Introduction to masonry walling


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A short presentation showing the various types of masonry walling in use in Scotland.

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Introduction to masonry walling

  1. 1. Stone WallingIntroduction for StonemasonsStonemasonry Department 2012
  2. 2. Ashlar WallingAshlar walling is the term given to dressed stone walls which are eithercompletely plane or plane with chamfered edges. It is generally usedonly on the “seen” facades of a structure due to its high costs.
  3. 3. Coursed Rubble WallingCoursed rubble walling is the simplest of all rubble walls as all stoneson each course have identical bed heights. The bed heights canhowever differ on each course.
  4. 4. Snecked Rubble WallingSquare and Sneck rubble consists of three stones; the riser, the levellerand the sneck. This is a particularly stable form of rubble walling asthe stones are interlocked horizontally and vertically.
  5. 5. Random Rubble WallingRandom rubble walling consists of a number of stones of randomlength, height and width arranged in a loosely defined bondingpattern. The style of this walling varies throughout the world.
  6. 6. Random Rubble Built to CoursesThis style of walling combines coursed and random rubble as the stoneis built to a specified course height every 3-5 courses. Although not asstructurally strong as random rubble, it provides long horizontal bedswhich define course heights.
  7. 7. Broken Coursed RubbleBroken course rubble combines random rubble with snecked rubblewhere smaller stones are combined to make the height of the risers(or jumpers).
  8. 8. Polygonal RubblePolygonal rubble is a complex form of random rubble where stones areindividually dressed to interlock with surrounding stones, leavinguniformly sized beds and joints.
  9. 9. CladdingCladding is the process of facing an existing backing wall with thin leafsof stone, supported by a fixing system. This type of walling has becomeincreasingly popular as it is low cost and quick to install.
  10. 10. GabionsGabions are essentially large mesh cages which are filled with rubbleto provide the appearance of random rubble. The cages can interlockboth horizontally and vertically and are commonly used as retainingwalls.
  11. 11. Dry Stone WallingDry stone walling consists of a number of stones bonded without theuse of mortar. Each stone is carefully selected to fit surrounding stoneswith the wall being bonded by through stones and header stones.
  12. 12. Flint WallingFlint walling is commonly found in the South of England where goodquality building stones were not readily available. It consists ofknapped or unknapped flint separated by large irregular beds andjoints.
  13. 13. Developed by The Stonemasonry DepartmentCity of Glasgow College2012