Chapter 6_ED450

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Chapter 6 is based on using guidelines to keep in mind for teachers as they create their own test items. The information presented in my opinion were very useful and can certainly be referenced.

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  • Just like Moses identifying the 10 commandments, educators have created the 5 commandments for item-writing.
  • Thou shall not provide opaque directions to students regarding how to respond to your assessment instruments. If you don’t state directions clearly, how are students going to understand.
  • Thou shall not employ ambiguous statements in your assessment items. Ambiguous - Open to more than one interpretation; having a double meaning.
  • Thou shall not provide students with unintentional clues regarding appropriate responses. How you word something could lead to the answer even if the student didn’t understand or learn that concept. Does not effectively measure skills and abilities, flawed.
  • Thou shall not employ complex syntax in your assessment items. Syntax - The pattern of formation of sentences or phrases in a language.
  • Thou shall not use vocabulary that is more advanced than required.
  • Thou shall not use vocabulary that is more advanced than required.
  • 10 minute activity:3-4 minutes of creating idea. 5-6 minutes to share with the class.
  • Example strip
  • Guidelines for creating a test, things to avoid, appropriate things to put in, what never to do, and so on.
  • First series of item-writing guidelines
  • Weakness: just need to find the answer, they don’t necessarily think of it on their own. However, multiple choice tests when written properly, are still deemed very effective measurement tools
  • Stem-question, alternative – options, distractors – wrong answers
  • 4 GROUPS – Binary choice, multiple binary choice, multiple choice, matching items.
  • Thumbs up, down, and nahh.
  • Chapter 6_ED450

    1. 1. WELCOME ED 450-01 CLASS! Agenda  Introduction  Reflection  Mini Lecture  Activity  Mini Lecture  Activity  Conclusion
    2. 2. Chapter 6Selected-Response Tests Dora Jo Ada ED450-01 Soledad Camacho Fall 2012
    3. 3. NORMS Respect others Cell phones and other electronic devices on silent or put away One person speaks at a time Active and positive participation Have fun learning !
    4. 4. Student Learning Objectives Identify the five(5) general item-writing commandments. Differentiate between binary-choice items, multiple binary-choice items, multiple choice items, and matching pairs Discuss and identify appropriate ways of creating a test with the item-writing guidelines.
    5. 5. ReflectionReflect back to past experiences when you were in the classroom. Have you ever had that one teacher whose tests were made to set you up for failure? What were your feelings towards that class?Take a couple of minutes. Be ready to share with the class.
    6. 6. Five (5) General Item-Writing Commandments1. Thou shall not provide opaque directions to students regarding how to respond to your assessment instruments.2. Thou shall not employ ambiguous statements in your assessment items.3. Thou shall not provide students with unintentional clues regarding appropriate responses.4. Thou shall not employ complex syntax in your assessment items.5. Thou shall not use vocabulary that is more advanced than required.
    7. 7. Opaque Directions o·paque[oh-peyk] Show IPA adjective, noun, verb, o·paqued, o·paqu·ing. adjective1. not transparent or translucent; impenetrable to light; not allowing light to pass through.2. not transmitting radiation, sound, heat, etc.3. not shining or bright; dark; dull.4. hard to understand; not clear or lucid; obscure: The problem remains opaque despite explanations.5. dull, stupid, or unintelligent.(Reference taken from Dictionary.com) Unclear test-taking directions lead to confused test takers(Popham, 2011, p. 140-141)
    8. 8. Ambiguous Statements In all kinds of assessments, this is to be avoided. Leads to misinterpretation Keep in mind…  Of how wording sounds  Look at the test from your students’ perspective  Modify statements that may sound even the slightest ambiguous(Popham, 2011, p. 141)
    9. 9. Unintended Clues Intentionally avoid something unintentional! Teachers tend to create unintentional cues for students about appropriate responses, therefore, allowing for a student to answer the question correctly without attaining the knowledge(Popham, 2011, p. 141)
    10. 10. Complex Syntax Avoid complicated sentence construction WHY?  Lessen the confusion Keep it concise, simple, and easy to understand!(Popham, 2011, p. 142)
    11. 11. Difficult Vocabulary One must circumlocute a disarranged pronouncement of systemization.
    12. 12. Difficult Vocabulary In other words… Avoid complicated sentence construction. Vocabulary should be kept at an appropriate level where students understand the content.(Popham, 2011, p. 143)
    13. 13. Any questions,comments, and/orconcerns so far?
    14. 14. Role PlayHaving just learned the five commandments of item writing, you will be divided into five groups.Your group will be demonstrating teachers breaking these commandments.
    15. 15. ITEM-WRITINGGUIDELINES
    16. 16. Binary-Choice Items Gives the students only two options from which to select***binary – double or dual Forms of binary-choice items:  True/false  Yes/no  Accurate/inaccurate  Fact/opinion  Correct/incorrect(Popham, 2011, p. 143)
    17. 17. Item-Writing Guidelines for Binary-Choice Items1. Phrase items so that a superficial analysis by the student suggests a wrong answer2. Rarely use negative statements; never use double negatives3. Include only one(1) concept in each statement4. Have an approximately equal number of items representing the two(2) categories being tested5. Keep item length similar for both categories being tested(Popham, 2011, p. 144)
    18. 18. Multiple binary-choice item A cluster of items are presented to the student requiring a binary response to each items in the cluster Formatted similarly to a multiple choice question, but requires two(2) answers(Popham, 2011, p. 145)
    19. 19. Item-Writing Guidelines for Multiple Binary-Choice Items In addition to the guidelines explained, teachers must be aware of the following when constructing a test that consists of two(2) answers:1. Separate item clusters vividly from one another.2. Make certain that each item meshes well with the cluster’s stimulus material.(Popham, 2011, p. 146)
    20. 20. Multiple-Choice Items Measures a student’s possession of knowledge or a student’s ability to engage in higher thinking Contains several answers differing in relative correctness Students make subtle distinctions among answer options Weakness: Students recognize the answer and don’t generate it
    21. 21. Multiple-Choice Items Stem: part preceding the response option, also known as the stimulus material. Item alternatives: potential answer options Distractors: incorrect alternatives When creating the item stem, make it a direct question or an incomplete sentence.(Popham, 2011, p. 148)
    22. 22. Example1. Our instructor’s name for ED450-01 is…a. Ms. Solidad Camachob. Mr. Soledad Camachoc. Ms. Soledad Camachod. Ms. Soledod Camacho
    23. 23. Item-Writing Guidelines for Multiple-Choice Items1. The stem should consist of a self-contained question or problem.2. Avoid negative stated stems.3. Do not let the length of alternatives supply unintentional clues.4. Randomly assign correct answers to alternative positions.5. Never use “all of the above” alternatives, but do use “none of the above” alternatives to increase item difficulty.(Popham, 2011, p. 149)
    24. 24. Matching Items Consists of two(2) parallel lists of words or phrases requiring the student to match entries on one list with appropriate entries on the second list. Easily scored by simply holding a correct answer template next to the list of premises where students are to supply theirs selections from the list of responses.(Popham, 2011, p. 153)
    25. 25. Item-Writing Guidelines for Matching Items1. Employ homogeneous lists.2. Use relative brief lists. Placing the shorter words or phrases at the right.3. Employ more responses and not promises.4. Describe the basic for matching and the number of times a response may be used.5. Place all premises and responses for an item on a single page.(Popham, 2011, p. 154)
    26. 26. Activity TimeDivided into four groups, create an example test question following the guidelines for item-writing.You may pick a subject of your choice, and when ready for presentation, assign one to two people to come to the board, write the question out, and explain how the item was created.
    27. 27. Referring Back…Did we… Identify the five(5) general item-writing commandments? Differentiate between binary-choice items, multiple binary-choice items, multiple choice items, and patching pairs? Discuss and identify appropriate ways of creating a test with the item-writing guidelines?
    28. 28. Thank You !!!
    29. 29. ReferencesPopham, W. J. (2011). Classroom Assessment: What Teachers Need to Know 6th ED. Boston, MA. Pearson.Reference taken from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/opaqueComic strip taken from http://www.cartoonstock.com/directory/t/test_taking.a spPicture taken from http://www.servitokss.com/question- marks/Picture taken from http://app.downloadatoz.com/iphone/the-super-

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