Dave’s Revision Notes    Programmable Systems                           Gary Plimer 2004
Programmable Systems Outcome 3Outcome 3 - Microcontroller Controlled Mechatronic SystemsSection 1 – IntroductionThe purpos...
Programmable Systems Outcome           3What is a microcontroller?                      REVISIONA microcontroller is often...
Programmable Systems Outcome          3What is a microcontroller?                  REVISIONMicrocontrollers are usually pr...
Programmable Systems Outcome          3What is a microcontroller?                   REVISIONOne microcontroller can often ...
Programmable Systems Outcome                    3Microcontroller Architecture                                             ...
Programmable Systems Outcome            3Microcontroller Architecture - TerminologyArithmetic / Logic Unit (ALU) and Clock...
Programmable Systems Outcome         3Microcontroller Architecture - Terminology Microcontrollers contain both ROM (perman...
Programmable Systems Outcome           3Microcontroller Architecture - TerminologyRAMRandom Access Memory, is temporary me...
Programmable Systems Outcome           3Microcontroller Architecture - TerminologyInput/Output Circuitry (I/O Ports)Microc...
Programmable Systems Outcome                      3  The Basic Stamp                                                      ...
Programmable Systems Outcome            3Programming Procedure•         Write the program on a    host computer using the ...
Programmable Systems Outcome         3Pupil Assignment no.1•       List the advantages of using a microcontroller within a...
Programmable Systems Outcome 1 Outcome 3 - Microcontroller Controlled Mechatronic SystemsSection 2 - Number SystemsThe pur...
Programmable Systems Outcome          3 Number SystemsMicrocontrollers only recognises the two electronic states high and ...
Programmable Systems Outcome          3 Number Systems NotationBefore we introduce different number systems, we need to he...
Programmable Systems Outcome           3  Number SystemsBits and BytesEight bits grouped together are described as a byte....
Programmable Systems Outcome        3Pupil Assignment No.2 Convert each of the following binary numbers into decimal:     ...
Programmable Systems Outcome        3Pupil Assignment No.2 Convert each of these decimal numbers into binary:         17  ...
Programmable Systems Outcome         3Hexadecimal Number SystemWriting binary numbers in groups of eight bits is quite tim...
Programmable Systems Outcome3   Decimal   Binary   Hexadecimal      0      0000          0      1      0001          1    ...
Programmable Systems Outcome       3Converting Binary to Hexadecimal       Divide the binary number into groups of nibble...
Programmable Systems Outcome        3Pupil Assignment No.2 Convert the following binary numbers to hexadecimal:         %1...
Programmable Systems Outcome      3Converting Hexadecimal to BinaryConvert &AF into binaryDivide into separate digits     ...
Programmable Systems Outcome 3Converting Decimal to HexConvert 450 to HexThink about base 16,                  163       1...
Programmable Systems Outcome 1Outcome 3 - Microcontroller Controlled MechatronicSystemsSection 3 - Simple Control Routines...
Programmable Systems Outcome          3Port Addressing and the Data Direction RegisterMicrocontrollers communicate with th...
Programmable Systems Outcome             3Port Addressing and the Data Direction Register input/output pin          7     ...
Programmable Systems Outcome            3The Data Direction Register (DDR)Each pin can be configured to be an output (to s...
Programmable Systems Outcome           3                                             S TA R TBeginning Programming        ...
Programmable Systems Outcome            3 Beginning ProgrammingA PBASIC program which would achieve this control operation...
Programmable Systems Outcome          3                                                      S TA R TLabels and Addressing...
Programmable Systems Outcome            3                                                        S TA R T  Labels and Addr...
Programmable Systems Outcome             3Labels and Addressing (Continued)Activity 1Key in, download and run the program ...
Programmable Systems Outcome           3Assignment 1What is the function of the Data Direction Register (DDR)?What is mean...
Programmable Systems Outcome           3Assignment 2 A set of temporary traffic lights are required for a system of road-w...
Programmable Systems Outcome            3                     S TA R TAssignment 3                                        ...
Programmable Systems Outcome           3                                                   S TA R TFor...Next Loops       ...
Programmable Systems Outcome             3For...Next Loops Activity Study the following program. In your own words, write ...
Programmable Systems Outcome           3Assignment 4                                         3 A buggy is to follow the pa...
Programmable Systems Outcome             3Assignment 5                                       Input      Pin    Output     ...
Programmable Systems Outcome               3                    S TA R TIf...Then... command                              ...
Programmable Systems Outcome               3If...Then... CommandActivity   Key in, download and run the program listed bel...
Programmable Systems Outcome          3                                                 S TA R T                          ...
Programmable Systems Outcome         3Assignment 7           A motor, connected to pin 7, is to run when a start          ...
Programmable Systems Outcome               3 Assignment 8Connect 2 motors to the output                                   ...
Programmable Systems Outcome         3                                                        S TA R T                   D...
Programmable Systems Outcome            3                                                        FLASHSub-Procedures      ...
Programmable Systems Outcome            3 ActivityKey in, download and run the following program.init:    let dirs = %1000...
Programmable Systems Outcome            3 Activity Continuedflash:         for b2 = 1 to b1            setup a for...next ...
Programmable Systems Outcome          3Activity Continued  One further advantage of sub-procedures is that they are easily...
Programmable Systems Outcome            3Assignment 10As part of a shop display, a lighting sequence is to be controlled b...
Programmable Systems Outcome           3Assignment 10 continuedIf switch 1 is pressed, each light should flash on and off ...
Programmable Systems Outcome           3Assignment 11A sequence of events for the operation of the washingmachine is given...
Programmable Systems Outcome            3                                                       M A IN S W A TE RAssignmen...
Programmable Systems Outcome         3Assignment 12 continued             Input        Pin     Output           Connection...
Programmable Systems Outcome        3Event    Operator Action      Control Activity1        Load conveyer with         bat...
Programmable Systems Outcome          3Assignment 12 continued(a) Based on the instructions given in the table, draw up a ...
Programmable Systems Outcome            3Specialised CommandsThe PBASIC language also containssome specialised commandsded...
Programmable Systems Outcome           3Specialised CommandsFor example, to send the word "Hello"out of pin 7, the PBASIC ...
Programmable Systems Outcome             3Activity     Enter and run the following programinit:      let dirs = %10000000 ...
Programmable Systems Outcome             3Activity     Enter and run the following programsymbol counter = b0             ...
Programmable Systems Outcome           3Assignment 13Connect two switches to the input module, and the serial LCD module, ...
Programmable Systems Outcome          3Assignment 13 solution                         STAR T                              ...
Programmable Systems Outcome           3symbol counter = b0                       define the variableinit:   let dirs = %1...
Programmable Systems Outcome 1     Outcome 3 - Microcontroller Controlled Mechatronic     SystemsSection 4 - Mechatronic S...
Programmable Systems Outcome          3Mechatronic System Interfacing Circuits Vt                           The microcontr...
Programmable Systems Outcome           3Mechatronic System Interfacing Circuits  The ULN2803A integrated circuit can be ve...
Programmable Systems Outcome           3Mechatronic System Interfacing Circuits  For devices which use larger currents (e....
Programmable Systems Outcome              3Connecting Digital Switches + 5V                                               ...
Programmable Systems Outcome           3Assignment 14  Draw appropriate interfacing circuit diagrams for the following  ou...
Programmable Systems Outcome              3                                                S TA R TAssignment 14Write, and...
Programmable Systems Outcome            3Stepper MotorsStepper motors are very accurate motors that arecommonly used in co...
Programmable Systems Outcome            3Stepper MotorsThere are two main types of stepper motors -unipolar and bipolar. U...
Programmable Systems Outcome           3                                                                                  ...
Programmable Systems Outcome            3Assignment 15           Describe three products which may contain stepper motors...
Programmable Systems Outcome            3Assignment 16                                                  12V D C           ...
Programmable Systems Outcome 3The table below shows the four different steps required tomake the motor turn. Copy the tabl...
Programmable Systems Outcome              3Stepper Motor Driver IC                                                        ...
Programmable Systems Outcome                 3Activity, key in the following programsymbol direct = 5                     ...
Programmable Systems Outcome             3Activity, connect the MFA boards to theStamp as shown. Run the program.         ...
Programmable Systems Outcome               3Assignment 17Crystal glassware is decorated by cutting grooves on to the outsi...
Programmable Systems Outcome             3Assignment 17 continued  The system is to be controlled by a microcontroller. Wi...
Programmable Systems Outcome            3Assignment 17 continued        Input Connection           Pin          Output Con...
Programmable Systems Outcome            3Assignment 17 continued    Calculate the number of steps the stepper motor must r...
Programmable Systems Outcome               3Push-Pull Motor DriversThe L293D IC is a push-pulldriver and is included on th...
Programmable Systems Outcome             3Activity, key in and run the following programinit:   let dirs = %11110000      ...
Programmable Systems Outcome             3Assignment 18  A single block of material is to be moved continuously back and f...
Programmable Systems Outcome             3DC Motor Speed Control  The speed of a dc motor varies directly with the voltage...
Programmable Systems Outcome               3Digital to Analogue ConversionThe simplest way to control the speed of a DC mo...
Programmable Systems Outcome               3Digital to Analogue Conversion                                      binary   a...
Programmable Systems Outcome              3Digital to Analogue ConversionEach increase in the binary input produces a step...
Programmable Systems Outcome                3Activity, key in a run the program            symbol counter = b0            ...
Programmable Systems Outcome               3Pulse Width ModulationWith DAC, the voltage applied to the motor is directly v...
Programmable Systems Outcome                3 Pulse Width Modulation                                                VThe g...
Programmable Systems Outcome               3ActivityBuild the circuit as shown. This is most simply achieved byconnecting ...
Programmable Systems Outcome              3Soft Start of DC Motors              V                                         ...
Programmable Systems Outcome               3Soft Start of DC MotorsKey in, download and run the program listed below. This...
Programmable Systems Outcome               3                                               10K                            ...
Programmable Systems Outcome              3Assignment 20  A small dc motor, which is used to drive a model conveyer belt, ...
Programmable Systems Outcome           3Assignment 20                  Input      Pin   Output Connection                C...
Programmable Systems Outcome               3Analogue to Digital ConversionThe microcontroller can only process digital (hi...
Programmable Systems Outcome              3Voltage Reference                              5V                              ...
Programmable Systems Outcome              3Signal Conditioning                                      S IG N A L            ...
Programmable Systems Outcome              3ExampleThe following example shows how the gain of the operational circuit is t...
Programmable Systems Outcome             3Example     1) Calculate the maximum input     signal, which is at 1000º Celsius...
Programmable Systems Outcome               3Assignment 1A microcontroller based monitoring system is used to monitor sound...
Programmable Systems Outcome             3Assignment 1(b) SolutionTwo ways to consider this problem1st     If the ADC is 8...
Programmable Systems Outcome             3Assignment 2  The signal from a temperature sensing sub-system is processed by a...
Programmable Systems Outcome              3Interfacing to the ADC  The ADC used with the Stamp                            ...
Programmable Systems Outcome             3Interfacing to the ADC     Although the procedure for using the ADC is the same ...
Programmable Systems Outcome             3Activity                TEM PERATU RE             S E R IA L        S TA M P    ...
Programmable Systems Outcome             3Activity     Therefore a sample program to take an analogue reading, and then   ...
Programmable Systems Outcome               3MultiplexersADC integrated circuits are relatively expensive to construct. Whe...
Programmable Systems Outcome                    3Activity     TEM PERATURE                             S E R IA L         ...
Programmable Systems Outcome                  3Activity    TEM PERATURE                           S E R IA L      S TA M P...
Programmable Systems Outcome                3Assignment 3         TEM PER ATU R E    S E R IA L        S TA M P     D ATA ...
Programmable Systems Outcome             3Assignment 3 solutionsmain:   gosub adcread                          Get the ADC...
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  • 6V = 255 steps, so 4.8/6 x 255 = 204, which = 11001100 in binary
  • 6V = 255 steps, so 4.8/6 x 255 = 204, which = 11001100 in binary
  • Programmable systems-outcome-34

    1. 1. Dave’s Revision Notes Programmable Systems Gary Plimer 2004
    2. 2. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Outcome 3 - Microcontroller Controlled Mechatronic SystemsSection 1 – IntroductionThe purpose of this section is to introduce the microcontroller and its architecture.When students have completed this unit they should be able to: Describe the operation and architecture of microcontrollers. Understand the terms ALU, RAM, ROM, EEPROM and bus. Understand how the Basic Stamp system operates.
    3. 3. Programmable Systems Outcome 3What is a microcontroller? REVISIONA microcontroller is often described as a computer-on-a-chip.Microcontrollers have memory, processing units, and input/output circuitryall built into a single chip. As they are small and inexpensive they can easilybe built into other devices to make these products more intelligent andeasier to use.
    4. 4. Programmable Systems Outcome 3What is a microcontroller? REVISIONMicrocontrollers are usually programmed to perform one specific control taskfor instance, a microwave oven may use a single microcontroller to processinformation from the keypads, display user information on the seven segmentdisplay, and control the output devices (turntable motor, light, bell andmagnetron).Microcontrollers are computers designed to control specific processes orproducts. The microcontroller is programmed with a specific softwareprogram to complete the desired task. By altering this software program thesame microcontroller can be used to complete different tasks. Therefore thesame device can be used in a range of different products by simplyprogramming it with a different software program.
    5. 5. Programmable Systems Outcome 3What is a microcontroller? REVISIONOne microcontroller can often replace a number of separate parts, or even acomplete electronic circuit.Some of the advantages of using microcontrollers in a product design are:increased reliability and reduced stock inventory (as one microcontroller replacesseveral parts), simplified product assembly and smaller end products, greaterproduct flexibility and adaptability since features are programmed into themicrocontroller and not built into the electronic hardware rapid product changesor development by changing the program and not the electronic hardware.Applications that use microcontrollers include household appliances, alarmsystems, medical equipment, vehicle subsystems, and electronic instrumentation.Although microprocessor systems (such as those based around the IntelPentium™ processor) tend to be more widely publicised (mainly via personalcomputer systems), microcontroller manufacturers actually sell hundreds ofmicrocontrollers for every microprocessor sold.
    6. 6. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Microcontroller Architecture Microcontrollers contain all these RO M PRO G RA M RAM features within a C O U N TE R PRO G RA M R E G IS TE R single package, as M EM O RY D A TA BUS F IL E S opposed to the microprocessor A LU system where each I/ O “ R E A L” PRO G RA M BUS P O R TS W O R LD block in the diagram above is normally a TIM E R S separate integrated C LO C K circuit. In general the S IM P L IF IE D P IC M IC R O C O N TR O L L E R only component that B L O C K D IA G R A M needs to be added to a microcontroller is a clock resonator, which sets the operating speed of the microcontroller.
    7. 7. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Microcontroller Architecture - TerminologyArithmetic / Logic Unit (ALU) and ClockThe processing unit (full name arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) ) is the brainof the microcontroller. It operates by reading instructions from the read onlymemory ROM and then carrying out the mathematical operations for eachinstruction.The clock circuit within the microcontroller synchronises all the internal blocks(ALU, ROM, RAM etc.) so that the system remains stable. The clock circuit isbuilt into the microcontroller, but an external crystal or resonator is required toset the clock frequency. A typical clock frequency for use with a microcontrolleris 4MHz, but speeds as high as 20MHz can also be achieved. With a clockfrequency of 4MHz the microcontroller completes one million instructions asecond!
    8. 8. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Microcontroller Architecture - Terminology Microcontrollers contain both ROM (permanent memory) and RAM (temporary memory). The ROM (Read Only Memory) contains the operating instructions (i.e. the program) for the microcontroller. The ROM is programmed before the microcontroller is installed in the target system, and the memory retains the information even when the power is removed. Most microcontrollers are one-time-programmable types, which means the ROM can only be programmed once. If you make a mistake, and have to change the program, the chip has to be thrown away and a new chip programmed with the revised program. To overcome this problem some microcontrollers now use FLASH EEPROM memory instead. This type of erasable-permanent memory allows the ROM to be re-programmed if a mistake is made.
    9. 9. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Microcontroller Architecture - TerminologyRAMRandom Access Memory, is temporary memory used for storing informationwhilst the program is running. This memory is volatile, which means that assoon as the power is disconnected the contents of the memory is lost.BusesInformation is carried between the various blocks of the microcontroller alonggroups of wires called buses. The data bus carries the 8-bit data between theALU and RAM / Input-Output registers, and the program bus carries the 13-bitprogram instructions from the ROM.The size of the data bus provides a description for the microcontroller.Therefore an 8 bit microcontroller has a data bus 8-bits wide. Microcontrollerswith 16-bit and 32-bit data buses are also available.
    10. 10. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Microcontroller Architecture - TerminologyInput/Output Circuitry (I/O Ports)Microcontrollers communicate with the outside world via pins which are groupedtogether in ports, with up to eight pins in each port. Smaller microcontrollers mayonly have one port, whilst larger devices may have five or more. Generally eachpin within the port can be configured as an output or as an input, or can even bemultiplexed to change functions as the program is run!TimersMost microcontrollers have one or more timers built into the system. Thewatchdog timer is the most common type of timer. This is a special timerthat resets the microcontroller if it stops processing for any reason (e.g. abug in the program). This ensures that the microcontroller continuesworking at all times - which is essential in some applications, for instancemedical monitoring equipment.
    11. 11. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 The Basic Stamp The program instructions are written on a host computer in the simple PBASIC language. TheH O S T C O M P U TE R D O W N LO A D C A B LE download cable is then connected R U N N IN GS TA M P S O F TW A R E from the computer to the module, and the program is downloaded EEPRO M into the EEPROM memory chip. B A S IC The download cable is then IN TE R P R E TE R IN P U T/ removed, and the program (now C LO C K O U TP U T P IN S stored in the memory chip) is carried out sequentially by the microcontroller interpreter chip.
    12. 12. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Programming Procedure• Write the program on a host computer using the Stamp software.• Connect the download cable from the computer to the Stamp Controller.• Connect the power supply to the Stamp Controller.• Use the Stamp software to download the program. The download cable can be removed (if desired) after the download.
    13. 13. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Pupil Assignment no.1• List the advantages of using a microcontroller within a productdesign.• Describe the input sensors and output transducers that may be linked to a microcontroller in the following common householdappliances: - microwave oven - washing machine - electronic bicycle speedometer• Explain the following microcontroller terms: ALU, bus, clock• Explain the differences between the following types of memory: RAM, ROM, EEPROM
    14. 14. Programmable Systems Outcome 1 Outcome 3 - Microcontroller Controlled Mechatronic SystemsSection 2 - Number SystemsThe purpose of this section is to introduce the main number systems used within programmable systems for the processing of information.When students have completed this unit they should be able to: Use the following terms correctly: decimal, binary, hexadecimal. Describe contexts when it is appropriate to use the three different number systems. Convert between decimal, binary and hexadecimal number systems.
    15. 15. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 Number SystemsMicrocontrollers only recognises the two electronic states high and low.This number system uses just two digits 0 and 1.An electrical signal which is low is represented by logic 0, and a signalwhich is high is represented by a logic 1. Write down the first sixteen numbers in the decimal and binary system
    16. 16. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 Number Systems NotationBefore we introduce different number systems, we need to help the StampController to differentiate between them.When using a number of different counting systems it is important todistinguish which counting system you are using. For instance the number 10means three different values in the three different counting systems!Therefore the following notations are used within PBASIC programs:Decimal values are written as usual:10 ( = 10 in decimal)Binary values are preceded by a % symbol: %10 ( = 2 in decimal)Hexadecimal values are preceded by an & symbol: &10 ( = 16 indecimal)
    17. 17. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 Number SystemsBits and BytesEight bits grouped together are described as a byte. The decimal value of abyte is calculated by adding together the corresponding decimal value of eachof the individual bits. The eight bits in a byte are labelled bits 0 to 7, from right toleft. The right most bit is called the Least Significant Bit (LSB) and the leftmost bit is called the Most Significant Bit (MSB). The decimal value of each bitis given in the table below: bit number 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 decimal 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 value
    18. 18. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Pupil Assignment No.2 Convert each of the following binary numbers into decimal: 11110000 11000011 01010101 10101010 bit number 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 decimal 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 value
    19. 19. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Pupil Assignment No.2 Convert each of these decimal numbers into binary: 17 23 11 38 33 bit number 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 decimal 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 value
    20. 20. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Hexadecimal Number SystemWriting binary numbers in groups of eight bits is quite time consuming,although on some occasions binary numbers are very useful to clearlyillustrate the condition of each bit in a byte.However a more user-friendly Decimal Hexadecimalsystem of writing numbers is thehexadecimal system. The 10 Ahexadecimal system uses 16 11 Bdifferent digits - 0 to 9 and A to F.The digits A to F correspond to the 12 Cdecimal numbers 10 to 15. 13 D 14 E 15 F
    21. 21. Programmable Systems Outcome3 Decimal Binary Hexadecimal 0 0000 0 1 0001 1 2 0010 2 3 0011 3 4 0100 4 5 0101 5 6 0110 6 7 0111 7 8 1000 8 9 1001 9 10 1010 A 11 1011 B 12 1100 C 13 1101 D 14 1110 E 15 1111 F
    22. 22. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Converting Binary to Hexadecimal Divide the binary number into groups of nibbles (four bits) Convert the nibbles into decimal  Convert the decimal nibbles into hexadecimal (i.e. convert any decimal values greater than 9 into the hexadecimal letter digits)Example:Convert %01101010 into hexadecimalDivide into nibbles 0110-1010Convert into decimal 6-10Convert into hexadecimal 6-ATherefore %01101010 = &6A
    23. 23. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Pupil Assignment No.2 Convert the following binary numbers to hexadecimal: %11011101 %11111001 %01010101 %10101010 %11001010
    24. 24. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Converting Hexadecimal to BinaryConvert &AF into binaryDivide into separate digits A-FConvert to decimal 10-15Convert to binary 1010-1111Join the two four bit numbers 10101111Therefore &AF = %10101111
    25. 25. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Converting Decimal to HexConvert 450 to HexThink about base 16, 163 162 161 160 4097 256 16 1For 450 we need x1 x12 x2In Hex 1 C 2 &1C2
    26. 26. Programmable Systems Outcome 1Outcome 3 - Microcontroller Controlled MechatronicSystemsSection 3 - Simple Control RoutinesThe purpose of this section is to introduce the PBASIC commands used in developing control program listings.When students have completed this unit they should be able to: Understand the use of flowcharts. Develop flowcharts from a brief. Understand the most common PBASIC commands. Write PBASIC programs that involve loops, if statements and sub-procedures.
    27. 27. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Port Addressing and the Data Direction RegisterMicrocontrollers communicate with the outside world by input/output pinswhich are grouped together in ports.The Stamp Controller has one input/output port, which contains eightinput/output pins.Each pin can be addressed individually, or all eight pins in the port can beaddressed simultaneously.In the PBASIC language the pins are labelled 0 to 7, and the whole portaddress is allocated the label pins.For example, to switch pin 3 high individually the command would be:high 3To switch pin 3 low individually the command would be:low 3
    28. 28. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Port Addressing and the Data Direction Register input/output pin 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 bit of address pins 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 decimal value 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1To switch all pins high the command would be let pins = 255To switch all pins low the command would be let pins = 0To switch pins 0-2 high and pins 3-7 low the command would belet pins = %00000111Note how the use of the binary number system can be used on this occasion toclearly illustrate which pins are switched high (=1) or low (=0).
    29. 29. Programmable Systems Outcome 3The Data Direction Register (DDR)Each pin can be configured to be an output (to send digital signals) or an input (toreceive digital signals).The Data Direction Register (DDR) is used to configure the port, and in thePBASIC language the DDR is allocated the label dirs.If all the bits in the DDR are set high then all the pins will be set as outputs. Ifall the bits are set low each pin will be set as an input. For example, let dirs = 255 set all pins as outputs let dirs = 0 set all pins as inputs let dirs = %11110000 set 0-3 inputs, 4-7 outputsEvery PBASIC program listing should always begin with a let dirs = statementto correctly setup the DDR.
    30. 30. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 S TA R TBeginning Programming S W ITC H P IN 7 H IG HConsider the simple Flowchart shown opposite. W A IT 2 S E C O N D SThe Flowchart helps us plan our programming. S W ITC H P IN 6 H IG H W A IT 1 S E C O N DNow have a look at the next slide which shows apossible solution to this Flowchart S W ITC H P IN S 4 & 5 H IG H W A IT 3 S E C O N D S S W ITC H A L L O FF S TO P
    31. 31. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 Beginning ProgrammingA PBASIC program which would achieve this control operation is:let dirs = %11110000 set pins 0-3 inputs, 4-7 outputshigh 7 set pin 7 highpause 2000 wait for 2 seconds (= 2000 ms)high 6 set pin 6 highpause 1000 wait for 1 secondlet pins = %11110000 set pins 4-7 highpause 3000 wait for 3 secondslet pins = 0 switch all pins lowend end the program
    32. 32. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 S TA R TLabels and Addressing S W ITC H P IN 7 H IG H W A IT 2 S E C O N D SSometimes it is necessary to create programs thatloop forever, as shown by the flowchart. In this case S W ITC H P IN 6 H IG Hit is necessary to add labels to the program, and touse the goto command to jump to the line marked W A IT 1 S E C O N Dby the label. S W ITC H P IN S 4 & 5 H IG H Study the Flowchart then look at W A IT 3 S E C O N D S the solution on the next slide. S W ITC H A L L O FF W A IT 1 S E C O N D
    33. 33. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 S TA R T Labels and Addressing (Continued) S W ITC H P IN 7 H IG H W A IT 2 S E C O N D SA PBASIC program which would achieve this control operationis listed below. S W ITC H P IN 6 H IG Hinit: let dirs = %11110000 set pins 4-7 as outputs W A IT 1 S E C O N Dmain: high 7 set pin 7 high pause 2000 wait for 2 seconds S W ITC H P IN S 4 & 5 H IG H high 6 set pin 6 high pause 1000 wait for 1 second W A IT 3 S E C O N D S let pins = %11110000 set pins 4-7 high pause 3000 wait for 3 seconds S W ITC H A L L O FF let pins = 0 switch all pins low pause 1000 wait for 1 second W A IT 1 S E C O N D goto main loop forever
    34. 34. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Labels and Addressing (Continued)Activity 1Key in, download and run the program listed above.After the first line (which simply sets up the DDR), a label called main has beenadded to the listing.Note that all address labels must end with a colon (:) when they are first defined.It is also a good programming technique to use tabs (or spaces) at the start oflines without labels so that all the commands are neatly aligned.The term white-space is used by programmers to define tabs, spaces andblank lines, and the correct use of white-space can make the program listingmuch easier to read and understand.The last line goto main causes program flow to jump back to the line labelledmain. This means that this program will loop forever.
    35. 35. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 1What is the function of the Data Direction Register (DDR)?What is meant by the term "white-space"?Why is it important to use white-space and comments when writingprograms?
    36. 36. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 2 A set of temporary traffic lights are required for a system of road-works. red 10 sec Draw a flowchart for the lights sequence shown by one set of the traffic lights. red and amber 2 sec green 10 sec Use the times shown in the table for each stage. amber 2 sec Write a PBASIC program to achieve this operation. Use the following pin configuration - red (7), amber (6) and green (5).
    37. 37. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 S TA R TAssignment 3 M O VE FO RW ARD W A IT 3 S E C .Write a high level program in PBASIC to control themovement of the buggy as shown by the flowchartopposite. TURN LEFT W A IT 1 S E C . M O VE FO RW ARD W A IT 3 S E C . S TO P
    38. 38. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 S TA R TFor...Next Loops S E T C O U N TE R = 5 A for...next loop is used when you wish to repeat a S W ITC H P IN 7 H IG H section of code a number of times. The number of times the program runs for is set by a W A IT 1 S E C O N D variable. S W ITC H P IN 7 A variable is a number that is stored in the RAM LO W memory of the Stamp Controller. W A IT 1 S E C O N D There are 14 memory locations that byte variables can be stored in. These locations are labelled b0 to b13, but can also HAVE W E N LO O P E D 5 be renamed to more appropriate names by use of TIM E S ? the symbol command. Y S TO P
    39. 39. Programmable Systems Outcome 3For...Next Loops Activity Study the following program. In your own words, write down what you expect the program to do. Now, key in, download and run the following program to check your answer. symbol counter = b0 define the variable "counter" symbol red = 7 define pin 7 with the name "red“ init: let dirs = %10000000 set up pin 7 as an output main: for counter = 1 to 5 start a for...next loop high red switch pin 7 high pause 1000 wait for 1 second low red switch pin 7 low pause 1000 wait for 1 second next counter end of for...next loop end end program
    40. 40. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 4 3 A buggy is to follow the path shown opposite. Draw a flowchart for the movement of the 3 3 buggy, making use of a for...next command structure. Write a high level program in PBASIC to control the movement of the buggy as shown 3 by your flowchart. (Assume it takes 1.5 seconds to turn 90 degrees).
    41. 41. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 5 Input Pin Output Connection ConnectionAs part of a Christmas decoration, a lightingsequence is to be controlled by a 7microcontroller. The output connections are 6 Yellowshown opposite. Light 5 Purple LightThe red and green lights should come on 4together and stay on for 5 seconds. Thenthey both go off and the yellow and blue 3 Blue Lightlights should come on together for 8 2 Green Lightseconds. They then go off and the purple 1light flashes on and off 6 times (the on andoff times being 0.5 seconds each). The 0 Red Lightsequence then repeats itself continuously.Draw a flowchart and write a PBASICprogram for this sequence.
    42. 42. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 S TA R TIf...Then... command S W ITC H P IN 7 H IG HThe if...then programming structure allows thecomputer to make a decision based on informationreceived from an input pin. IS P IN 3 N H IG H ?Note the symbol used in the flowchart Y S W ITC H A L L Give an example of where this type of LO W control might be used S TO P
    43. 43. Programmable Systems Outcome 3If...Then... CommandActivity Key in, download and run the program listed below. init: let dirs = %10000000 setup the DDR main: let pins = %10000000 switch pin 7 high if pin3 = 1 then skip jump to skip if input 3 is high goto main loop skip: let pins = 0 switch all pins off end end the program To test the program you will need to connect the sensors module to the Stamp Controller, and connect a micro-switch to sensor 3 on the sensor module. Note: The then command can only be followed by a label to jump to.
    44. 44. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 S TA R T S W ITC H A L L P IN S H IG HAssignment 6 W A IT 5 S E C O N D S S W ITC H A L L P IN S L O W Develop a PBASIC program that will carry out the instructions shown in the flowchart opposite. W A IT 0 . 5 S E C O N D S S W ITC H A L L P IN S H IG H W A IT 0 . 5 S E C O N D S H A S T H IS B E E N N D O N E 1 0 TIM E S ? Y S W ITC H A L L P IN S L O W S TO P
    45. 45. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 7 A motor, connected to pin 7, is to run when a start switch (connected to pin 2) is momentarily pressed. The motor continues to run until another stop switch (connected to pin 3) is pressed - at which point the motor switches off. The system should then reset to wait for another start signal. Draw a flowchart and write a PBASIC program for this sequence.
    46. 46. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 Assignment 8Connect 2 motors to the output O UTPUT S TA M Pdriver module (or MFA movement D R IV E R CO NTR O LLER M O D U LEmodule) as shown in the diagram.Connect micro-switch bumpersto pins 0 and 1 on the StampController via the screw terminalsas shown below. V+ The motors should run in a forward direction until 0 either of the two micro-switch bumpers are 1 activated. At this point the motors should reverse for 2 3 seconds, then stop. One motor should then switch 3 on for 2 seconds, then stop. Both motors should 0V then switch on. SHOWS HOW TO WIRE 2 SWITCHES TO Draw a flowchart and write a PBASIC program to THE SCREW TERMINALS ON THE STAMP CONTROLLER control the movement of the buggy as described above.
    47. 47. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 S TA R T Develop a PBASIC program that will G REEN LED O NAssignment 9 carry out the instructions shown in the flowchart opposite. Use the following pin configuration. S W IT C H PUSHED? NO YES Input Pin Output G REEN LED O FF AM BER LED O N Connection Connection 7 Red Light W A IT 3 s e c . 6 Amber AM BER LED O FF RED LED O N Light 5 Green Light W A IT 4 s e c . 4 AM BER LED O N Start 3 Switch W A IT 2 s e c .. R E D /A M B E R L E D O F F G R EEN LED O N
    48. 48. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 FLASHSub-Procedures S TA R TIt is often useful to be able to re-use B1 = 5 H IG H 7sections of code within a program. Asub-procedure is a small section of FLASH W A IT 0 .1 scode that can be called from adifferent part of the program. B1 = 20 LO W 7After the sub-procedure is finishedprogram flow moves back to the FLASH W A IT 0 .1 soriginal section of the program. B1 = 10To call a sub-procedure the gosub H A S T H IS BEEN DO NE(go-to-sub-procedure) command is B 1 T IM E S ? NO FLASHused. YES S TO PThe last line of the sub-procedure RETURNmust be return, which means returnto the original position.
    49. 49. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 ActivityKey in, download and run the following program.init: let dirs = %10000000 setup the DDRmain: let pins = %10000000 switch pin 7 high let b1 = 5 give variable b1 the value 5 gosub flash call sub-procedure pause 2000 wait two seconds let b1 = 20 give variable b1 the value 20 gosub flash call sub-procedure pause 2000 wait two seconds let b1 = 10 give variable b1 the value 10 gosub flash call sub-procedure pause 2000 wait two seconds end end the main program Sub-procedures start here. Continued on next page
    50. 50. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 Activity Continuedflash: for b2 = 1 to b1 setup a for...next loop using b2 high 7 output pin on pause 100 wait 100ms low 7 output pin off pause 100 wait 100ms next b2 next loop return return form sub-procedureIn this example the flash sub-procedure is used to actually flash the LED on and off.The number of times the LED flashes is set by variable b1, which is set before thesub-procedure is called. Therefore by changing the value of b1 the number offlashes can be changed.Note the end command between the main program and the sub-procedure. This isessential because it stops the Stamp Controller accidentally running into the sub-procedure after the main program has been completed.
    51. 51. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Activity Continued One further advantage of sub-procedures is that they are easily copied from one program to another. Therefore a standard sub- procedure can be created to carry out a specific task. This task can then be carried out in a number of different programs by simply copying the sub-procedure from program to program.
    52. 52. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 10As part of a shop display, a lighting sequence is to be controlled by amicrocontroller. The output connections are shown below. Input Connection Pin Output Connection 7 Red Light 6 Yellow Light 5 Green Light 4 Orange Light 3 switch 2 2 switch 1 1 0
    53. 53. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 10 continuedIf switch 1 is pressed, each light should flash on and off in sequence i.e.orange then green then yellow then red (each on and off time should be 0.5seconds), this should be repeated 5 times. The system then resets for thenext switch push.If switch 2 is pressed all lights should flash simultaneously 3 times. Thereshould then be a 2 second pause, before all lights should flash simultaneously6 times (each on and off time should be 0.5 seconds). The system thenresets for the next switch push.Draw a flowchart and write a PBASIC program for this sequence (use a sub-procedure for the flash routines).
    54. 54. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 11A sequence of events for the operation of the washingmachine is given in the table below: Step 1 Wait until the door switch is closed. Step 2 Wait until the start switch is pushed. Step 3 Rotate the drum clockwise for 10 seconds. Step 4 Rotate the drum anti-clockwise for 10 seconds Repeat steps 3 and 4 10 times Step 5 Rotate the drum clockwise for 5 seconds. Step 6 Rotate the drum anti-clockwise for 5 seconds Repeat steps 5 and 6 5 times Draw a Flow Chart, write, and test, a PBASIC program for the control sequence described above.
    55. 55. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 M A IN S W A TE RAssignment 12 IN L E T V A LV E H E A D S TO R A G E TA N K A G ITA TO R M O TO R D U M P P U M P M O TO R C O N V EYO R M O TO RThe diagram shows the layout of a pulper machine used in a paper mill.A batch of pulp and fillers, i.e. 5 x 20 kg bales of pulp and 2 x 50 kg bags offillers, is mixed during the pulping process with 1600 litres of water.The operation of the pulping process is controlled by a microcontroller. Themicrocontroller connections are as shown on the next slide.:
    56. 56. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 12 continued Input Pin Output Connection Connection 7 Agitator motor 6 Dump Pump 5 Conveyer 4 Inlet valve 3 2 1 Start switch 0
    57. 57. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Event Operator Action Control Activity1 Load conveyer with batch2 Press start button Sequence commences.3 Open inlet valve. Close valve after 10 minutes.4 1 minute after inlet valve opens, start agitator motor. run agitator motor for 11 minutes.5 Start conveyer 2 minutes after inlet valve opens. Run conveyer for 3 minutes.6 1 minute after agitator motor stops, start dump pump. run dump pump for 3 minutes.7 Reset and wait for next start command.
    58. 58. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 12 continued(a) Based on the instructions given in the table, draw up a flow chart which shows the control sequence for the pulping sequence.(b) With reference to your flow chart, write a high level program in PBASIC to control the operation of the pulper.Assume use of a pre-written time delay sub-procedure called delay which willproduce a time delay in multiples of one minute, according to the value set in thevariable mins before the sub-procedure is called.Example - To wait five minutes: let mins = 5 gosub delay
    59. 59. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Specialised CommandsThe PBASIC language also containssome specialised commandsdedicated for use withmicrocontrollers.One of the most useful commands isserout.The serout command can be usedto send serial ASCII text strings outof a single pin. This can be used tosend information to a host computervia a serial link, or to another device,such as the serial LCD module,which can interpret ASCII textstrings.
    60. 60. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Specialised CommandsFor example, to send the word "Hello"out of pin 7, the PBASIC commandwould beserout 7, T2400, (254,128)serout 7,T2400,("Hello")Connect the serial LCD module to theStamp Controller and try the abovecommand.
    61. 61. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Activity Enter and run the following programinit: let dirs = %10000000 make pin 7 an output let pins = %10000000 switch pin 7 highmain: pause 5 short pause serout 7,T2400,(254,1) send clear LCD command pause 500 wait 0.5 second serout 7,T2400,(254,128) send line 1 command serout 7,T2400,("Hello!") send message pause 1000 wait 1 second serout 7,T2400,(254,192) send line 2 command serout 7,T2400,("Goodbye!") send message pause 1000 wait 1 second goto main loop
    62. 62. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Activity Enter and run the following programsymbol counter = b0 define the variableinit: let dirs = %10000000 make pin 7 an output let pins = %10000000 switch pin 7 high pause 5 short pause serout 7,T2400,(254,1) send clear LCD command pause 30 wait 30 msmain: for counter = 0 to 20 start a for...next loop serout 7,T2400,(254,128) send line 1 command serout 7,T2400,("Count = ") send message serout 7,T2400,(#counter," ") send counter value pause 500 wait 0.5 second next counter next loop end
    63. 63. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 13Connect two switches to the input module, and the serial LCD module, to theStamp Controller.When the switch connected to pin 0 is pressed the Stamp Controller should add1 to the current total, and then display the new value on the LCD.When the switch connected to pin 1 is pressed the Stamp Controller shouldsubtract 1 from the current total, and then display the new value on the LCD.Draw a flowchart and write a PBASIC program to control the operation describedabove.
    64. 64. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 13 solution STAR T W A IT 1 S e c . P IN 0 H IG H ? LET b0 = b0 + 1 U PDATE LCD P IN 1 LET b0 = b0 - 1 H IG H /
    65. 65. Programmable Systems Outcome 3symbol counter = b0 define the variableinit: let dirs = %10000000 make pin 7 an output let pins = %10000000 switch pin 7 high pause 5 short pause serout 7,T2400,(254,1) send clear LCD command pause 30 wait 30 msmain: serout 7,T2400,(254,128) send line 1 command serout 7,T2400,("Value = ") send message serout 7,T2400,(#counter," ") send counter value pause 1000 wait 1 secloop: if pin0 = 1 then add1 test switch 0 if pin1 = 1 then take1 test switch 1 goto loopadd1: let counter = counter + 1 add 1 goto main refresh displaytake1: let counter = counter - 1 take 1 goto main refresh display
    66. 66. Programmable Systems Outcome 1 Outcome 3 - Microcontroller Controlled Mechatronic SystemsSection 4 - Mechatronic System Interfacing CircuitsThe purpose of this section is to understand the need for interfacing input and output devices when building mechatronic systems that are controlled by a microcontroller.When students have completed this unit they should be able to: Explain why interfacing circuits are required within mechatronic systems. Select appropriate interfacing techniques for common output devices. Understand the different operation of common switch types. Understand how unipolar stepper motors are controlled. Understand the need for D-A conversion. Understand how push-pull drivers are used to control dc motors. Understand pulse-width modulated control of dc motors. Understand the term soft-start when applied to dc motor Write PBASIC programs to control stepper motors Write PBASIC programs to control
    67. 67. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Mechatronic System Interfacing Circuits Vt The microcontroller input/output pin can only provide a small drive current when configured as an output. Therefore most output devices require an interfacing circuit. The simplest interfacing circuit uses a bipolar transistor, and the Darlington pair configuration is often used to increase the drive current capabilities.0V
    68. 68. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Mechatronic System Interfacing Circuits The ULN2803A integrated circuit can be very useful because it contains eight Darlington transistor pairs in a convenient 18 pin DIL package. For added convenience the back emf protection diodes are also included on the integrated circuit. The Stamp Controller output driver uses this type of integrated circuit.
    69. 69. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Mechatronic System Interfacing Circuits For devices which use larger currents (e.g. a solenoid), or a separate power supply (e.g. mains electricity) , a relay can be used. The relay is usually driven by a transistor as shown in the diagram. + 5V + 12V R E LA Y S O L E N O ID 0V 0V
    70. 70. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Connecting Digital Switches + 5V Digital switches are available in two main families. Normally- open switches are the most common. As the name suggests, S W ITC H O P E N = L O W the contacts on these switches S W ITC H C L O S E D = H IG H are normally open, so the switch is electrically off. When the 10K switch is activated the contacts close and so the switch is electrically on. 0V Note: Your Teacher will discuss N O R M A L L Y O P E N S W ITC H pull up & Pull down resistors.
    71. 71. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 14 Draw appropriate interfacing circuit diagrams for the following output devices. Clearly explain your choice of circuit in each case. a) LED b) Buzzer c) 6V DC motor d) 12V DC solenoid e) 24V pneumatic solenoid valve
    72. 72. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 S TA R TAssignment 14Write, and test, a PBASIC program for the R ED LED O N BUZZER OFFcontrol sequence shown in the diagram B O LT O U Topposite. W A IT 2 s S W IT C H 1 PRESSED? BUZZER O N Input Pin Output Connection NO Connection YES 7 Bolt S W IT C H 2 PRESSED? 6 Buzzer NO 5 Green LED YES 4 Red LED S W IT C H 3 PRESSED? NO Switch 3 3 YES Switch 2 2 RED LED O FF G REEN LED O N B O L T IN Switch 1 1 W A IT 3 s 0
    73. 73. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Stepper MotorsStepper motors are very accurate motors that arecommonly used in computer disk drives, printers, XYplotters and clocks. Unlike dc motors, which spin roundfreely when power is applied, stepper motors require thattheir power supply be continuously pulsed in specificpatterns. For each pulse, the stepper motor moves aroundone step, typically 7.5 degrees (giving 48 steps in a fullrevolution).Stepper motors do have some limitations. First, the power consumption isgreatest when the stepper motor is stopped (as all coils are still energised).Secondly the output torque is not very high, and so some type of gearbox isnormally required. Unless this gearbox is very carefully designed thebacklash of the gears can disrupt the accuracy of the final system. Finally thespeed of revolution is limited to around 100 steps per second, which providesa rotational speed of 2 rev / s or 120 rev / min.
    74. 74. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Stepper MotorsThere are two main types of stepper motors -unipolar and bipolar. Unipolar motors usually havefour coils which are switched on and off in aparticular sequence. Bipolar motors have two coils inwhich the current flow is reversed in a similarsequence. It is the unipolar type which is describedin this section.The stepper motor contains magnets which are fixed to the central armature.Four electronic coils are located around the casing. When a current is passedthrough these coils they generate a magnetic field, which attract/repels thepermanent magnets on the armature, and so the armature spins one stepuntil the magnetic fields align. The coils are then energised in a differentpattern to create a different magnetic field, and the armature spins anotherstep.
    75. 75. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 + 12VStepper Motors 7 1 18 6 2 17To make the armature rotate 5 3 16continuously the four coils must be U LN 2 8 0 3 A 4 4 15switched on and off in a certain 5 14 S TE P P E Rorder. 6 13 7 12 8 11Many microcontroller systems use 9 10four output lines to control the 0V 0Vstepper motor, each output linecontrolling the power to one of thecoils.
    76. 76. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 15  Describe three products which may contain stepper motors.  Describe how the motor is used in each case.  A toy manufacturer is designing a new programmable robot toy. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of using stepper motors (rather than dc motors) to manoeuvre the robot.
    77. 77. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 16 12V D C S U P P LY S TA M P O UTPUT STEPPER C O N TR O LLER D R IV E R M O TO R Connect a stepper motor to the output driver module as shown. Develop a PBASIC program that will rotate the stepper motor 48 steps in one direction, and then 48 steps in the other direction.
    78. 78. Programmable Systems Outcome 3The table below shows the four different steps required tomake the motor turn. Copy the table into your workbook Step Coil 4 Coil 3 Coil 2 Coil 1 (output 7) (output 6) (output 5) (output 4) 1 1 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 1 3 0 1 0 1 4 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0
    79. 79. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Stepper Motor Driver IC + 12V 100K 1K The use of four output pins to 2 13 14 4 drive a stepper motor can be an R VC C 2 VC C 1 RX inefficient way to use the C LO C K 15 C Q 1 microcontroller input/output pins. SA A Q 2 1027 Q 3 3 D IR E C TIO N M A dedicated integrated circuit, Q 4 called the SAA1027 stepper motor V EE1 V EE2 S TE P P E R driver, has been designed to 5 12 0V 0V overcome this problem by building the logic step generator, and the transistor switches, into one package.
    80. 80. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Activity, key in the following programsymbol direct = 5 pin 5 is direction pinsymbol clock = 4 pin 4 is clock pinsymbol counter = b0 variable b0 is loop counterinit: let dirs = %00110000 pin 4 & 5 outputsmain: high direct set dir pin high for counter = 1 to 48 setup a for...next loop high clock clock pin high pause 10 wait 10ms low clock clock pin low pause 10 wait 10ms next counter next loop low direct set dir pin high for counter = 1 to 48 setup a for...next loop high clock clock pin high pause 10 wait 10ms low clock clock pin low pause 10 wait 10ms next counter next loop goto main loop forever Continued
    81. 81. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Activity, connect the MFA boards to theStamp as shown. Run the program. 12V DC S U P P LY S TA M P M FA M FA C O N TR O LLER ADAPTER STEPPER M O TO R D R IV E R STEPPER M O TO R
    82. 82. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 17Crystal glassware is decorated by cutting grooves on to the outside surface. Theprocess leaves the untouched parts of the glass clear and reflective, whereas the cutgrooves are dull and rough and require to be polished.The diagram shows the layout of a prototype system, developed by a student, topolish crystal glasses with eight parallel grooves cut along the length of the glass. G R O O V E SEN SO R 4 -PH A SE S TE P P E R M O TO R C R Y S TA L G LA SS G RO O VES P O L IS H IN G B R U S H D R IV E N B Y D C M O TO R P N E U M A TIC C Y L IN D E R S M O V E B R U S H M O TO R IN TO / O U T F R O M TH E G L A S S
    83. 83. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 17 continued The system is to be controlled by a microcontroller. With a glass in place, the start button is pressed to cause the cutting disk to switch on and move into the cutting position. The first groove is cut for five seconds. The cutter is then withdrawn. The stepper motor rotates the glass through 90 degrees into position for the next groove. The process continues until all four grooves have been cut. The stepper motor used by the student has a step angle of 7.5 degrees. It is controlled by means of an SAA1027 driver IC signalled from the microcontroller. G R O O V E SEN SO R 4 -PH A SE S TE P P E R M O TO R C R Y S TA L G LA SS G RO O VES P O L IS H IN G B R U S H D R IV E N B Y D C M O TO R P N E U M A TIC C Y L IN D E R S M O V E B R U S H M O TO R IN TO / O U T F R O M TH E G L A S S
    84. 84. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 17 continued Input Connection Pin Output Connection 7 Pneumatic Cylinder (1 = outstroke, 0 = instroke) 6 DC Motor (1 = on, 0 = off) 5 Stepper Pulse (0 to 1 pulse = 1 step) 4 Stepper Direction (1 = clockwise, 0 = anticlockwise) 3 2 1 Start button 0 (logic 1 when pressed)
    85. 85. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 17 continued Calculate the number of steps the stepper motor must rotate to rotate the glass through 90 degrees. Draw up a flow chart which shows the control sequence for the polishing process. With reference to your flow chart, write a high level program in PBASIC to control the polishing process.
    86. 86. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Push-Pull Motor DriversThe L293D IC is a push-pulldriver and is included on theOutput Driver module.The table shows the pincombinations to drive the motorforward or backward. pin 4 pin 5 motor A pin 6 pin 7 motor B 0 0 halt 0 0 halt 0 1 forward 0 1 forward 1 0 reverse 1 0 reverse 1 1 halt 1 1 halt
    87. 87. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Activity, key in and run the following programinit: let dirs = %11110000 make pins 4-7 outputsmain: let pins = %01010000 motors forward pause 3000 pause for 3 sec let pins = %00000000 motors halt pause 3000 pause for 3 sec let pins = %10100000 motors reverse pause 3000 pause for 3 sec let pins = %11110000 motors halt pause 3000 pause for 3 sec goto main loop forever O UTPUT S TA M P D R IV E R C O N TR O LLER M O DU LE
    88. 88. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 18 A single block of material is to be moved continuously back and forth along a conveyer belt without falling off either end. Draw a flowchart that will control the movement as described. Write, and test, a PBASIC program for the control sequence as drawn in your flowchart.
    89. 89. Programmable Systems Outcome 3DC Motor Speed Control The speed of a dc motor varies directly with the voltage applied across it. Microcontroller do not normally have an analogue output, and so they cannot be used to vary the voltage to a motor in this manner. However there are two main methods by which a microcontroller can control the speed of a DC motor: Digital to Analogue Conversion (DAC) Pulse Width Modulation
    90. 90. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Digital to Analogue ConversionThe simplest way to control the speed of a DC motor is to vary the voltage applied tothe motor coils - the higher the voltage the faster the motor will spin (within the motoroperating limits).However the digital output from a microcontroller is at a fixed voltage, and themicrocontroller cannot supply enough current to drive the motor. Therefore aninterfacing circuit is required to boost the supply current for the motor and to providedifferent voltage levels. 2 1 DAC 0 A N A LO G U E D IG ITA L
    91. 91. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Digital to Analogue Conversion binary analogue output (V) inputA Digital to Analogue Converter(DAC) is an integrated circuit that 000 0.00decodes binary information and 001 0.71generates an analogue voltageproportional to the binary 010 1.42information provided. 011 2.13A three bit DAC, with an output 100 2.84range of 0-5V, may produce avoltage output according to the 101 3.55table shown opposite.: 110 4.26 111 4.97
    92. 92. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Digital to Analogue ConversionEach increase in the binary input produces a step increase of 0.71V (5V ÷ 7 steps) inthe analogue output. In most practical applications the DAC cannot supply the fulloutput voltage (e.g. 5V) due to the technical operating limitations of the device. 10K 10K 2 22KThe simplest form of DAC 1 +5Vis made from a summing 39Kamplifier, as shown in the 0diagram below -5 V 0V
    93. 93. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Activity, key in a run the program symbol counter = b0 variable b0 is loop counter init: let dirs = %11110000 pin 4-7 outputs let pins = %00010000 starting speed main: set dir pin high for counter = 0 to 7 let pins = pins + 16 next speed pause 5000 wait 5 seconds next counter next loop end end 15V MOTOR DC SUPPLY STAMP MFA MFA This program drives the ADAPTER POWER CONTROLLER D TO A motor at eight different CONVERTER speeds for five seconds each speed.
    94. 94. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Pulse Width ModulationWith DAC, the voltage applied to the motor is directly varied. As the voltage isdecreased the motor turns more slowly. However the current flowing through themotor coils also decreases, and so the output torque (turning moment) of the motoralso falls.Therefore this solution is often unsatisfactory for controlling DC motors due to theundesirable loss of motor torque. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) is a digitalmethod which can be used to vary the motor speed. In this method the full voltage isapplied to the motor, but it is rapidly pulsed on and off. By varying the on and off ratioof the pulses the speed of the motor can be varied. As the full voltage is applied tothe motor during the on pulses the torque of the motor remains high.
    95. 95. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 Pulse Width Modulation VThe graph shows how the technique is M ARKapplied. The on time for the motor iscalled the mark, the off time is called thespace. When the voltage is applied to themotor it accelerates to top speed.However before the top speed is reachedthe motor is switched off, thus slowing itdown. By increasing the frequency of the SPA C E tpulses this acceleration/decelerationbecomes negligible, and the motor rotatesconstantly at a slower speed.
    96. 96. Programmable Systems Outcome 3ActivityBuild the circuit as shown. This is most simply achieved byconnecting the dc motor across the V+ and 7 DarlingtonDriver terminals on the Output Driver module.Key in, download and run the program listed below. Thisprogram drives the motor at approximately half speed, asthe space is twice the length of the mark.symbol mark = b1symbol space = b2symbol motor = 7init: let dirs = %11110000 pin 4-7 outputs let mark = 10 set mark to 10ms let space = 20 set space to 20msmain: high motor output high pause mark pause for mark time low motor output low pause space pause for low time goto main loop
    97. 97. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Soft Start of DC Motors V t In some devices, such as electric drills, it is desirable for the motor to start rotating slowly and then build up speed, rather than rapidly accelerating up to full speed. This is called soft starting the motor, and the use of PWM is often appropriate in these situations. The motor is started at a low speed and then gradually accelerated by varying the mark to space ratio over a period of time.
    98. 98. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Soft Start of DC MotorsKey in, download and run the program listed below. This program gradually increasesthe speed by increasing the length of the mark time over a period of time.symbol counter = b0 variable b0 is loop countersymbol mark = b1symbol space = b2symbol motor = 7init: let dirs = %11110000 pin 4-7 outputs let mark = 10 set mark to 10ms let space = 20 set space to 20msmain: gosub puls call sub-procedure let mark = mark + 2 increase mark time goto main loop sub-procedurepuls: for counter = 0 to 50 start a for...next loop high motor output high pause mark pause for mark time low motor output low pause space pause for low time next counter loop
    99. 99. Programmable Systems Outcome 3 10K 10KAssignment 19 2 22K 1Details of a speed control unit for +5Va dc motor are shown. 39K 0Name the configuration ofoperational amplifier being used. -5 V 0VName the method of dc motor speed control being used.Explain clearly how the system operates.State what the output voltage supplied to the motor will be when the followingvalues are applied to the input pins (presume the feedback resistor is at itsmaximum value of 10K). i) 1 ii) 3 iii) 4
    100. 100. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 20 A small dc motor, which is used to drive a model conveyer belt, is to be controlled by a microcontroller. The microcontroller gives out a 6V signal when an output bit is switched to logic 1. The speed of the motor must be varied according to the loads which are being carried. for convenience, the speed is to be reduced using pulse-width modulated control. Develop a short PBASIC procedure which could be used to drive the motor in a clockwise direction with a mark-to-space ratio of 2:1. Explain how you could alter the procedure to make the motor rotate in an anti-clockwise direction, with the same mark-to-space ratio. Pin allocations are shown on the next slide
    101. 101. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 20 Input Pin Output Connection Connection 7 6 5 Motor Anticlockwise 4 Motor Clockwise 3 2 1 0
    102. 102. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Analogue to Digital ConversionThe microcontroller can only process digital (high/low) signals.However in many practical applications analogue quantities, such aslight intensity or temperature, need to be tested.An Analogue-to-Digital Converter (ADC) is a device which canconvert analogue quantities into digital signals. An 8-bit ADC can generate a digital signal in the range 0 to 255 (i.e.one byte).ADCs are available as separate integrated circuits, or may even bebuilt into the microcontroller to give it on-board ADC capabilities.With the Stamp Controller system an external 8-bit ADC integratedcircuit is used.
    103. 103. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Voltage Reference 5V 1KADCs are designed to process analoguesignals within a certain range.The maximum voltage signal that can beprocessed by an ADC is called its reference 2 .5 V REF V REF= 2 .5 Vvoltage. D IO D EA common reference voltage for an 8-bit ADCis 2.55V, so the ADC can measure signals inthe range 0 to 2.55V. 0VTherefore the 8-bit ADC device will generatean 8-bit value directly equivalent to thevoltage signal applied.
    104. 104. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Signal Conditioning S IG N A L A M P L IF IE R Analogue sensors, such as the thermistor (temperature sensor), may not directly produce a suitable signal for use with the ADC. Therefore it is often necessary to use a signal amplifier circuit so that the input signal can be conditioned to the input range of the ADC (0 to 2.5V). An operational amplifier, configured as a voltage amplifier, is commonly used for this task.
    105. 105. Programmable Systems Outcome 3ExampleThe following example shows how the gain of the operational circuit is typicallycalculated.A temperature sensor is to be used to monitor the temperature of a factory furnace.Experimentation has shown that the temperature sensor produces a linear outputsignal, reading 0V at 0º Celsius and 1.53V at a temperature of 200º Celsius. Themaximum operating temperature of the furnace is 1000º Celsius. The maximumvoltage that may be fed into the ADC is 2.55VDraw a circuit diagram of a suitable signal conditioning system based on operationalamplifiers. Continued
    106. 106. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Example 1) Calculate the maximum input signal, which is at 1000º Celsius. Signal at 200º = 1.53V 1000º is equal to 5 x 200º Therefore maximum signal is 5 x 1.53V = 7.65V Your Task 2) Calculate the gain required from the op-amp circuit. Draw a suitable circuit to achieve a gain of 0.33 Input Signal = 7.65V Required output signal = 2.55V Therefore Gain = output / input = 2.55 / 7.65 = 0.33
    107. 107. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 1A microcontroller based monitoring system is used to monitor sound signals over aperiod of time. It is found that the maximum voltage generated from the soundsignals is 6V. However the maximum voltage that may be fed into themicrocontroller system is 1.8Va) Draw a circuit diagram of a suitable signal conditioning system, based on operational amplifiers, which will allow the signals to be monitored without damaging the microcontroller system. Indicate the values of any components used in your circuit.b) If the sound signal is fed into the microcontroller through an ADC which has a voltage reference of 1.8V, write down the 8-bit binary pattern you would expect from the ADC when the sound signal generates a voltage of 4.8V. Clearly identify the least significant bit (LSB).
    108. 108. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 1(b) SolutionTwo ways to consider this problem1st If the ADC is 8 bit, then there are 255 steps from 0V to 6V This means each step is worth 0.023529V approx. If we are trying to find what 4.8V would give, then if we divide 4.8 by 0.023529, we get 204 steps. Converting 204 into binary we get 11001100 OR2nd A neater way is to use (4.8/6) x 255 = 204 Same answer, but a bit quicker. Can you work out how I arrived at this method?
    109. 109. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 2 The signal from a temperature sensing sub-system is processed by an ADC before being read by a microcontroller. The ADC has a voltage reference of 1.8 volts which produces a binary word of %11111111 a) What is an ADC and why is it required before processing by the microcontroller? b) Calculate the binary word produced by the ADC at 200ºC, if the voltage signal from the temperature sensing sub-system at this temperature is 1.2V. Clearly identify the least significant bit (LSB).
    110. 110. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Interfacing to the ADC The ADC used with the Stamp + 5V Controller is a serial type device. This means that the analogue 1 P IN 0 C S VC C reading is transmitted as a series 2 of eight consecutive bits via a V IN V IN ( + ) ADC C LK P IN 1 single data pin. However it is 3 V IN ( - ) 0831 D A TA P IN 2 obviously necessary that the 4 V REF Stamp Controller and the ADC are G ND 2 .5 V synchronised for this communication, and this is 0V achieved by the Stamp Controller sending a number of clock pulses down a second clock pin.
    111. 111. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Interfacing to the ADC Although the procedure for using the ADC is the same in every case, it is never the less very complex. THEREFORE, IT IS NOT NECESSARY TO LEARN THESE ‘SUB- PROCEDURES. THE SUB-PROCEDURES WILL ALWAYS BE PROVIDED, IF NECESSARY, IN EXAMINATIONS. WHEN CREATING NEW PBASIC PROGRAMS THE TEMPLATE FILE ‘TEMPLATE.BAS’ SHOULD BE USED. THIS TEMPLATE FILE CONTAINS ALL THE STANDARD SUB- PROCEDURES REQUIRED, SO THAT IT IS ONLY NECESSARY TO KEY IN THE MAIN PROGRAM.
    112. 112. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Activity TEM PERATU RE S E R IA L S TA M P PRO BE ADC C O N TR O LLER M O D ULE Build the circuit as shown above. In the case of the serial ADC module the sub-procedure to take a reading is called adcread. This sub-procedure performs a read of the ADC and then stores the reading in a variable named data. CONTINUED
    113. 113. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Activity Therefore a sample program to take an analogue reading, and then transmit it to the computer for viewing (using the debug command), would be: main: gosub adcread Get the ADC reading debug data Transmit data to computer pause 1000 Pause for 1 second goto main Loop forever Note that this is not the whole program listing, as the actual sub-procedure adcread and the symbol definitions are not included. However they are not needed to understand how the main program operates, and so can be left out for clarity. Open the file ‘template.bas’, key in the main program above in the correct section of the template and run the program.
    114. 114. Programmable Systems Outcome 3MultiplexersADC integrated circuits are relatively expensive to construct. When it is necessaryto record more than one analogue signal a multiplexer can be used to prevent theneed for multiple ADC circuits. The multiplexer can be physically built into the ADCintegrated circuit, or can be provided by a completely separate integrated circuit. The multiplexer functions in a similar manner to a rotary switch connecting each M U L TIP L E X E R of the analogue channels in turn to the ADC. Therefore the multiplexer selects V s1 which sensor is connected to the ADC at TO A D C any one time. As only one sensor is connected to the ADC at any one time the V s2 whole system is slower than using a separate ADC for each sensor. However modern microcontrollers operate very quickly, and so the cost saving usually outweighs the increased processing time.
    115. 115. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Activity TEM PERATURE S E R IA L S E R IA L PRO BE M U L T IP L E X E R S TA M P ADC C O N TR O LLER LC D M O D U LE M O D U LE L IG H T SENSO R Build the circuit as shown. Note that a 2mm lead is used to connect the MFA Analogue Multiplexer to the Serial ADC Module (pin 3). Key in, download and run the program listed on the next slide. This program reads each of the two sensors every second, and displays the reading on the LCD.
    116. 116. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Activity TEM PERATURE S E R IA L S TA M P S E R IA L PRO BE M U L T IP L E X E R ADC LCD M O DULE CO NTRO LLER M O DULE L IG H T SENSO R let pins = %11110111 pause 5 Short pause serout 7,T2400,(254,1) Clear LCD command pause 30 Short pausemain: low ADC_MPX Select sensor 1 gosub adcread Get the ADC reading serout 7,T2400,(254,128) Print on LCD line 1 serout 7,T2400,("Sensor 1= ",#data," ") high ADC_MPX Select sensor 2 gosub adcread Get the ADC reading serout 7,T2400,(254,192) Print on LCD line 2 serout 7,T2400,("Sensor 2= ",#data," ") pause 1000 Wait 1 second goto main Loop
    117. 117. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 3 TEM PER ATU R E S E R IA L S TA M P D ATA LO G G E R S E R IA L PRO BE ADC C O N TR O LLER M O DU LE LC D M O D U LE M O DU LE Build the circuit as shown in the diagram above. (The datalogging module is optional at this point) a) Write a high level program in PBASIC that will continually monitor and display the temperature of the water on the LCD. b) The temperature of the water should not be allowed to drop below 45 degrees Celsius. Modify your PBASIC program so that the immersion heater (connected to pin3) is automatically switched on when the water cools below the critical temperature.
    118. 118. Programmable Systems Outcome 3Assignment 3 solutionsmain: gosub adcread Get the ADC reading serout 7,T2400,(254,128) Print on LCD line 1 serout 7,T2400,("Temp = ",#data," ") pause 1000 Wait 1 second goto main Loopmain: gosub adcread Get the ADC reading serout 7,T2400,(254,128) Print on LCD line 1 serout 7,T2400,("Temp = ",#data," ") if data < 45 then doon Jump if temp low low 3 Heater off goto main Loopdoon: high 3 Heater on goto main Loop

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