Part 5 geology - gradulaism or catastrophism


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Part 5 geology - gradulaism or catastrophism

  1. 1. A Creation Seminar by Mark Woodson Mark Woodson P.O. Box 226 Terra Ceia, FL. 34520 (941)737-0279e-mail:
  2. 2. What is the Geologic Column? Among the earliest contributions to historical geology came from the Italian scientist & artist Leonardo daVinci (1452-1519), who speculated that fossils might have come from the remains of long-dead animals.
  3. 3. The geologic column is the supposed arrangement of sedimentary layers called strata. These strata are theoretically arranged in various configurations based as much upon what geologists and paleontologists say should be there as what is actually found there.
  4. 4. What is strata?The field of science dedicated to the study of these strata is called stratigraphy. Specifically its thestudy of rock strata, especially thedistribution and {presumed} age of sedimentary rocks.
  5. 5. Stratigraphy itself had its beginnings when the Danish geologist Nicolaus Steno (1638-1687) studied the{supposed} age of rock strata.
  6. 6. Steno formulated what came to be known as the law of superposition, or the idea that strata are deposited in a successive manner so that the deeper the layer, the older the rock. This, of course, assumes that the rockhas been undisturbed, and it is applicable only for one of the three major types of rock, sedimentary (as opposed to igneous or metamorphic).
  7. 7. Steno was a Biblical literalist, meaningthat he believed that the Biblical account of earth’s history as beginning approximately 4390 B.C. was literal and accurate. Steno, was the man who founded the science of earth history. His success earned him the title of "founder" of thesciences of crystallography, paleontology, stratigraphy, and earth history, if not the father of geology itself.
  8. 8. Steno grew up in northern Europe during the Protestant Reformation but made his mark in geology while in northern Italy, where he followed on the heels of Galileo. Steno was first and foremost a Flood geologist, who saw the earth as having a finite history dominated by creation, theflood, and coming judgment. For him there were no "prehistoric ages," for earth andman were both created during the same six- day span only a few thousand years ago.
  9. 9. Although it may come as a surprise to geology students, Flood geology gave to scientistswhat they didnt have before -- a linear view of Earth history. Stenos geology was politicallyincorrect for another reason -- he incorporated intelligent design into his reasoning. He observed the remarkable similarity between the natural (inorganic) growth ofcrystals in the laboratory and the growth of the mineral that composes the shells of living organisms.
  10. 10. Shell growth is controlled by an orderingprinciple, a teleonomy, by which the calciumcarbonate conforms exactly to the form of thesoft-bodied creature it contains; i.e., a clamshell grows in such a way as to perfectlyenclose the creature inside. No such orderingprinciple is found in inorganically formedcrystals, only repetition. When hedemonstrated apparent design and purposein fossil shells, Steno demonstrated (contraryto Aristotle) that fossils are theremains of once living organisms.
  11. 11. [The interesting thing is] . . . He used intelligent design to do it. How odd that Steno is universally praised today for his accomplishments in geology,yet spurned (on two counts) for his methods of arriving at them. Steno believed a literal Genesis. *William A. Hoesch, M.S. geology, is research assistant in Geology.
  12. 12. Later, the German geologist Johann Gottlob Lehmann (1719-1767) put forward the theory that certain groups of rocks tend to be associated with each other and that each layer ofrock is a sort of chapter in the history of Earth.
  13. 13. Thus, along with Steno, Lehmann helped pioneer the idea of the stratigraphic column . . . The man credited as the"father of stratigraphy," however, was the English engineer and geologist William Smith (1769-1839). In 1815 Smith produced the first modern geologic map, showing rock strata in England and Wales.
  14. 14. Smiths achievement, . . . influenced all of geology to the present day by introducing the idea of geologic, as opposed to geographic, mapping. Furthermore, by linking stratigraphy with paleontology, a new division of stratigraphy, was created known as biostratigraphy.
  15. 15. The ten strata systems that Geologists use (Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary) compose the "standard geologiccolumn" and are claimed by many to contain the major proof of evolutionary theory.
  16. 16. Several erroneous notions have been attached to the geologic column. The following are the ten most common misconceptions. On the following slides the 10 misconceptions are taken from: IMPACT No. 137 TEN MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT THE GEOLOGIC COLUMN By Steven A. Austin, Ph.D. ICR , PO Box 2667, El Cajon, CA 92021 Voice: (619) 448-0900 FAX: (619) 448-3469 November 1984 Copyright © 1984 All Rights Reserved
  17. 17. Misconception No. 1. The geologic column was constructed by geologists who, because of the weight of the evidence that they had found, were convinced of theuniformitarian theory and organic evolution.
  18. 18. It may sound surprising, but the standardgeologic column was devised before 1860by catastrophists who were creationists.Adam Sedgewick, Roderick Murchison,William Coneybeare, and others affirmedthat the earth was formed largely bycatastrophic processes, and that theearth and life were created.
  19. 19. These men stood for careful empiricalscience and were not compelled to believeevolutionary speculation or side withuniformitarian theory.Although most would be called progressivecreationists" in todaysterminology, they would not bepleased to see all theevolutionary baggage that hasbeen loaded onto theirclassification of strata.
  20. 20. Misconception No. 2. Geologists composed thegeologic column by assembling the "periods" and "eras" which they had recognized.
  21. 21. The geologic column was not composed byassembling a chronology of "periods“ or"eras" or other supposed measures of time,but by superposition of objectively definedsequences of sedimentary strata called"systems." The "periods" and "eras" werelater appended to the system classificationof the "geologic Column"transforming it into a"geologic time scale."
  22. 22. Misconception No. 3 The strata systems of the geologic column are worldwide in their occurrence with each strata system being present belowany point on the earths surface.
  23. 23. The notion that the earths crust has an "onion skin" structurewith successive layers containing all strata systems distributed on a global scale is not an accurate representation of what actually is found. Its claims are not according to the facts.
  24. 24. Data from continents and ocean basinsshow that the ten systems are poorlyrepresented on a global scale:approximately 77% of the earthssurface area on land andunder the sea hasseven or more(70% or more) of thestrata systemsmissing beneath;
  25. 25. 94% of the earths surface has three or more systems missing beneath; and an estimated 99.6%has at least one missing system. Only a few locations on earth (about 0.4% of its area) have been described with the succession of the ten systems beneath (west Nepal, west Bolivia, and central Poland).
  26. 26. Even where the ten systemsare present, geologists recognizeindividual systems to be incomplete.The entire geologic column, composedof complete strata systems, exists onlyin the diagrams!
  27. 27. Misconception No. 4Strata systems always occur in the order required by the geologic column.
  28. 28. Locations are known where the order of the systems identified by geologists does not match the order of the geologic column.Strata systems are believed in some placesto be inverted, repeated, or inserted where they do not belong. Overturning, overthrust faulting, or landsliding are frequently maintained as disrupting the order.
  29. 29. In some locations such structural changes can be supported by physical evidence while elsewhere physical evidence of the disruption may be lackingand special pleading may be required using fossils or radiometric dating.
  30. 30. Misconception No. 5 Because each strata system has distinctive lithologiccomposition, a newly discovered stratum can be assigned easily to its correct position in the geologic column.
  31. 31. Sandstone, limestone, dolomite, shale, chert, salt, conglomerate, coal and other rock types are not diagnostic of specific strata systems. Therefore, a rocks physical appearance cannot, with certainty,distinguish the system or strata level to which a rock may belong.
  32. 32. Misconception No. 6 Fossils, especially the species distinctive of specific systems,provide the most reliable method of assigning strata to their level in the geologic column.
  33. 33. Bed-to-bed comparison of strata to their "system type" area is the most reliable method of assigning strata to a system.The visual information from oil well drilling, seismic surveys, and surface geologic mapping is of such character that visual subsurface comparisons of stratigraphic units of the thickness of systems is possible on a continental scale.
  34. 34. Although some fossils appear to be distinctive of certain systems (most fossil taxa range through a few to several systems), care must be exercised in comparison by fossils. First, the range of location of a fossil typewithin the layers of strata is always open tobeing extended beyond its current limits asnew fossils are discovered in those layers.
  35. 35. Second, when an extension of a fossils range may be required,geologists may call upon erosion (reworkingfossils into younger strata or leaking fossils into older strata) and structural events (overturning or faulting strata & fossils).
  36. 36. An example of the first problem is the monoplacophoran mollusk Pilina, which might otherwise be considered diagnostic of the Silurian System, except for the startling discovery that Neopilina lives today, and,therefore, would be expected in any system overlying the Silurian. Wikipedia still has this animal classified as early Cambrian to Devonian.
  37. 37. For these reasonscorrelation by fossils must always remain tentative awaiting further confirmatory evidence from lithostratigraphy. We should look very skeptically at strata correlations which rely solely on fossils.
  38. 38. Misconception No. 7 Sedimentary evidence proves that periods of millions of yearsduration were required to deposit individual strata systems.
  39. 39. Before radiometric dating was devised, uniformitarian geologists postulated "periods" of millions of years duration to slowly deposit the strata systems.A single sedimentary lamina, or bed, wassupposed by uniformitarian geologists to represent typically a year or many years duration.
  40. 40. It was concluded, therefore, that multiplied thousands of lamina and beds superimposed required millions of years. Recently, however, geologists have discovered that lamina and beds form quickly on floodplains of rivers during floods, in shallow marine areas during storms, and in deep water by turbidity currents.
  41. 41. The evidence of rapid sedimentationis now so easily recognized that geologistsobserving a strata system these days often ask where to insert the "missing time" of which the strata do not show sedimentary evidence. Catastrophism, quite naturally, is making a come-back.
  42. 42. There is good reason to believe that entire strata systems, and even groups of systems,were accumulated in a hydraulic cataclysm matching the description of Noahs Flood in the Bible.
  43. 43. Misconception No. 8Radiometric dating can supply "absolute ages" in millions ofyears with certainty to systems of the geologic column.
  44. 44. Geologists and geochronologists assert that radiometric dating verifies that individualstrata systems and their strata are millions of years old.When asked to document the most reliable radiometric age dates, geologists usually point to isochronal and concordia plots which employ multiple isotopic analyses, which they claim will remove the effects of original "contaminants," and display the "age" of a rock in graphical form.
  45. 45. However, we find geologists often reporting isochronal plots which are discordant with the accepted "ages" of strata systems. Frequently, these discordant isochronalplots "date" strata systems much older than even the accepted old ages customarily assigned to the systems of the geologic column.
  46. 46. Geologists should be asking which,if any, of the isochronal plots should be accepted as "absolute ages," and if the discordances do not falsify the assumptions upon which radiometric dating is based.Geologists need to consider radiometric methods which indicate ages of thousands of years for strata systems, as well as general indicators supporting young age.
  47. 47. Misconception No. 9 The environmental "pictures" assigned to certain portions ofthe geologic column allow us to accurately visualize what its "geologic ages" were like.
  48. 48. Books, films and museum displays contain illustrations asking us to visualize what earlier "geologic ages" were like. These "pictures" show supposed primitive earth conditions, specific environments withsediments being slowly deposited, inferred "transitional organisms" evolving toward familiar forms, and whole communities oforganisms "at home" with other organisms absent.
  49. 49. Perhaps the most blatant environmental picture" has been assigned to lower Precambrian strata, formed when the earth supposedly had a reducingatmosphere and an "organic soup" in whichlife evolved. Yet, geologists have yet to find sedimentary evidence for the reducing atmosphere and the soup. This reminds us that accepting an environmental "picture" requires much imagination from a meager supply of facts.
  50. 50. Misconception No. 10 The geologic column and the positions of fossils within thegeologic column provide proof of amoeba-to-man evolution.
  51. 51. All the animal phyla, including chordate fish, are now known as fossils in the Cambrian System. No ancestral forms can be foundfor the protozoa, arthropods, brachiopods, mollusks, bryozoans, coelenterates, sponges, annelids, echinoderms or chordates.
  52. 52. These phyla appear in the fossil record fully formed and distinct, in better agreement with the conceptof "multiple, abrupt beginnings" (creation) than with the notion of "descent from a common ancestor" (evolution).
  53. 53. REFERENCES1. R. Ritiand, "Historical development of the current understanding of the geologic column: part II," Origins, Vol. 9, 1982, pp. 28-47.2. Estimated by the author using data from J. Woodmorappe, "The essential nonexistence of the evolutionary-uniformitarian geologic column: a quantitative assessment," Creation Res.Soc. Quarterly, Vol. 18, 1981, pp. 46-71.3. D.V. Ager, The Nature of the Stratigraphical Record, 2nd ed. (New York: John Wiley, 1981), P. 11.4. C. Brooks, D.E. James and S.R. Hart, "Ancient lithosphere: its role in young continental volcanism," Science, Vol. 193, 1976, pp. 1086-1094.5. R.V. Gentry, et al., "Radiohalos in coalified wood: new evidence relating to the time of uranium introduction and coalification," Science, Vol. 194, 1976, pp. 315-318.6. S.A. Austin, "Did the early earth have a reducing atmosphere?"ICR Impact 109, July 1982, 4 pp.
  54. 54. From where did the Earth’s strata and fossils come?
  55. 55. What are fossils? A fossil is a remnant of a biological orbotanical organism (skeleton, leaf, even the skin of an animal) which has been preserved by immediate burial with sediment at the time of “death” or as the cause of “death” with extreme amounts of pressure applied to the organism being buried.
  56. 56. A Creation Seminar by Mark Woodson Mark Woodson P.O. Box 226 Terra Ceia, FL. 34520 (941)737-0279e-mail:
  57. 57. Claims of the Evolutionary Geology1. The strata of the earth were laid down layer upon layer over billions of years.2. Each stratum contains fossils indigenous to that era because each sedimentary layer caused the fossilization of the creatures it contains and each new layer contains more advanced life forms than the last.3. Radiometric & other forms of dating prove an old age for earth’s strata.4. Uniformitarianism accounts for all geologic formations & fossils.
  58. 58. Claims of the Evolutionary Geology1. The strata of the earth were laid down layer upon layer over billions of years.
  59. 59. Claims of the Evolutionary GeologyEvolutionary geologists claim that these laminat lines are theresult of yearly deposits of debris building up over billions ofyears. Each of these lines are part of a group of lines within a certain stratum.
  60. 60. As mentioned earlier, while discussing geo-chronometers - about 3,650,000 tons of meteoricdust accumulates on the earth every year.Scientists claim that this is one of the sources ofthe debris which formed Earth’s strata. Othersources are recycled matter from seismic events,such as volcanoes,plate tectonics andlocalized floods.These events laidsedimentary layerswhich hardened overtime and formed ourstrata.
  61. 61. The biggest issues evolutionists must address byadopting this belief of stratum formation are:1. Would it take billions of years of volcanoes,plate tectonics and localized floods, to form thelayers of sediments into the strata we havetoday?2. Are there validGeo-Chronometersoffering justificationfor their “billions ofyears” hypothesis?
  62. 62. 1. Why would it take billions of years ofvolcanoes, plate tectonics and localized floods, toform the layers of sediments into the stratum wehave today?Truth is, many geologists know it would NOT takebillions of years to form these geologicformations. Geologists developed the geologiccolumn as an arrangement of the Earth’s strata,according to the various fossils which theycontained. Because of this, thesestrata are represented as formingover the billions of years toagre with biological evolution.
  63. 63. Geologist takedates for their From the fossilsstrata . . . they contain Paleontologists from the strata they are found in. take dates for their fossils . . .
  64. 64. Geologist takedates for their From the fossilsstrata . . . they contain Paleontologists from the strata they are found in. take dates for their fossils.
  65. 65. Geologists takedates for their From the fossilsstrata . . . they contain So let’s look again. Paleontologists from the strata they are found in. take dates for their fossils.
  66. 66. Geologic datesare obtained . . . from fossils dates. And, fossil dates from geologic dates. are obtained . . .
  67. 67. 2. Geo-Chronometers offering proof of billions of years?This will be discussed later . . .
  68. 68. Claims of the Evolutionary Geology2. Each stratum contains fossils indigenous to that era because each sedimentary layer caused the fossilization of the creatures it contains and each new layer contains more advanced life forms than the last.
  69. 69. 1. A smooth transition from simple to advanced life forms is not found in the geological column.2. Fossilization does not happen over long periods of time – that would be decay.
  70. 70. This smoothtransition from“simple” (by whichthey could only meansmaller), to moreadvanced horsesis NOT foundin this orderin the fossilrecord!
  71. 71. WaterSoftsedimentCompactedsedimentMeta-morphicrock
  72. 72. The previous method offossilizaton works for creatures who have a hard exoskeleton, for soft bodied organisms immediate burial is required.
  73. 73. RememberA fossil . . . has been preservedby immediate burial of sediment at the time of death or as the cause of death with extremeamounts of pressure applied to the organism being buried.
  74. 74. Bones of soft-bodied organisms may survive a slow burial and fossilization, but that is because bones and teeth are already partially mineralized while thecreature was alive. However, this method tells us little about the organism and usually the bones are scattered by scavengers.
  75. 75. There are over 20 differing versions of the geologic column. None of which can actually be found anywhere on Earth. These columns differ in stratumarrangements as well as fossil placement.
  76. 76. Ager stated that, “We are only kidding ourselves if we think thatwe have anything like a complete succession forany part of the strati graphical column in any oneplace.”In, Creation Research Society Quarterly, Vol. 18, No. 1, June 1981, pp. 46-71.
  77. 77. Claims of the Evolutionary Geology3. Radiometric & other forms of dating prove an old age for earth’s strata.
  78. 78. What is Radiometric Dating? Radiometric dating is a term used for a grouping of tests, utilized by evolutionary scientists, inan attempt to establish a likely date of death,burial, petrifaction, stratification and/orfossilization for eitherorganic or inorganicthings.
  79. 79. The following list is of the more well-known radiometric dating methods:1. Carbon14 or C14 dating.2. Uranium - Lead, Potassium - Argon, Rubidium - Strontium, Thorium - Protactinium Lead - Lead . . .etc.
  80. 80. 1. C 14 dating created by W.F. Libby is based on evolutionary assumptions which cause miscalculations.
  81. 81. Libby’s formula was based on thepresupposition that the atmosphere had already reached a state of complete C 14 saturation.Meaning that the earth was losing as much C14 due to radioactivedecay as it was gaining new C 14 in the upper atmosphere.
  82. 82. Libby had calculated that the earthshould reach the state of C14 saturation 30-50 thousand years following it’s natural production in our atmosphere. Since he also “knew” the earth to be much older than this, he created a formula which conformed to those parameters.
  83. 83. Now, Carbon-14, is a radioactive isotope of carbon discovered February 27, 1940, by Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben. Its Nucleus contains 6 protons and 8 neutrons.Its presence in organic materials is used in radiocarbon dating.
  84. 84. It occurs naturally and has a relativeabundance up to 0.00000000012%. That is approximately 1 atmospheric atom of Carbon 14 to every 1 trillion atmospheric atoms. The half-life of carbon-14 is 5,730 years. It decays into nitrogen-14 through beta-decay.
  85. 85. Carbon-14 is produced in the upper layers of the troposphere andthe stratosphere by thermal neutrons absorbed by nitrogen atoms.
  86. 86. The only things which can be carbon 14 datedare biological or botanical matter or things formed by these – such as coal, which is formed by plant matter.
  87. 87. This is because carbon 14 is agas and is literally “breathed-in”by plants, animals and humans. Rocks don’t breathand liquids do not retain gasses for long periods of time so C14 dating does not work for these items.
  88. 88. The only way this could be measured in order to obtain a date is to have a constant.In this case, the constant MUST be a constant amount of C 14 in the atmosphere which does not increase or decrease.
  89. 89. This would allow us to measure the amount of C14 still present in remains against that in the atmosphere.
  90. 90. Using this figure against the decay rate of C14offers a reliable date of death – but only if the atmosphere has reached a state of equilibrium concerning C14 saturation.
  91. 91. For evolutionists there is a perceived second problem -the organism tested has to have died no more than 100,000 years ago, because currentinstruments cannot detect C 14 in very low concentrations, which is what you would have IF the remains were that old.
  92. 92. This presents a genuine problem for evolutionists because C14 is measurable and in the sameconcentration throughout the entire coal seam dated by geology as 30-300 million years ago!
  93. 93. Diamonds are usually said to be the oldest of formations on earth. Yet they containmeasurable amounts of Carbon 14!
  94. 94. Now, due to the density and hardnessof diamonds, they are nearly impossible to contaminate with outside elements meaning that these “oldest” of precious stones, are younger than 100,000 years at most!
  95. 95. Lee, Robert E., in an article called, “Radiocarbon, Ages in Error” “The troubles of the radiocarbon datingmethod are undeniably deep and serious. Despite 35 years of technological refinement and better understanding, the underlying assumptions have beenstrongly challenged, and warnings are out that radiocarbon may soon find itself in a crisis situation.”
  96. 96. “Continuing use of the method depends on a “fix-it-as-we-go” approach, allowing for contamination here, fractionation there, and calibration whenever possible. It should be no surprise, then, that fully half of the dates are rejected. The wonder is, surely, that the remaining half come to be accepted.”
  97. 97. The following are some examples of Carbon 14 datingwhich are FAR MORE common than evolutionary geologists would like you to think.
  98. 98. 1) Coal from Russia was said to be 300 million years old, however, tests yielded a date of 1,680 years old. A mere 299,998,320 year difference.2) Natural gas from Alabama, supposedly from the Cretaceous Period (50 million years old), when C14 dated, showed an age of 30,000 years.
  99. 99. 3) Another natural gas sample from Mississippi, dated by geologists as being from the Eocene period 135 million years old, dated as only 34,000 years by C14 dating.4) A Sabre-toothed tiger from the La Brea tar pits geologically dated @ 100,000 million years old and by C14 dating gave an age of only 28,000 years.
  100. 100. 5) A freshly killed seal showed that it had died 1,300 years ago.6) Living mollusk shells were dated at 2,300 years.7) Living snails showed death dates of 27,000 years ago.
  101. 101. “No matter how ‘useful’ it is, though, the radiocarbon method is still not capable of yielding accurate and reliable results. There are gross discrepancies,the chronology is uneven and relative, and the accepted dates are actually selected dates.” Lee, Robert E., in an article called, “Radiocarbon, Ages in Error” Anthropological Journal of Canada, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1981, pp. 9, 29 (Assistant Editor)
  102. 102. 2. Uranium - Lead Potassium - Argon, Rubidium - Strontium, Thorium - Protactinium . . . etc. All of these have severe mathematical errors and reflect evolutionary bias.
  103. 103. What are Potassium Argon & Uranium Lead dating?Both are quite similar to the C14 datingmethod, only they utilize some different elements to do the same thing. These other methods are importantbecause C14 dating only works on once living biological or botanical matter, or trapped natural gasses, where as Potassium-Argon and Uranium-Lead methods are used for dating rock sediments.
  104. 104. Assumptions of Radiometric Dating1. It’s a Closed System.2. No original “daughter” atoms were present. In the case of Potassium-Argon dating it is important than no original Argon-40 was in the sedimentary rock previous to the decay of Potassium-40. This would cause much older dates to be detected than actually occurred.
  105. 105. 3. No Laboratory errors.4. No variations from the same sample.5. Results have not been altered due to the presence of pressure or heat.
  106. 106. What’s Wrong with These Forms of Dating? Potassium-Argon dating relies upon the presence of igneous rocks (cooled, molten rock) or volcanic ashin the stratum directly above the fossils. This is interesting in that scientists admit that the presence of intense heat during the fossilization process will cause major miscalculations in the fossil date.
  107. 107. Some of Potassium-Argon and Uranium-Leadembarrassing dates.1)Tree roots in Grande Prairie, Alberta, Canada, were fossilized in seconds in 1973 when a high voltage power line fell to the ground. When scientists where asked what the result of Potassium-Argon testing these roots would be, they said, the tests would show them to be millions of years old, due to the intense heat involved in their petrification process.11
  108. 108. 2) Hawaiian Lava flows, known to be less than 200 years old, were dated at 3 billion years old by Potassium-Argon dating!123) The famous Australopithecus found in Ethiopia, Potassium-Argon dated at approximately 2 million years old. When mammal bones where C14 tested within the same deposit, instead of acquiring a date of 50,000 yrs., which is the top end of the C14 method, it offered a date of 15,500 years.13
  109. 109. Claims of the Evolutionary Geologic Column4. Uniformitarianism accounts for all geologic formations & fossils.
  110. 110. Modern seismic eventsfail to demonstrate that long periods of time are necessary to form:• Fossils• Large geologic formations• Stratification• Petrification• . . . or any other major geologic changes.
  111. 111. A Creation Seminar by Mark Woodson Mark Woodson P.O. Box 226 Terra Ceia, FL. 34520 (941)737-0279e-mail:
  112. 112. Claims of Flood Geology1. The strata of the earth were laid down quickly during the global flood mentioned in the Bible.2. Flood geology explains why we find what we actually find in the geologic column.3. Young earth known by presence of Pleochroic halos in the granites of the Earth.4. Catastrophism explains the creation of geological formations.
  113. 113. Claims of the Flood Geology1. The strata of the earth were laid down quickly during the global flood mentioned in the Bible. &4. Catastrophism explains the creation of geological formations.
  114. 114. Mt. Saint Helens offered us a unique chance to test flood geology in action
  115. 115. Among the last pictures ever taken of Mt. Saint Helens – the morning of May 18, 1980
  116. 116. Steam blast March 1980.
  117. 117. Subsequent volcanic ash eruptions in March and April.
  118. 118. Northern Slope Undulating & Swelling
  119. 119. This photograph shows the directions ofgeological shifting, plus the conditions just prior to eruption.
  120. 120. Landslide material stripped these trees and washed them down into Spirit Lake
  121. 121. Landslide into Spirit Lake
  122. 122. An entire forest of trees like toothpicks all over the lake and surrounding area.
  123. 123. Spirit Lake after the landslide
  124. 124. These are some of the trees washed out into Spirit Lake
  125. 125. Many, many trees were washed out into Spirit Lake.
  126. 126. . . . and more trees!
  127. 127. Production of a Log Mat
  128. 128. Movement of Log MatIn the Morning Two hours later
  129. 129. Examination of the progression of the catastrophe.
  130. 130. This is stage 1One or two seconds into the landslide event.
  131. 131. Landslide and beginning of the steam blast
  132. 132. This is adiagram of the 3stages ofmountain debris.
  133. 133. A few seconds later onto stage two.
  134. 134. Still less than a minute later it is onto the 3rd stage.
  135. 135. Above 3rd stage.
  136. 136. This is just the first few seconds of the eruption.
  137. 137. This is an aerial shot of the eruption, during its first few seconds.
  138. 138. This is an Satellite shot 43 minutes after the eruption.
  139. 139. In the afternoon.
  140. 140. A City in Washington
  141. 141. This is an outline of the original summit.
  142. 142. This is close-up of the outline the summit.
  143. 143. Overview of the altered terrain.
  144. 144. The Day After
  145. 145. Harry Trueman
  146. 146. Car Damage
  147. 147. Bow Your heavens, O LORD, and come down: touch the mountains, and they will smoke. Psalm 144:5
  148. 148. After 9 hours of seismic events Mt. Saint Helens resembles a 1/40th scale model of the Grand Canyon!
  149. 149. Following the May 18th eruption of 1980, there were five subsequent eruptions that year plus a large seismic event worthy of note on March 19th 1982. Each was preceded by distinct bursts of seismic activity (harmonic tremor). May 25th June 12th July 22nd August 7th October 16th March 19th 1982For our purposes we will only be looking closely at three of them. Those of May 18th & June 12th 1980, and that of March 19th 1982.
  150. 150. The following are just a few of the astounding geologicalalterations which were made by there separate seismic events all of which when added together took less than a few days.
  151. 151. Some Before and After Pictures of the Forests.
  152. 152. Complete Destruction of Forests.
  153. 153. Complete Destruction of Forests.
  154. 154. In ascending order there were three separate flows which left these deposits.The first is the air fall depositfrom the May 18th eruption of 1980.The second, is the Pyroclasticor Pumice flow deposit from the June 12th, 1980 The third, is the Mudflowdeposit of March 19th, 1982.
  155. 155. May 18th 1980 The air fall deposit of May 18th,1980 was laid down as aresult of the major eruption of volcanic ash.
  156. 156. The ash spewed from the mountain for 9 hours in a huge ongoing eruptiondepositing, in some areas upto 100’ of air fall material in layered strata formation.
  157. 157. As these photos graphicallydemonstrate, there were some areas close to the mountain where the landslide materialcovered the terrain in 100’ of dirt and ash first, only to becovered by an additional 100’of air fall ash, leaving a total of 200’ of deposit just from the eruption of May 18th.
  158. 158. Steam Explosion Pit There were secondary steam explosionscaused by the glacier summit ice cap being immediately buried under 550 degrees ofvolcanic ash. It actually took 5 days for this ice to escape as steam which formed enormous steam explosion pits near the south west corner of Spirit Lake. Some of the fantastic aspects of this event was the rapid formation of reel and gully topography. These pits are125’ deep, 2,300’ long and 1,000’ wide. After settling, the pit is now 100’ deep with 25’ of ash deposits filling the bottom.
  159. 159. Steam Explosion Pit This reverse angled picture was taken in June after cooling and shows the pit now containing 25’ of deposit. This topography has many features in common with the badlands of South Dakota or the desert terrain in the South West United States. Evolutionary Geology teaches that only hundreds of thousands of years of reel andgully erosion can form this topography. Yetit happened before our eyes quickly (within 5 days) by steam pressure opening a hole into which deposits fell by gravity.
  160. 160. The June 12th eruption (which was the third eruption) was almost entirely a magmatic eruption.Now Magmatic eruptions are lacking in high silica and water content and are not explosive. This eruption flowed out onto the earth’s surface as a lava flow at about 140 miles per hour.
  161. 161. Pumice is a unique product of magmatic eruptions. It is a frothy volcanic rock formed bythe expansion of gases such as steam in erupting lava. Because it is laced withbubbles, it can be very light andeven float on water. It can haveso many bubbles, it will be merefroth. It’s heat, density and force driving the eruption can cause many different degrees of destruction from very little to catastrophic.
  162. 162. On June 12th, 1980, hurricane velocity (2x’s highway speed) surging pryoclastic flowsdeposited 25’ of minutely layered strata in hours.It was thought that such a flow would leave behind ahomogenized mess of hardened material, but instead thinly layered strata were laid down!
  163. 163. Over the years, several lava domes have Arial Viewsformed on Mt. Saint Helens. These lavadomes were formed by lava being forcedup the neck of the volcano like toothpastefrom a tube. As it oozed out and wasexposed to the atmosphere, it cooled,cracked and settled into previous cracks inthe surface forming this dome.
  164. 164. October 10th 1980Steam and ash plume risesover Mount St. Helens eastcrater rim. This is the calmbefore the storm. Theeruption occurred 6 dayslater.USGS Photograph taken on October 10, 1980, by Lyn Topinka.
  165. 165. October 18th 1980On October 18, 1980 following the eruption of the 16th, anew dome started growing. This dome was 112 feet high and985 feet wide, making it taller than a nine-story building andwider than the length of three football fields.This aerial view is from the north. This dome was not the firstdome to grow in the crater. In June and August 1980, twodomes formed, only to be blasted away by the explosiveevents of July 22 and October 16.USGS Photograph taken on October 24, 1980, by Terry Leighley, Scandia Labs.
  166. 166. The lava dome is 1,000’ high and a few thousand feet in diameter (taller than a 30 story building).It acts like a liquid cork which solidifies, and thus bottles up the neck of the volcano. There have been 6 lava domes which have built up since 1980.
  167. 167. For two years the whole upper drainage basin of the ToutleRiver remained blocked by 3/8ths of a cubic mile of landslide material from the initial moments of May 18th effectively damming it up and cutting it off from the Pacific Ocean.The blockage was then removed by a subsequent mud flow on March 19th 1982.
  168. 168. An explosive eruption on March 19, 1982, sent pumice and ash 9 miles into the air, and resulted in a lahar (the darkdeposit on the snow) flowing from the crater into the North Fork Toutle River valley. Part of the lahar entered Spirit Lake (lower left corner) butmost of the flow went west down the Toutle River, breechingthe blockage and eventually reaching the Cowlitz River, 50 miles downstream.
  169. 169. This mudflow very quickly gouged out canyons with tree branching drainage patterns of incredible complexity.Part of the drainage basin formed in the Spirit Lake area. These newly formed canyons include a complexity of features such as a flat gully-headed side canyon, a cup- shaped side canyon, and a snaking pattern.
  170. 170. A system of 5 canyons come together here some of which are over 100’ deep and was all essentially done in a single day.
  171. 171. A system of 5 canyons come together here some of which are over 100’ deep and was all essentially done in a single day.
  172. 172. All of these laminate lines are supposed to take at lest one year each to form, and these all formed in hours!
  173. 173. All of these laminate lines are supposed to take at lest one year each to form, and these all formed in hours!
  174. 174. All of these laminate lines are supposed to take at lest one year each to form, and these all formed in hours!
  175. 175. Another catastrophic result of the mudflow. Mud Flow MarkersMiddle of Mud Flow Edge of Mud Flow
  176. 176. Mud Flow Markers Middle of Mud Flow Edge of Mud FlowThis valley was filled ¼ mile wide to 30’ deep in mud scouring the entire area down to bedrock. By the time the mudflow subsided it deposited 15’ of mud sediment.
  177. 177. Another interesting outcome of the Mt. Saint Helens eruptions has been both the complete and partialvalidation of hypothesis’ held by Flood Geologists as to the formation of Fossil Forests and coal beds.
  178. 178. Steven Austin had speculated that an event such as thosewhich washed the forest into Spirit lake, might produce,fossilized forests, non-indigenous fossilized forests and peat for natural coal production.
  179. 179. Traditional evolutionary thinking would say that the treesgrew at different times and were subsequently buried, thus demonstrating the geologic ages of their existence.
  180. 180. Well, what did we find?
  181. 181. For every log which had some vertical orientation, there was a corresponding number of “waterlogged” ends, under the water, holding them upright. Above the water Under the water
  182. 182. Evolutionary Geologists have conclusively stated that whatyou are seeing here could never happen. These tree stumps were redeposited miles away from their original location. Just like the petrified stumps of non-indigenous trees in Yellowstone National Park.
  183. 183. As far as a layer of peak for future coal formation the bottom of Spirit lake is covered in the partiallydecomposing bark which was stripped off of the treesby the scouring wave caused by the landslide material of May 18th . No Bark!
  184. 184. These are fossilized trees from the Yellowstone National Park.
  185. 185. August 7th 1980 During the May 18, 1980 eruption, at least 17 separate pyroclastic flows descended the flanks of Mount St.Helens. Pyroclastic flows typically move at speeds of over 60 miles per hour (100 kilometers/hour) and reachtemperatures of over 800 Degrees Fahrenheit (400 degrees Celsius). Photographed here, a pyroclastic flow from the August 7, 1980 eruption stretches from Mount St. Helens crater to the valley floor below. USGS Photograph taken on August 7, 1980, by Peter W. Lipman.
  186. 186. July 22nd 1980
  187. 187. July 22nd 1980This eruption sent pumice and ash 6 to 11miles into the air, and was visible in Seattle,Washington, 100 miles to the north.The view here is from the south.USGS Photograph taken on July 22, 1980, by Mike Doukas.
  188. 188. Evolutionary geologists have beenrethinking the idea of the Colorado Rivercarving out the Grand Canyon over millionsof years. It has appeared, more and morethat massive seismic events (includingflooding) causing a quick catastrophicchange is more likely and more consistentwith the evidences. Also, the fact that thisSatellite photography (color enhanced)show an elevation of 8-9,000’ above sealevel on northern plateau and 7,000’ on thesouthern (arrow), make the canyon’sformation through that region via a smallriver very difficult, since water flowsdownhill.
  189. 189. On a personal note, anyone who could think that a narrow, single directionalriver could flow upstream and carve out a canyon this enormous is certifiable!
  190. 190. Speaking of Certifiable -
  191. 191. RememberA fossil . . . has been preserved byimmediate burial of sediment at the time of death or as the cause of death with extreme amounts of pressure applied to the organism being buried. Flood geology alone provides these conditions!
  192. 192. Claims of the Flood Geology2. Flood geology explains why we find what we actually find in the geologic column.
  193. 193. Claims of the Flood Geology3. Young age of the Earth known by presence of Pleochroic halos in the granites of the Earth.
  194. 194. We gave many reasons for a young Earth earlier, but even the appearance ofage is addressed in the Bible as being superficial.
  195. 195. Within the first weekof creation, oceans were fullof life, trees were full grown with fruit already on them and man was already an adult.
  196. 196. “For this they willfully forget:that by the Word of God theheavens were of old, and the earth standing out of water and in the water, by which the world that then existedperished, being flooded with water. . .”II Peter 3:5,6.
  197. 197. world - Greek word, kosmos, which means the orderly arrangement, adorning, world.perished - Greek word, apollumi, which means To destroy fully, loose, mar, perish.
  198. 198. This section on FloodGeology is covered in depth in Part 5b: Noah’s Ark & Flood Geology.