 countries; apart from universities these include nine national chemical societies (DE, FR, GB, IT, NL, CS, SK, LT, SI) ECTN also exists in the form of an Association under Belgian law - and is the ACCREDITATION BODY for the Eurobachelor® Both the Network and the Association are open to the chemical community; further member institutions, chemical societies or other chemistry-interested organisations are always welcome to join the organisation
  14. 14. International Accreditation Networks ENQA European Network for Quality Assurance ECA European Consortium for Accreditation ECTN (Eurobachelor-Label) European Chemistry Thematic Network Association More than 200 chemical societies and HEI in Europe ENAEE ( ' EUR-ACE ' -Label) European Network for the Accreditation of Engineering Education All European Engineering Accreditation Agencies + FEANI, SEFI, CESAER, EUROCADRE S etc. Washington Accord Engineering education accreditation process Field Specific Generic More than 40 members in Europe, mostly Quality Assurance/Accreditation Agencies + National Unions of Students in Europe (ESIB), European University Association (EUA), European Association of Institutions in Higher Education (EURASHE), European Centre for Higher Education (UNESCO-CEPES) and the Union of Industrial and Employers’ Confederations of Europe (UNICE). European Scale Global Scale INQAAHE International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education Österreichischer Akkreditierungsrat, Austria; Fachhochschulrat, Austria; Akkreditierungsrat, Germany; ZEvA, Germany; FIBAA,Germany; ACQUIN, Germany; AQAS, Germany; AHPGS, Germany; The Higher Education and Training Awards Council (HETAC), Ireland; Nederlands-Vlaamse Accreditatie Organisatie (NVAO), the Netherlands/Flanders; Nasjonalt organ for kvalitet i utdanningen (NOKUT), Norway; Agencia Nacional de Evaluación de la Calidad y Acreditación (ANECA), Spain; Organ für Akkreditierung und Qualitätssicherung der Schweizerischen Hochschulen (OAQ), Switzerland
  15. 15. The Eurobachelor - timeline <ul><li>2001-2002: developed by Tuning Chemistry Subject Area Group </li></ul><ul><li>May 2002: presented at Closing Meeting of Tuning Phase One in Brussels </li></ul><ul><li>April 2003: adopted by ECTN Association Assembly in Prague </li></ul><ul><li>October 2003: adopted by FECS (now EuCheMS) General Assembly (…from Cork to Vladivostok) </li></ul><ul><li>April 2004: ECTN Association decides to offer ‘Eurobachelor Label’ to interested institutions </li></ul><ul><li>September 2004: application to EU Commission for funding of pilot project for accreditation of the ‘Chemistry Eurobachelor Label’ accepted </li></ul><ul><li>March 2006: end of pilot project </li></ul><ul><li>Currently: ongoing discussions with European accreditation agencies for franchising the award of the Eurobachelor® Label </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>The Eurobachelor is about quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>: defining reference points on an international basis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Eurobachelor is about quality assurance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>: evaluation and accreditation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Eurobachelor is about autonomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>: not a straitjacket but a framework to be applied as the institution wishes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Eurobachelor is about flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>: it can readily be adapted as the needs of the subject change </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>The Eurobachelor is about transparency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>: together with the Diploma Supplement it is an easily understood qualification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Eurobachelor is about mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>: it makes it possible for the graduate to move easily within Europe, but also almost certainly throughout the world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Eurobachelor is about recognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>: even if the Lisbon convention is in force, institutions need to apply it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Eurobachelor is based on ECTS and its correct application </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>February 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>DS </li></ul><ul><li> UNDER DISCUSSION </li></ul>DIPLOMA SUPPLEMENT
  19. 19. Planned or realised (as of Feb. 2005):  Ba = 180 ECTS  Ba = 240 ECTS  VARIABLE  ONE TIER LENGTH OF THE FIRST CYCLE
  20. 20. Quality Assurance: the ‘ Eurobachelor ® Label’ <ul><li>The Chemistry Eurobachelor - A framework for a European first-cycle degree in chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>In summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It defines which competences a programme seeks to develop, or what its graduates should be able to know, to understand, and to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is an aid to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>transparency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the development of better-defined degrees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the development of systems of recognition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>employability </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Label Committee is drawn from Chemistry Departments in the universities of <ul><li>Complutense, Madrid </li></ul><ul><li>Dortmund </li></ul><ul><li>Institute of Chemistry, Prague </li></ul><ul><li>Jagiellonian University, Krakow </li></ul><ul><li>Technical University, Vienna </li></ul><ul><li>Venice </li></ul><ul><li>University M.-C Sklodowska, Lublin </li></ul><ul><li>Technical University of Dresden </li></ul><ul><li>Thessaloniki </li></ul><ul><li>Helsinki </li></ul>
  22. 25. ……… we have a template for a 3 year bachelor degree programme which is starting to gain a foothold in Europe
  23. 26. Importantly the ‘ Eurobachelor ® Label’ is a trademark and as such does not apply to a particular subject discipline….. <ul><li>It applies to any first cycle degree programme </li></ul><ul><li>If other disciplines wish to award the label to their first cycle degree programmes, they have to apply to the European Chemistry Thematic Network Association to obtain permission to use the label </li></ul>
  24. 27. … .things however have the habit of moving on In the autumn of last year the European Chemistry Thematic Association launched its Euromaster programme for which funding has been received from the European Commission This label programme is expected to take off rapidly
  25. 28. … .things however have the habit of moving on A Chemistry Eurodoctorate Framework discussion document was issued in November 2006
  26. 29. Part 2: The wider picture
  27. 30. European Universities Implementing Bologna … from the Trends IV document published by the European University Association in 2005 (acknowledgement Sybille Reichert, Christian Tauch) and Kate Geddie EUA Programme Manager … from the Trends IV document published by the European University Association in 2005 (acknowledgement Sybille Reichert, Christian Tauch ) and Kate Geddie EUA Programme Manager
  28. 31. Degree Structures: Implementation of BA/MA/BSc/MSc at national level <ul><li>Almost all countries have by now introduced the two cycles system </li></ul><ul><li>Need for reforms is perceived very differently by the various disciplines and faculties: e.g. humanities, regulated professions </li></ul><ul><li>Only medicine generally still excluded in most countries, but also teacher training and other disciplines still cause problems </li></ul><ul><li>In some countries subject-specific coordination groups or pilot projects were considered very helpful for curricular development </li></ul>
  29. 32. Degree Structures: Attitudes in Higher Education Institutes <ul><li>Most HEIs see advantages of the two cycles system </li></ul><ul><li>Still a challenge: reorientation of curricula, focusing of contents </li></ul><ul><li>In most HEI staff supported the underlying ideas of problem-based learning, a student-centred approach etc., even if they were critical of various aspects of the implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Only in few HEI academics complained: Bologna was imposed on them, by the institutional leadership and/or by the ministry </li></ul><ul><li>The introduction of BA/MA, modularisation, ECTS, etc. often implies a lot of extra work also for administrations Even ‘pro-Bologna’ staff ask for incentives, extra funding </li></ul>
  30. 33. Degree Structures: Bachelor level (first cycle) <ul><li>Misconception that Bologna ‘prescribes’ in any way 3+2 </li></ul><ul><li>Some scepticism about academic value of 3 year degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Content of traditional 4 (or 5) year programmes often compressed into 3 year: students fail and validates professor scepticism </li></ul><ul><li>Justified concern about ‘one size fits all’ approach taken by many national laws imposing 3 year Bachelors : Some disciplines request more autonomy in designing their degree programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion still centred on nominal duration , not outcomes: Some universities don’t want to award same degrees as professional sector </li></ul>
  31. 34. Degree Structures: Bachelor level (first cycle) <ul><li>BA/BSc graduates: labour market or Masters studies? Huge differences between countries. In UK, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Turkey first degrees are well accepted by labour market </li></ul><ul><li>In many HEI students felt badly informed about value of a Bachelors and plan to go for a Masters, often supported by professors </li></ul><ul><li>Universities in some binary systems fear competition from polytechnics: Poly-Bachelor can be more attractive to employers (practical experience) </li></ul><ul><li>Need for more dialogue with employers regarding Bachelor, including governments that must give clear examples in public service employment (career, service grades, salary) </li></ul>
  32. 35. Degree Structures: Master level (second cycle) <ul><li>Despite Bologna-Consensus (300 ECTS): huge variety </li></ul><ul><li>Re-questioning: international competitiveness of 180+60 ECTS </li></ul><ul><li>300+ ECTS programmes continue to be popular in some countries (PL, HG) and disciplines (medicine, engineering) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Stand-alone’ Masters still the exception </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency to create too many Masters programmes: no institutional strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Masters programme often designed with narrow focus on preceding first cycle programmes. Vertical mobility as a threat, not opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Students worried about (lack of) public funding for Masters </li></ul>
  33. 36. The two types of recognition systems in Europe I The Continental European Tradition Having successfully passed an Engineering study programme at an institution of higher education qualifies the graduate to automatically become an engineer. II The Anglo-Saxon Tradition You must graduate successfully from an engineering study programme, you then will have to establish proof of a certain period of further training on the job and finally there will be formal test/interview by two well established colleagues. Degree Structures: Professional recognition
  34. 37. Degree Structures: Modularisation and Learning Outcomes <ul><li>No European ‘template’ for creating course modules </li></ul><ul><li>Many HEI have modularised their programmes (ECTS, TUNING) </li></ul><ul><li>Students welcome the concept of modularisation but complain it often has been done superficially, not leading to more flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Bachelors curricula seem often more rigidly structured than traditional ones (many compulsory subjects and contact hours) </li></ul><ul><li>In some HEI only vague notions of Learning Outcomes exist (esp. professors & students) </li></ul><ul><li>Context of Learning Outcomes: Very positive reference to qualifications frameworks (QF) in DK and UK (curricular development, recognition) </li></ul>
  35. 38. Key Facts <ul><li>According to the European University Association two thirds of institutions have decided to adopt the Bologna reforms as their own reform agenda </li></ul><ul><li>In a third of European countries the Bologna reforms form an integral part of a wider review of the entire HE system, according to national rectors‘ conferences </li></ul><ul><li>The Bologna Process is slowly but surely moving forward within Europe </li></ul>
  36. 39. .….so in the medium term we are likely to see a 3+2+3 system embedded throughout Europe (In practice many institutions will probably continue to operate effectively an integrated 5 year ‘Master’ process) (In practice many institutions will probably continue to operate effectively an integrated 5 year ‘Master’ process)
  37. 40. Part 3 :
  38. 41. What does all this mean for sandwich education? <ul><li>In the UK, in the short term probably very little </li></ul><ul><li>In Continental Europe, in the short term, again probably very little </li></ul>
  39. 42. What does all this mean for sandwich education? <ul><li>In the UK, in the long term possibly the advent of change as to when and how we do things </li></ul><ul><li>In Continental Europe, in the long term, possibly new developments </li></ul>
  40. 43. What does all this mean for sandwich education? <ul><li>Although Bologna does not preclude 4 year programmes, 3 year Bachelor programmes are likely to become the ‘norm’ </li></ul><ul><li>Sandwich education as we know it in the UK, is, with a few notable exceptions, not practised widely throughout Continental Europe – where it is seen, training periods tend to be of relatively short duration </li></ul><ul><li>It is thus unlikely that we will see any sandwich Eurobachelors gaining hold </li></ul>
  41. 44. What does all this mean for sandwich education? <ul><li>Continental Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditionally university students have entered employment at the Masters & many at the PhD level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is unlikely to be any change in this practice in the medium term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is an appreciation in many countries however that their young people are relatively old when they enter industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditionally the majority of students, particularly in the arts & related disciplines have entered work at the Bachelors level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is unlikely to be any change in this practice in the medium term </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is an increasing concern by a number of employers that undergraduates at the end of year 2 have a relatively poor subject knowledge when they start their sandwich training </li></ul></ul>
  42. 45. What does all this mean for sandwich education? <ul><li>Continental Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A shift to see that the normal ‘exit point’ from university is at Masters level could be pursued if governments and employers seriously wish to do something about this age profile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This might be tempting to employers if the masters programmes additionally contained work experience so that academic knowledge could be married with ‘hands on’ experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UK </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In science 4 year undergraduate are common (MChem, MPhys etc) and there are 5 year variants where a sandwich year is additionally taken </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The idea that sandwich education could be incorporated in a 2 year Masters programme might be an attractive proposition (at least for the sciences) – more academically knowledgeable students </li></ul></ul>
  43. 46. What does all this mean for sandwich education? <ul><ul><ul><li>If the UK and Continental were to move in these directions we could have a model for practically orientated education aimed at the world of work that might harmonise the two different traditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 year Eurobachelor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 year Euromaster incorporating sandwich education </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 47. Thank you for listening We hope that you have found this presentation useful The Educational Techniques Group Dyer’s Broom ( Genista Tinctoria ) Thank you for listening. I hope that you have found this presentation useful. Questions Discussion