Part 1: What is Science?


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Part 1: What is Science?

  1. 1. A Creation Seminar byMark Woodson Mark Woodson P.O. Box 226Terra Ceia, FL. 34520 (941)737-0279
  2. 2. •To offer authentic scientific information.•To point out Biblical possibilities concerning “origins”, based on scientific method.•To point out “bad science” and scientific impossibilities of modern evolutionary teaching.
  3. 3. What is Science?Science si-en(t)s n1. The state of knowing : i.e. - knowledge as distinguished from ignorance or misunderstanding.3. a : Knowledge or a system of knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws esp. as obtained and tested through scientific method. b : Such knowledge or such a system of knowledge concerned with the physical world and its phenomena : natural science.4. A system or method reconciling practical ends with scientific laws. - Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary 10th Edition.
  4. 4. Science is the process used to gain knowledge of observable occurrences. This knowledge is obtained and testedthrough scientific method, which attempts to unite end results with scientific laws. When dry sulfur (like on the end of a match) is agitated by dry friction (like when struck on the fine sand paper on a match box) within an environment where there is oxygen (like in this room) it will ignite. This is a scientific fact, because given the above criteria it will never fail to work!
  5. 5. Then science is . . . the study of anyobservable occurrence by way of Scientific Method.
  6. 6. It is important to know thatthe NAS and other leadingcorporations have actively been redefining “science” for decades now. They are seeking to eliminate ANY causal power beyond naturalism.
  7. 7. The following is a website referencing “per state” definitions for science.
  8. 8. In brief the following is still generally acceptedand represents what most people (scientist or not) believe is the definition of science.
  9. 9. Science is . . . the study of any observable occurrence by way of Scientific Method.
  10. 10. This does not imply that the „cause‟ of an occurrencemust be observable, but only the event being studied!
  11. 11. The only placewhere this consideration must be made is concerning ‘first causes’.Meaning the God or thing which „caused‟ the universe.
  12. 12. For example: Evolutionists claim specific ideas about the Big Bang. The origin of the universe pre-dates direct observation, so no one expects them to produce “observable causes” for their claim – only scientific proof that what they claim could have happened.
  13. 13. The same should be true for creationists.
  14. 14. Creationists claim specific ideaswhich pre-date direct observation, and they should not be expectedto produce “God” for observation – only scientific proofs that Biblical claims for creation could have happened.
  15. 15. How do we prove that something could havehappened scientifically?
  16. 16. What is Scientific Method?Scientific Method - n (1854) : principlesand procedures for the systematic pursuit ofknowledge involving: the recognition andformulation of a problem, the collection ofdata through observation and experiment, andthe formulation and testing of hypotheses. 1. Identify and define the question. 2. Collect intel on the question. 3. Create a preliminary explanation for testing. - Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary 10th Edition.
  17. 17. 1. Observation All true science must go through these steps, in order to establish a law.2. Hypothesis The goal is to use scientific data to identify a set of conditions, 3. Theories which can explain principles we observe operating in nature. 4. Facts or Laws
  18. 18. Observed Occurrences When yellow powder is agitated by friction it will ignite. This seems true, but is based on limited “observation”.
  19. 19. What is a Hypothesis?Hypothesis hi-pae-the-ses n,1. a. An assumption or concession made for the sake of argument .2. A tentative assumption made in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences.3. Hypothesis implies insufficient evidence to provide more than a tentative explanation. Theory implies a greater range of evidence and greater likelihood of truth. Law implies a statement of order and relation in nature that has been found to be invariable under the same conditions. - Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary 10th Edition.
  20. 20. Then a Hypothesis is . . .A guess based on limited evidence providing apossible explanation for testing – in order to verify it‟s logical & empirical truthfulness.
  21. 21. If the assumptions of a hypothesis are already disproved by scientific laws, further testing is unnecessary.The hypothesis is no longer able to be considered as legitimate science.
  22. 22. For example: If any hypothesis requires a heated gas to contract, without any identifiable cause,which would be consistent with known laws, it is not a valid hypothesis.Because scientific laws say this can‟t happen. Charles‟ Law & Pressure Law state that gases repel from one another when hot – even when they are put under pressure.
  23. 23. For example: If any hypothesis requires a heated gas to contract, without any identifiable cause,which would be consistent with known laws, it is not a valid hypothesis. Why?Because scientific laws say this can‟t happen. Charles‟ Law & Pressure Law state that gases repel from one another when hot – even when they are put under pressure.
  24. 24. For example: If any hypothesis requires a heated gas to contract, without any identifiable cause,which would be consistent with known laws, it is not a valid hypothesis. Why?
  25. 25. Hypothesis When dry yellow powder is agitated by dry friction it will ignite. This is a hypothesis, based on limited observation, research and evidence. It seems true under all currently tested conditions.
  26. 26. Theory the-e-re, n, (1592)1. The analysis of a set of facts in their relation to one another.2. Abstract thought : speculation.4. a : A belief, policy, or procedure proposed or followed as the basis of action.5. A plausible or scientifically acceptable general principle or body of principles offered to explain phenomena.6. a. A hypothesis assumed for the sake of argument or investigation. b. An unproved assumption : conjecture. c. A body of theorems presenting a concise systematic view of a subject. - Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary 10th Edition. 1
  27. 27. Then a Theory is . . . A general principle which breaks no known laws,and is used to demonstrate how a hypothesis might accurately explain an occurrence.
  28. 28. If the principles of a theory are already disproveby scientific laws, further testing is unnecessary. The theory is no longer able to be considered as legitimate science.
  29. 29. Theory When dry Sulfur is agitated by dry friction it will ignite. This is a theory, based on considerable observation, research and evidence and is true under all currently tested conditions.
  30. 30. Fact fakt n.1. A thing done.3. The quality of being actual : actuality <a question of ~ hinges on evidence>.4. a : Something that has actual existence. b : an actual occurrence.5. A piece of information presented as having objective reality - in fact : in truth. - Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary 10th Edition. 1
  31. 31. Then a Scientific Fact is . . . a theory, which has been proven to be an objective truth , by repeated testing ,producing the same results, every time without fail .
  32. 32. Scientific Fact [Law] When dry Sulfur is agitated by dry friction in the presence of Oxygen it will ignite. This is a fact, based on observed responses to repeated, identical testing. The evidence proves this is always true, with no variation, when conducted under these conditions.
  33. 33. Even though the 4 stepsof Scientific Method are thorough,there are many times when these steps alone cannot arrive at a single conclusive answer. In these cases, additional helps are available to narrow downthe remaining choices to discover the single most likely cause for an event witnessed in nature.
  34. 34. These three steps are among the mostused and useful. 1. Deductive reasoning. 2. Occam‟s Razor. 3. Mathematical modeling.These are used as tools to helpscientific investigation progress from anhypothesis to a scientific law.
  35. 35. This is also called „inference to the best explanation‟ and is the same logic used in everyday decision making. It is used by detectives, lawyers, judges, scientists . . . even you!More than one hypothesis may explain the same piece of evidence.One way to decide between competing hypotheses, is to look at their “explanatory power”.
  36. 36. By “explanatory power”, we mean the ability of a hypothesis to explain an occurrence. The hypothesis, which more clearly andaccurately explains the occurrence, is said to have greater “explanatory power”. This is what Deductive Reasoning is used to determine.
  37. 37. Deductive reasoning says, “If we want to explain an event, we must consider the whole range of available hypotheses and follow the one which would provide the best explanation - if it is true.” In other words, we do an in-depth analysisof the possible explanations and keep adding information until only one explanation is left which can explain the whole range of data. This hypothesis is the one with the greatest “explanatory power”.
  38. 38. This is a time tested method of separating fact from fiction. Repeatedly, the conclusions we drawfrom Deductive Reasoning result in the establishment of proven scientific facts. We may use this method of reasoning with a high degree of confidence.
  39. 39. Two systems of reasoning are used in conformity with this method - even though technically only one of them strictly fits the definition of Deductive Reasoning. A priori A posteriori
  40. 40. A prioriThough not strictly a scientificterm this Latin word representsa method generally used in the Early usage includes Platopursuit of knowledge It means: “Proceeding from a known or assumed cause to a necessarily related effect; deductive.”This directly applies to thesystematic pursuit of knowledgeby scientific method.
  41. 41. A posteriori Though, also, not strictly aDevelopedby Francis scientific term this Latin word Bacon represents a method generally used in the pursuit of knowledge It means: “Something known by way of empirical evidences; inductive.” This seems to be more of a “result of” scientific method,rather than a “tool of” scientific method.
  42. 42. A priori vs. A posterioriBoth are perfectly legitimate methods,they simply approach a problem from opposite vantage points. Examples of a priori reasoning: "all bachelors are male“. This is deduced from inferences. ----------- Examples of a posteriori reasoning: "Hitler died in 1945". This is known from history.
  43. 43. 1. Deductive reasoning.2. Occam’s Razor.3. Mathematical Modeling.
  44. 44. What if deductive reasoning points evenlyto more than one hypothesis?What if two or more hypotheseshave equal explanatory power?
  45. 45. Occum‟s Razor is attributed to the 14th century English logician, Franciscan Friar and scholastic philosopher William of Ockham,and can be paraphrased as saying, "All things being equal, the simplest solution tends to be the best one."In Science - when competing theories areequal in other respects, selecting the theorythat introduces the fewest assumptionsmost often proves to be correct.
  46. 46. The actual law reads like this:“Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily.”
  47. 47. Programmers have adapted this law into an acronym: K.I.S.S.Keep it simple stupid!
  48. 48. 1. Deductive reasoning.2. Occam’s Razor.3. Mathematical Modeling.
  49. 49. This is the use of applied mathematics as abstract mathematical toolsfor solving concrete problems in science.Observing and collecting measurements often requires the constructing of mathematical models.Calculus and Statistics are two branches of mathematics most often used to model a theory.
  50. 50. Scientists use mathematical formulas to illustrate hypothetical ideas, much like letters (variables) are usedto represent unknown numbers in Algebra. By allowing a letter or symbol to represent the various partsof a hypothesis, a scientist can determine if the idea has empirical qualities.
  51. 51. Take the all familiar mass-energy equivalence formula of Einstein E= mc 2In this formula: is used for the speed rest is used to rest mass in kg. in a represent of light energy, measured in joules. vacuum.
  52. 52. E= mc 2For example:This equation uses math to demonstratethat energy (joules) is equal to the amountof mass (kilograms) multiplied by thesquare of the velocity of light in a vacuum(miles per second).
  53. 53. In simpler terms: 2If you have 1 kilogram of E= mcmass (about the amount in a pie).E = 1 kilogram x [(300,000,000 meters persecond) x (300,000,000 meters per second)].E = 90,000,000,000,000,000 joules.That is also 24.9 million kilowatt hours.The “average” American home uses 2251.83 KwHa month. It would take 921.47 years for the averageAmerican home to use the energy of 1 kg of mass.
  54. 54. m= E/c 2The formula works backwards as well. It is used to demonstrate that matter and energy are simply two (the mass of) different forms of the same thing. It shows the exchange rate of converting mass to energy or energy into mass.
  55. 55. E= mc 2 This formula gave scientists greatersecurity that Einsteins theory was factual,many years before they were actually able to prove it by experimentation.
  56. 56. Can Creation or Evolution be Proven Scientifically?To date, neither Creation, I.D. nor Evolution canbe proven to be 100% scientific in ALL of theirideas. However, both views do state somepossible scientific hypotheses, theories and factsin their “models”.We MUST recognize that just because somethinghas not been proven by science, does not make itwrong!However, if something has been disproved bytrue science, then that does prove it to be wrong,scientifically.
  57. 57. Another foundational issue inscientific study is the recognition of Uniformity in the Laws of Nature.This is assumed by scientists to be true - otherwise the pursuit of knowing how and why things work the way they do would be futile!If uniformity in natural law isn‟t true the reasons for why things happen would be constantly changing and science would be impossible.
  58. 58. Science makes these assumptions because, without believing that every effect witnessed in nature,has a rational, unchanging cause, the pursuit of knowledge would be pointless! Even today, science assumes a rational, intelligent answer can be found for everything witnessed in nature.
  59. 59. Ironically, this assumption is not consistent with an ad hoc universe. The Christian has to ask scientists – On what basis can you assume anything about a future that has not been experienced?Why should tomorrow be anything like today - especially when the universeis constantly changing and decaying?
  60. 60. Only the Christian, has a well-argued answer. You can only expect laws to exist consistently without change if the laws were put in motion by an intelligence which also has the power to maintain them.The scientist must unwittingly borrowconcepts like the uniformity of nature from the Christian worldview in order to do science.
  61. 61. The contradiction is, that though modern scienceassumes an intelligent answer can and will be foundfor every occurrence in nature, they also assume the answercannot have intelligence itself.In effect it denies the existence of God as Creator without investigation.
  62. 62. Science was not founded on that assumption,nor can it be objectively and genuinely sustained by it today!
  63. 63. “The philosophy of experimentalscience . . . began its discoveries and made use of its methods in the faith, (not the knowledge)that it was dealing with a rationaluniverse controlled by a creator, who did not act upon whim, nor interfere, with the forces He had set in operation . . .”
  64. 64. “. . . It is surely one of the curiousparadoxes of history that science,which professionally has little todo with faith, owes its origins to anact of faith that the universe canbe rationally interpreted, and thatscience today is sustained by thatassumption.” - L. Eiseley: Darwin’s Century: Evolution and the Men who Discovered It (Anchor, NY: Doubleday, 1961).
  65. 65. The field of simple science has existed asfar back as we can trace human civilization.The “modern” methods of science werefirst developed in written form by theJudeo-Christians in Europe.While the rest of the world was still living inthe “dark ages”, Christian Europe wasflourishing with scientific discoveries whichwere new to that generation.
  66. 66. This brief list is of some of the founders of various fields of science who believed that faith in a Creator was essential to understanding science.Physics - Newton, Faraday, Maxwell, Kelvin, Einstein.Chemistry - Boyle, Dalton, Ramsay.Biology - Ray, Linnaeus, Mendel, Pasteur, Virchow, Agassiz.Geology - Steno, Woodward, Brewster, Buckland, Cuvier.Astronomy - Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Herschel, Maunder.Mathematics - Pascal, Leibniz, Euler. Some of the GREATEST minds Science has ever known!
  67. 67. Nicolaus Copernicus 1473 -1543 Copernicus was a Polish astronomerwho is famous for developing the theorythat the earth spins on an axis and that ittravels around the sun, instead of the sun revolvingaround the earth. This “theory” later became knownas the Copernican Theory.“God, without Whom, we can do nothing.”“For who, after applying himself to things which he seesestablished in the best order and directed by Divine ruling,would not through contemplation . . . be awakened to thatwhich is best and would not admire the Artificer of all things,in Whom is all happiness and every good.” ~ Nicolaus Copernicus
  68. 68. Francis Bacon 1561-1626 Lord Chancellor Francis Bacon, an English philosopher, essayist and statesman was a foremost representative of British empiricalphilosophy. He wrote, The Advancement of Learning andNovum Organum, both of which inspired and led to thedevelopment of modern science. It was Francis Bacon whostressed the importance of OBSERVATION while conductingscientific enquiry.“God has this attribute, that He is a jealous God; andtherefore His worship will endure no mixture nor partner. . .They that deny a God destroy man‟s nobility; for certainlyman is of kin to the beasts in his body; and, if he be not kin toGod by his spirit, he is a base and ignoble creature.”~ Francis Bacon
  69. 69. Francis Bacon 1561-1626 “There are two books laid beforeus to study, to prevent our falling intoerror; first, the volume of theScriptures, which reveal the will ofGod; then the volume of theCreatures, which expresses Hispower.” ~ Francis Bacon
  70. 70. Galileo Galilei 1564 - 1642 Galileo Galilei was an Italianmathematician, astronomer, philosopherand physicist.He is the founder of the experimental method.He effectively supported, The Copernican Theory.He proposed the first two laws of motion (whichincludes the law of uniform acceleration for fallingobjects), developed the astronomical telescope,discovered craters on the moon & demonstratedthat the „Milky Way‟ was composed of stars.
  71. 71. Galileo Galilei 1564 - 1642 Galileo Galilei was an Italianmathematician, astronomer, philosopherand physicist.He is the founder of the experimental method.He effectively supported, The Copernican Theory.He proposed the first two laws of motion (whichincludes the law of uniform acceleration for fallingobjects), developed the astronomical telescope,discovered craters on the moon & demonstratedthat the „Milky Way‟ was composed of stars.
  72. 72. Galileo Galilei 1564 - 1642 He has been referred to as the “fatherof modern astronomy," as the "father ofmodern physics," and as "father of science."His experimental work is widely consideredcomplementary to the writings of Francis Bacon inestablishing the modern scientific method.His career coincided with that of Kepler. The work ofGalileo is considered to be a significant break fromthat of Aristotle.
  73. 73. Galileo Galilei 1564 - 1642 “ I trust the infinite goodness of Godmay direct toward the purity of my mind asmall amount of His grace that I may understand themeaning of His words.”“ When I reflect on so many profoundly marvellousthings that persons have grasped, sought, and doneI recognize even more clearly that humanintelligence is a work of God, and one of the mostexcellent.”“To the Lord; Whom I worship and thank; Thatgoverns the heavens with His eyelid, to Him I returntired, but full of living.” ~ Galileo Galilei
  74. 74. Johann Kepler 1571 - 1630 Johann Kepler was a German astronomer, natural philosopher and self proclaimed Christian. He is best known for his formulating and verifying the threelaws of planetary motion, known as “Kepler‟s Laws”.He discovered the elliptical orbits of the earth andother planets in our solar system. During the rule ofthe Holy Roman Emperor Ruldolf II, he became bothcourt astronomer and imperial mathematician.“ Geometry . . . Co-eternal with God . . . and reflecting in theDivine mind has supplied God with the examples . . . for thefurnishing of the world so that it became the best and mostbeautiful, and even also the most similar to the Creator.” ~ Johann Kepler
  75. 75. Johann Kepler 1571 - 1630 “Great is our Lord and great is His strength and there is no number to His wisdom.” “. . . but we Christians . . . know that the eternaland uncreated Logos (Jesus) Who was with God and Who iscontained by no abode . . . has occupied the heavens as Hisroyal abode.”“Since we astronomers are priests of the highest God inregard to the book of nature, it befits us to be thoughtful,not of the glory of our minds, but rather above all else,of the glory of God.”He stated concerning his astronomical observations andstudies that he was merely, “thinking God‟s thoughts afterHim.” ~ Johann Kepler
  76. 76. Blaise Pascal 1623 -1662 Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician, physicist, religious philosopher and writer, is considered to have had one ofthe greatest minds, in all of Western intellectualhistory. He was founder of the modern theory ofprobabilities (a complex mathematical science).He also influenced other thinkers such as Rousseau,Bergson and the existentialists.“All things have sprung from nothing and are borne forward to infinity.Who can follow out such an astonishing career? The Author of thesewonders, and He alone, can comprehend them.”“Everything in the world shows either the unhappy condition of man, orthe mercy of God; either the weakness of man without God, or the powerof man assisted by God.” ~ Blaise Pascal
  77. 77. Blaise Pascal 1623 -1662 “Instead of complaining that God is so concealed, it is the duty of men to bless Him, that He has so far revealed Himself,and also, that He has not discovered Himself to theworldly wise, or to the proud, who are unworthy toknow so holy a God.”“. . . I see plainly, that there is in nature, a necessary,eternal, and infinite Being.”“. . . Happiness can be found neither in ourselvesnor in external things, but in God and in ourselvesas united to Him.” ~ Blaise Pascal
  78. 78. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz 1646 - 1716 Leibniz was a German philosopher and mathematician. He invented both differential and integral Calculus. He was a metaphysician and logician whoconceived a system in which substance consists ofatoms that form a pre-established, perfect harmonywith God as Creator.“With absolute certainty, there is nothing more true than this [Godexists]”“God . . . has no need for matter; He not only arranges it, He also makes it. . . whether He shapes it or breaks it He is wise and He does what Hewants, and what He wants is always good. He has the right to make it; . . .He is all, and matter is nothing for Him.”“Power and knowledge are perfections and insofar as they belong to God,have no limits.” ~ Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
  79. 79. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz 1646 - 1716 Leibniz was a German philosopher and mathematician. He invented both differential and integral Calculus. He was a metaphysician and logician whoconceived a system in which substance consists ofatoms that form a pre-established, perfect harmonywith God as Creator.“With absolute certainty, there is nothing more true than this [Godexists]”“God . . . has no need for matter; He not only arranges it, He also makes it. . . whether He shapes it or breaks it He is wise and He does what Hewants, and what He wants is always good. He has the right to make it; . . .He is all, and matter is nothing for Him.”“Power and knowledge are perfections and insofar as they belong to God,have no limits.” ~ Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
  80. 80. Michael Faraday 1791-1867 Michael Faraday, an English scientistis considered to be the founder of thescientific field of Electrodynamics.He discovered some basic laws of Electrolysis anddiscovered benzene.Two electrical units are named in honor of him - thefaraday & the farad.“ . . . I believe that the invisible things of Him fromthe creation of the worlds are clearly seen, beingunderstood by the things which are made, even Hiseternal power and Godhead.” ~ Michael Faraday
  81. 81. Michael Faraday 1791-1867 “The Christian . . . is taught of God (byHis Word and the Holy Spirit) to trust in thepromise of salvation through the work ofJesus Christ. He finds his guide in the Word of God,and commits the keeping of his soul in the hands ofGod. He looks for no assurance beyond what theWord can give him . . .” “ I bow before Him Who is Lord of all, and hopeto be kept waiting patiently for His time and mode ofreleasing me according to His Divine Word, and thegreat and precious promises whereby His people aremade partakers of the Divine nature.” ~ Michael Faraday
  82. 82. Louis Pasteur 1822 - 1895 Louis Pasteur was a world renownchemist and biologist who, by the time of hisdeath in 1895, had become a national hero. Pasteur was founder of the scientific field ofMicrobiology, proved the germ theory of disease,developed the process of pasteurization andproduced vaccines for several diseases, includingrabies.“. . . In good philosophy, the word „cause‟ ought to be reserved to thesingle Divine impulse that has formed the universe.”“. . . If God had not so arranged . . . the laws governing the changes intissues and fluids of animals‟ bodies . . . (to) impede the proliferation ofthese microscopic creatures, we should always be vulnerable to theirinroads.” ~ Louis Pasteur
  83. 83. Louis Pasteur 1822 - 1895 Louis Pasteur was a world renownchemist and biologist who, by the time of hisdeath in 1895, had become a national hero. Pasteur was founder of the scientific field ofMicrobiology, proved the germ theory of disease,developed the process of pasteurization andproduced vaccines for several diseases, includingrabies.“. . . In good philosophy, the word „cause‟ ought to be reserved to thesingle Divine impulse that has formed the universe.”“. . . If God had not so arranged . . . the laws governing the changes intissues and fluids of animals‟ bodies . . . (to) impede the proliferation ofthese microscopic creatures, we should always be vulnerable to theirinroads.” ~ Louis Pasteur
  84. 84. Albert Einstein 1879-1955 Albert Einstein was a German-Americanphysicist most famous for conceiving the GeneralTheory of Relativity. He also developed a mathematicaldescription of Brownian Movement & the Quantum Theory.His work had a significant influence on the 20th century.“The scientist‟s religious feeling takes the form of arapturous amazement at the harmony of natural law,which reveals an intelligence of such superiority that,compared with it, all the systematic thinking and actingof human beings is utterly insignificant reflection.”~ Albert Einstein
  85. 85. Albert Einstein 1879-1955 “ I want to know how God created thisworld. I‟m not interested in this or thatphenomenon in the spectrum of this or that element.I want to know His thoughts, the rest are details.” “You believe in God playing dice, and I in perfectlaws in the world of things existing as real objects,which I try to grasp in a wildly speculative way.”“. . . I defend the good God against the idea of acontinuous game of dice.”“I believe in . . . God, Who reveals Himself in theharmony of all being.” ~ Albert Einstein
  86. 86. As we‟ve just witnessed, most branches of modern science were founded by those who based their research on the idea that there is a rational and orderly Creator. They concluded that those whodid not recognize this obvious truth,could never hope to grasp the nature and functions of the universe.
  87. 87. The History of Modern Science:Until about 400 years ago science wassubjective and open to the bias of the observer.Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) a secular Greekbiologist, for example, believed that all honeybees were males because “nature” (not God)would never have given a stinging weapon to afemale.
  88. 88. Among the first Greek scholars to seek thefundamental causes of natural phenomenawas the philosopher Thales. In the 6th centuryB.C., he introduced the concept that the earthwas a flat disk, floating on the universalelement, water.Notice, it was secular scientists andphilosophers who believed that the world wasflat, not Bible believing scientists!
  89. 89. Ever since about 700 B.C. the Bible hascontained clear statements of thespherical shape of the Earth.In other words, Bible believing people haveknown the earth is round for over 2,700 years!Which demonstrates that the Bible taughtthis truth nearly 350 years before it becamestandard teaching by the secular world. ` “It is He Who sits above the circle of the earth. . .” Isaiah 40:22
  90. 90. Just to clarify, the word “circle” here in scripture is the wordChuwg (khoog); it is a masculine noun and means “circuit” or acurved course that finishes at the point at which it began. In other words, it is a sphere. “It is He Who sits above the circle of the earth. . .” Isaiah 40:22
  91. 91. Now some people like to claim that theBible thought the earth was a flat squarebecause of Isaiah 11:12 & Revelation 7:1. In the King James version of the Bible, these are translated as saying, “. . . the four corners of the earth”.
  92. 92. The term “corners” is the Hebrew word (Kaw-nawf) and means theextremities of or outermost parts of . . . and in all 109 times this Hebrew word is used, it is only translated by the word “corners” twice. It likely meant the farthest you could go in any direction – North, South, East or West.
  93. 93. The Bible mentions North, South, East & West from the beginning“And the LORD God planted a garden in Eden, in the east, and there he put the man whom he had formed.” ~ Genesis 2:8
  94. 94. Where is the only place that North,South, East and West have anymeaning? On a planetary sphere!
  95. 95. The first specific reference in the Bible for man understanding these directions is in Genesis 28:14. This is about 2,158 years after creation and Jacob was about 40. God said to him, “Your offspring shall be like the dust of the earth, and you shall spread abroad to the west and to the east and to the north and tothe south, and in you and your offspring shall all the families of the earth be blessed.” ~ Genesis 28:14
  96. 96. Now, 2,158 years from creation is about 1986 B.C. which would be at least 1,636 years before the secular world recorded that knowledge. It is most likely that people knew this from the beginning or at least followingNoah‟s flood, because there is no reference to fear that they might fall off the end of the earth.
  97. 97. Noah lived 492 years before Jacob‟sfortieth birthday, making the knowledge of the spherical shape of the earth about 2,128 years more advanced than the secular world.Again, it is most likely that everyone knew the earth was round from the beginning. Secular history just doesn‟t record ituntil about 350 B.C., making Biblical history far more accurate!
  98. 98. Flat Earth Myth The idea that Columbus was toldthe Earth was flat while he thought it was round is simply not true! “David Lindberg, former professor of thehistory of science and director of the Institute for Research in the Humanities at the University of Wisconsin, said, “One obvious [myth] is that before Columbus, Europeans believed nearly unanimously in a flat Earth - a belief allegedly drawn from certain biblical statements and enforced by the medieval church.”
  99. 99. Flat Earth myth “This myth seems to have had an eighteenth century origin, elaborated and popularized by Washington Irving, who flagrantly fabricatedevidence for it in his four-volume history of Columbus... The truth is that it‟s almost impossible to find an educated person after Aristotle who doubts that the Earth is a sphere. In the Middle Ages, you couldn‟t emerge from any kind of education, cathedral school or university, without being perfectly clear about the Earth‟s sphericity and even its approximate circumference.”* *“Natural Adversaries?” Christian History, 76 (Volume XXI, No. 4), 44.
  100. 100. This belief is still in some widely read textbooks today, which supports the idea that the “church” was holding back progress.The common misconception that peoplebefore the age of exploration believed thatEarth was flat entered the popularimagination after WashingtonIrvings publication of, The Life andVoyages of Christopher Columbus,in 1828.
  101. 101. Columbus is furthermore depicted as rebelling against the established Catholic church in Spain by attempting the voyage.Excerpts from a letter Columbus wroteto the King & Queen of Spain, clearlyshow that he not only supportedthe church but was definitely aBible-believing Christian as well.
  102. 102. LETTER OF COLUMBUS TO LUIS DE SANT ANGELANNOUNCING HIS DISCOVERY (1493)Sir:As I know you will be rejoiced at the glorious success thatour Lord has given me in my voyage, . . . The eternal and almightyGod, our Lord, it is Who gives to all who walk in His way, victoryover things apparently impossible, . . . But our Redeemer has givenvictory to our most illustrious King and Queen, and to their kingdoms rendered famous by this glorious event, at which all Christendom should rejoice, celebrating it with great festivities and solemn Thanksgivings to the Holy Trinity, with fervent prayers for . . . turning so many peoples to our holy faith; . . . Thus I record what has happened in a brief note written on board the Caravel, off the Canary Isles, on the 15th of February, 1493. Copyright (c) 1997 Grolier Interactive Inc.
  103. 103. At this time I have seen and put in study to look intoall the Scriptures, cosmography, histories, chroniclesand philosophy and other arts, which our Lordopened to my understanding (I could sense His handupon me), so that it became clear to me that it wasfeasible to navigate from here to the Indies; and He unlockedwithin me the determination to execute the idea. And I came toyour Highnesses with this ardor. All those who heard about myenterprise rejected it with laughter, scoffing at me. Neither thesciences which I mentioned above, nor the authoritativecitations from them, were of any avail. In only your Highnessesremained faith and constancy. Who doubts that thisillumination was from the Holy Spirit? I attest that He (theSpirit), with marvelous rays of light, consoled me through theholy and sacred Scriptures . . . encouraging me to proceed, and,continually, without ceasing for a moment, they inflame mewith a sense of great urgency . . .
  104. 104. I am the worst of sinners. The pity and mercy of our Lordhave completely covered me whenever I have called(on Him) for them. I have found the sweetestconsolation in casting away all my anxiety, so as tocontemplate His marvelous presence.I have already said that for the execution of the enterprise ofthe Indies, neither reason, nor mathematics, nor world mapswere profitable to me; rather the prophecy of Isaiah wascompletely fulfilled . . . .Your Highnesses, remember the Gospel texts and the manypromises which our Savior made to us, and how all this hasbeen put to a test: (for example) St. Peter, when he leapt intothe sea, walked upon (the water) as long as his faith remainedfirm. The mountains will obey anyone who has faith the size ofa kernel of Indian corn. All that is requested by anyone whohas faith will be granted.
  105. 105. Knock and it will be opened to you.No one should be afraid to take on anyenterprise in the name of our Savior, if it is right and ifthe purpose is purely for His holy service . . . .The working out of all things was entrusted by our Lordto each person, (but it happens) in conformity with Hissovereign will, even though He gives advice to many. Helacks nothing that it may be in the power of men to giveHim. O, how good is the Lord who wishes people toperform that for which he holds himself responsible!Day and night, and at every moment, everyone shouldgive Him their most devoted thanks.“1 1. Kay Brigham, Christopher Columbus - His life and discovery in the light of his prophecies (Terrassa, Barcelona: CLIE Publishers, 1990), pp. 53, 61, 82, 85, 86, 115, 124, 125, 127, 129, 131, 167.
  106. 106. The march towards a God-less sciencebegan around 350 B.C. in Greece, as a Plato mentored Aristotle in his youth. Plato practiced a philosophy which separated science and faith.Towards the end of the 1600s, in Europe, the idea of the separation of science and faith was incorrectly connected to the Catholic church in the „Age of Enlightenment‟.
  107. 107. The Copernican Principle This led to the development of the Copernican Principle, also known as „The Principle of Mediocrity‟. The “story line” is that the ancients -Aristotle, Ptolemy, medieval Christians -all believed that we were at the center ofthe universe, a sort of privileged spot of primary important around which everything “revolved”.
  108. 108. The Copernican Principle Later Copernicus and Kepler came along and said they could explainthe movement of the planets better by assuming that the sun is at the “center” and that the planetsrevolve around it, thus removing us from our “privileged position”.
  109. 109. The Copernican Principle You can see how this trend helped us to see ourselves as less and less significant. So the Copernican Revolutionbecame a way of representing a fundamental conflict between science and religion.
  110. 110. The Copernican Principle According to the “Copernican Principle” when science is done rightit demotes mankind, making us insignificant and unimportant, while religious doctrine,arrogantly maintains mankind‟s position of prominence, uniqueness and importance.
  111. 111. The Copernican Principle - Setting the Record Straight The problem is that this historical description incorrect!If you read Aristotle, Ptolemy, Dante, Galileo, Copernicus, Kepler- Their view of the universe was entirely different thanthan what is typically taught today.
  112. 112. The Copernican Principle - Setting the Record StraightThe idea that the earth was at the center of all things DID NOToriginate with any religious group.It was the secular views of Aristotle and Ptolemy which introduced these false beliefs.
  113. 113. Aristotle 384 BC - 322 BC Aristotle was a student of Plato,a Greek philosopher and a teacherof Alexander the Great. He was amongthe first to develop a geocentric view ofthe Universe. This is the belief that theearth is the center of the Universe.By “universe”, they were describing oursolar system. The sun, the stars and thefew planets they could see, were all theyknew of the universe.
  114. 114. Ptolemy born after 83–161 AD Ptolemys was born in the Roman Province of Egypt.His occupations where mathematician,geographer, astronomer and astrologer. Hemodeled a geocentric view of the universe,similar to those of his predecessors.His model was almost universally accepteduntil the presentation of the heliocentricmodel of Nicolaus Copernicus in 1543.
  115. 115. Ptolemy born after 83–161 AD Ptolemys was born in the Roman Province of Egypt.His occupations where mathematician,geographer, astronomer and astrologer. Hemodeled a geocentric view of the universe,similar to those of his predecessors.His model was almost universally accepteduntil the presentation of the heliocentricmodel of Nicolaus Copernicus in 1543.
  116. 116. Dante Alighieri 1265-1321 Dante, was a statesman, language theorist and poet from Florence.His central work, the Commedia(The Divine Comedy), is considered thegreatest literary work composed in theItalian language and a masterpiece ofworld literature.In Italy he‟s known as "the SupremePoet".
  117. 117. Dante’s Divine Comedy Dante‟s “comedy” depicted the commonly held belief of his day, that the center of theuniverse was also the place of lowestesteem, and that the earth occupied thatlocation.To ascend above the earth was toprogress closer and closer to theperfection of heaven.
  118. 118. The Copernican Principle - Setting the Record Straight“. . . in Dante‟s Divine Comedy, the surface of the Earth is an intermediate place. This was true in Aristotelian cosmology,which was Christianized in the Middle Ages. For Aristotle, the world was made of air, earth, fire, and water. Earth is heaviest, so it naturally falls to the bottom.”
  119. 119. The Copernican Principle - Setting the Record Straight“So the Earth was not so much at the center as it was at the bottom of the universe. It was sort of the cosmic sump.It was the place where things decay and die. Everything above the moon was madeof a different type of matter – quintessence - and God dwelled in the heavenly sphere outside the celestial sphere of the stars.”**“Chapter 7: The Evidence of Astronomy, Setting the Record Straight in: Lee Strobel, The Case for a Creator, 161.
  120. 120. The Copernican Principle - Setting the Record Straight Dante‟ showed nine levelsgoing up toward God, getting closerto perfection, with nine other levels getting closer to complete corruption, down to hell. So, in medieval cosmology, what we would call the “center of the universe”was actually seen as Satan‟s throne.
  121. 121. Dante‟s Divine ComedyHeaven Hell
  122. 122. Geocentric World View Heliocentric World View of Galileo, Kepler & Newton. With the sun at The further you the center, get from earth, earth was the further you elevated from are from it’s original corruption. position.
  123. 123. The Copernican Principle - Setting the Record Straight That‟s a very important point! If you imagine the center of theuniverse is Satan‟s throne and thatthe Earth itself is the cosmic sump, then clearly this is not the stereotype that we‟ve been given that the center of the universe prior to Copernicus was the most important spot.
  124. 124. The Copernicus Principle - Setting the Record Straight “…if you‟re going to advance the Copernican Principle . . .you [have to] make it look like it‟s grounded in the historical march of science. But when you actually look at the data, it‟s just not true. Writers of astronomy text books just keep recycling the myth . . .”
  125. 125. The Copernicus Principle - Setting the Record Straight So in the transformation from medieval cosmology to the Renaissance view, this new perspective elevated man in some ways.” Other historical researchershave come to the same conclusion.
  126. 126. The Copernicus Principle - Setting the Record Straight One said, “The Copernican system, far from demoting man, destroyed Aristotle‟s vision of the earth as a kind of cosmic sink,and if it did anything, it elevated humanity. In making the earth a planet, a heavenly body,Copernicus infinitely ennobled its status.”** Philip J. Sampson, Six Modern Myths (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 2000), 33 (emphasis added).
  127. 127. The Copernicus Principle or the Principle of Mediocrity It was through this general misunderstanding and blatant misrepresentation of the factsthat modern science has “preached” aneed for the separation of church andscience – which led Gould to develop theNOMA concept proudly adopted by theuniversities of the 21st century.
  128. 128. The Copernicus Principle - Setting the Record Straight In „The Divine Comedy‟,the actual sense of us being in the center was merely a bias. In fact, everything was arranged so that God was at the spiritual center - that is,the place of supreme importance.
  129. 129. Nicholus Copernicus1473 - 1543Copernicus was a Polish astro-nomer born in Toruń (Thorn), RoyalPrussia, Poland. He was a mathem-atician,astronomer, jurist, physician, classicalscholar, Catholic cleric, governor,administrator, military commander, diplomat& economist.
  130. 130. He is best remembered for hisheliocentric theory.Copernicus was the first to succeed indescribing the movements of the planetsusing an astronomical theory which placedthe sun at the center of the “universe”.
  131. 131. Geocentric World View Heliocentric World View of Galileo, Kepler & Newton. The earth is the The sun is at center of the the center, universe while while earth the Sun orbit’s. orbits.
  132. 132. His theory began to be circulated in his book, On the revolutions of the heavenlybodies, published in 1543, which wasalso the year of his death.It is believed that Copernicus delayedthe publication of his book, from fear ofcriticism. This fear was expressed in aDedication of his masterpiece to PopePaul III.
  133. 133. David Lindberg and Ronald Numbers, historians of science wrote, “If Copernicus had any genuine fear ofpublication, it was the reaction of scientists, not clerics,that worried him. Other churchmen before him - NicoleOresme (a French bishop) in the fourteenth century andNicolaus Cusanus (a German cardinal) in the fifteenth —had freely discussed the possible motion of the earth,and there was no reason to suppose that thereappearance of this idea in the sixteenth century wouldcause a religious stir.”* *Beyond War and Peace: A Reappraisal of the Encounter between Christianity and Science. American Scientific Affiliation article. Retrieved on 2007-04-22. - Paper originally published in Church History (Vol. 55, No. 3, Sept. 1986).
  134. 134. The Copernicus Principle On November 1, 1536, Archbishop of Capua Nicholas Schönberg wrote a letter to Copernicus.“. . . you had not merely mastered the discoveries of the ancientastronomers uncommonly well but had also formulated a newcosmology. In it you maintain that the earth moves; that the sunoccupies the lowest, and thus the central, place in theuniverse…Therefore . . . I entreat you, most learned sir, . . . tocommunicate this discovery of yours to scholars, and . . . send meyour writings on the sphere of the universe together with thetables and whatever else you have that is relevant to thissubject...”* *Referenced website-
  135. 135. The Copernicus Principle or the Principle of Mediocrity“The problem is that the Copernican Principle has taken a meta-physically bloated form, which essentially says our metaphysical status is as insignificant as our astronomical location. In other words, we‟re not here for a purpose, we‟re not special in any way, and we don‟t occupy a privileged place in the cosmos.”“Chapter 7: The Evidence of Astronomy, INTERVIEW #5: GUILLERMO GONZALEZ, PHD, AND JAY WESLEY RICHARDS,PHD in: Lee Strobel, The Case for a Creator, 160.
  136. 136. The Copernicus PrincipleReligious superstition Modern science “Humans have been stripped of their false sense of uniquenessThe Earth and and importance. The Earth holds nohumankind are the While religious folk privileged position incenter of the universe, the universe – eitherboth physically andcontinued to insist there physically or is something unique,spiritually. spiritually. special, intentional, and purposeful about our existence, scientists maintain that the material world is all there is, and that chance and impersonal natural law alone explain its existence.” “Chapter 7: The Evidence of Astronomy, The Copernican Principle in Lee Strobel, The Case for a Creator, 161.
  137. 137. The Copernicus Principle - Setting the Record StraightIn order to strengthen their case, scientists,since the enlightenment of the 1800‟s, have blamed organized religion for set backs to scientific advancement.They criminalize the Roman Catholic church (and all churches) by suggesting that thechurch persecuted Copernicus, Galileo, andGiordano Bruno for their view that the Earth revolved around the sun,but this is an oversimplification of the facts.
  138. 138. The Copernican Principle - Setting the Record Straight They claim that because Copernicusand Galileo‟s theories removed mankind from the center of the universe, that the church attacked them for demoting mankind from its privileged position of importance. This simply IS NOT TRUE!
  139. 139. The Copernican Principle - Setting the Record Straight History very clearly shows that none of the supportersof heliocentrism were punished directly as a result of their views.
  140. 140. The Copernicus Principle - Setting the Record Straight Let‟s begin with Copernicus - it is a matter of fact which history supports, that he died of natural causes the same year his ideas were published.As for Galileo, historian William R. Shea said, “Galileo‟s condemnation was the result of the complex interplay of untoward political circumstances, political ambitions, and wounded prides.”**William R. Shea, “Galileo and the Church” in: David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers, editors, God and Nature (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986), 132.
  141. 141. The Copernicus Principle - Setting the Record StraightHistorical researcher Philip J. Sampson noted that Galileo himself was convinced that the “major cause” of his troubles wasthat he had made “fun of his Holiness” - that is, Pope Urban VIII - in a 1632 treatise.* As for his punishment, Alfred North Whitehead put it this way: “Galileo suffered an honorable detention and a mild reproof, before dying peacefully in his bed.”** *Philip J. Sampson, Six Modern Myths, 38, citing Jerome J. Langford, Galileo, Science and the Church (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1971), 134. **A. N. Whitehead, Science and the Modern World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1946), 2, quoted in Philip J. Sampson, Six Modern Myths, 38.
  142. 142. “Instead of demeaning Earth,Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler actually saw their discovery as exalting it. Galileo even writes poetically about how the Earth, like the other planets, reflects the glory of the sun and is no longer just a cosmic sump.* *Galileo Galilei, Sidereus Nuncius, quoted in Dennis Danielson, The Book of the Cosmos (Cambridge: Perseus, Helix, 2000), 150.
  143. 143. The Copernican Principle - Setting the Record Straight Kepler experienced some difficulties with the churchbut they were not related to his theories.
  144. 144. The Copernican Principle - Setting the Record Straight Bruno was executed in Rome in 1600. In his case, the views he shared with Copernicus were merely incidental. His real “crimes” were that he defendedPantheism and was actually executed for his beliefs concerning the Trinity, the Incarnation, and other doctrineswhich had nothing to do with Copernicanism.
  145. 145. To the Roman Catholic church heliocentrismwas a type of heresy for two reasons.The first and most important reason is that itseemed to contradicted certain poeticsegments of scripture.Secondly, in their current view of theuniverse, this was elevating man from a lowlyposition at the bottom of creation to a place ofhonor and majesty. This was likely seen as aprideful and arrogant point of view.
  146. 146. This is an important issue which is oftentaught incorrectly so it is important thatwe take the time to look closely at thisfirst objection:In Psalm 93:1,“The LORD rules as king! He is clothed with majesty. TheLORD has clothed Himself; He has armed Himself with power. The worldwas set in place; it cannot be moved.”The earth being set in place does not meanthat it wasn‟t in motion, just that it was putwhere it belonged by God. The word “moved”is the Hebrew word ( which means tobe in safety and secure from harm.
  147. 147. Psalm 96:10 is virtually identical toPsalm 93.I Chron. 16:30-31,“Tremble in His presence, all the earth! „The earth standsfirm; it cannot be moved.‟ Let the heavens rejoice and theearth be glad. Say to the nations, „The LORD rules as king!‟”In this passage the word earth is used tomean the people or inhabitants of the earth,much like we might say, “the whole world wasafraid of war”.This is the meaning in Psalm 104:5 as well.
  148. 148. Ecclesiastes 1:5 states,“The sun still rises, and it still goes down, going wearily back to where it must start all over again.”In Jewish writing, much like in English, poetic versehad the right to set aside technical specifics in favorof rhythm, meter & rhyme - so long as the point ofthe message was not lost. Job, Psalm, Proverbs,Ecclesiastes & Song of Solomon are poetic books,and as such, contain several statements which werenever intended to be taken literally – such as Godhiding us under His wings – this phrase is directlyrelated to the English phrase – to take someone“under your wing”. Both paint a verbal picture ofconcern, protection and care, but are obviouslyNOT literal.
  149. 149. Galileo defended heliocentrism, and claimed it was not contrary to those Scripture passages. He took the position of Augustine on Scripture:When the scripture in question is a book of poetry or songs and not a book of instructions or history, do not take every word literally.
  150. 150. It is also very important to recognize that the Bible NEVER claims that every word it recorded of what people spoke was 100% true, only that it was 100% true THAT the person spoke those words. For example, Job said of God,Job 34:9 “. . . It profits a man nothing that he should delight himself with God and consent to Him.”
  151. 151. However, God says in Malachi that statements like this are not true.Malachi 3:13-14, “Your words have been strong andharsh against Me, says the Lord. . . You have said, Itis useless to serve God, and what profit is it if wekeep His ordinances. . .”You have to pay attention to who is doing the speaking. The first example was Job‟s statement about God, the second example was God‟s testimony about Himself through Malachi the prophet.
  152. 152. Joshua‟s prayer to God: Joshua 10:12 “. . . Joshua prayed to the LORD loud enough for the Israelites to hear: “Our LORD, make the sun stop in the sky over Gibeon, . . .” So the sun and the moon stopped and stood still until Israel defeated its enemies. This poem can be found in The Book of Jashar. The sun stopped in the middle of the sky, and for nearly a day the sun was in no hurry to set . . .”The book of Joshua was most likely written by Joshua and from the ground looking up, the sun stopped moving in the sky. Furthermore, this passage is poetic as is mentioned in the verse itself.
  153. 153. The writers of the Scripture wrote from the perspective of the terrestrial world, and from that vantage point the sun does rise and set. In fact, even meteorologists and modern technical literatureuse the phrase “sunrise” & “sunset” – and nobody takes them literally!
  154. 154. The Copernicus Principle - Setting the Record Straight True Bible based, Christian theology never places man at the literal center of the physical universe, only at the center of what God is doing in the universe. According to II Peter 3:12,13, our role is so „central‟ to God‟s plan, that the universe will be destroyed and replaced with new heavens and a new earth following Jesus‟ return.This clearly makes earth the most important planet and most likely the only inhabited one in the universe.
  155. 155. The Copernican Principle - Setting the Record Straight “The Copernican system, far from demoting man, destroyed Aristotle‟s vision of the earth as a kind of cosmic sink, and if it did anything, it elevated humanity. In making the earth a planet,a heavenly body, Copernicus infinitely ennobled its status.”** Philip J. Sampson, Six Modern Myths (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 2000), 33 (emphasis added).
  156. 156. In all fairness, the Catholic churchdid hinder the progress of heliocentrism. An accurate and thorough search into the history of the conflict does not, however, show that the church itself presented any strong or hostile opposition to its teaching, only some mild rebukes and censoring. The largest reason behind their objections was that church officials saw these views as inherently anti-Biblical and arrogant.
  157. 157. The Copernican Principle or the Principle of Mediocrity It has been through this general misunderstanding and blatant misrepresentation ofthe facts that modern science has“preached” a need for the separation ofscience and faith – which led to thedevelopment of other concepts proudlyadopted by the universities of the21st century.
  158. 158. The Copernican Principle - Setting the Record Straight About 200 years after the death of Galileo, the enlightenment retold thisstory saying the church, in its arrogance,put humans at the center of the universe. The irony of this is that in reality it was the enlightenmentthat made man the “center” of all things through their humanistic views and it was secular Greek philosophy which invented Geocentrism.
  159. 159. Young Earth Creationist, Galileo greatly advanced modern Astronomy Eighty years after Copernicus introduced Helocentrism, Galileo challenged the secular & Catholic “Geocentric” world view. He “brought together the ideas of other greatthinkers of his time and began to analyze motion in terms of distance traveled from some starting position and the time that it took. He showed that the speed of falling objects increases steadily during the time of their fall. This acceleration is the same for heavy objects as for light ones, provided air friction (air resistance) is discounted.”~* Funk & Wagnall’s New Encyclopedia 1995.
  160. 160. Up until these courageous menrecognized and publicized heliocentrism,motion had been explained in themythical terms: Example - “a cannonball falls down because its natural position is in the earth; the sun, the moon, and the stars travel in circles around the earth because it is the nature of heavenly bodies to travel in perfect circles.” - Funk & Wagnall‟s New Encyclopedia 1995
  161. 161. For 2000 years it was taught that heavyWeights falling from Pisaobjects fall faster than light ones. TowerGalileo proved all objects fall at thesame speed in a vacuum.
  162. 162. NEWTON, Sir Isaac (1643-1727) “English mathematician and physicist, whobrought the scientific revolution of the 17th century to itsclimax and established the principal outlines of the systemof natural science that has since dominated Western thought.In mathematics, he was the first person to develop calculus just shortlybefore Leibniz (who invented differential & integral calculus).In optics, he established the heterogeneity of light .In mechanics, his three laws of motion became the foundation of moderndynamics, and from them he derived the law of universal gravitation.Newton was the Physicist who discovered that gravity and accelerationwere one and the same. The English mathematician and physicist Sir IsaacNewton improved this analysis by defining force and mass and relatingthese to acceleration.” - Funk & Wagnall’s New Encyclopedia 1995.
  163. 163. What Changed Legitimate Science? Newton died in 1727, but hislaws of motion, universal gravitation & acceleration dominated andguided scientific thought accurately, . . . until the advent of General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics in the early 1900‟s.
  164. 164. These new sciences began to call into question many of Newton‟s laws. “Scientists” all but abandonedNewton‟s laws in favor of these newly discovered sciences, and Newton‟slaws began to be arrogantly mocked as “Newtonian Science”.
  165. 165. This was a pivotal time in science and philosophy, because “modern thinking” began to reject the Bible & embrace humanism on a large scale.This only served to hasten scientists‟ rejection of Newton‟s Laws, because the basis for allhis contributions to science was build upon a firmly held belief in the Bible and God, as the creator of all things.
  166. 166. NEWTON, Sir Isaac (1643-1727) “The supreme God exists necessarily, and by the same necessity He exists always and everywhere.From His true dominion it follows that the true God is a living,intelligent and powerful being; and from His other perfections,that He is supreme, or most perfect.He is eternal and infinite, omnipotent and omniscient; that is, Hisduration reaches from eternity to eternity; His presence from infinity toinfinity; He governs all things, and knows all things that are or can bedone.”“We know Him only by His most wise and excellent contrivances ofthings and final causes; we admire Him for His perfections, but wereverence and adore Him on account of His dominion, for we adore Himas His servants.” ~ Sir Isaac Newton
  167. 167. What Changed Legitimate Science?Later, further scientific investigation showedthat “for objects traveling at speeds close to thespeed of light, and for atomic and subatomicparticles, Newtons laws are now superseded byAlbert Einsteins theory of relativity (q.v.) andby the quantum theory(q.v.). For everydayphenomena, however, Newtons three laws ofmotion remain the cornerstone of Dynamics,the study of what causes motion.”*{*Funk & Wagnall‟s New Encyclopedia 1995.}
  168. 168. However, by the time they discoveredthat both laws were scientific and accurate, the damage had been done! Einstein began to be credited with the discovery that gravity & acceleration were one and the same force.This was something suggested by Galileo in the 1600‟s and was actually validatedby Newton‟s discoveries, nearly 200 years before Einstein was even born.
  169. 169. Sadly, many secular textbooks andscientific articles today still make thiserroneous claim. It was Newton‟s Lawsof Dynamics, especially those includinggravity, which made the calculations forspace flight possible.In fact, without Newton‟s Laws ofmotion, landing on the moon wouldnever have been possible!
  170. 170. Today, many falsely consider Galileo, a trailblazer of the modern “Western school of thought” - that religion and science are mutually exclusive and that religion will always hinderscientific advancement and discovery. This is largely due to the misconceptions mentioned earlier.
  171. 171. Galileo was actually strongly committed in mind to the Bible and to Christ. Additionally, he believed in special creation. Galileo, believed that the Bible supported his views and so was not in opposition to Biblical teachings !
  172. 172. Galileo Galilei “I recognize . . . clearly that human intelligence is a work of God, and one of the most excellent.” ~ Galileo Galilei
  173. 173. Isaac Newton“The supreme God existsnecessarily . . . God is a living,intelligent and powerful being; . . .He is eternal and infinite,omnipotent and omniscient; . . .He governs all things, and knowsall things that are or can be done.”“. . . we admire Him for Hisperfections, but we reverence andadore Him on account of Hisdominion, for we adore Him as Hisservants.”~ Sir Isaac Newton
  174. 174. Johann Kepler “. . . but we Christians . . . know that the eternal and uncreated Logos (Jesus) . . . has occupied the heavens as His royal abode.” ~ Johann Kepler
  175. 175. Leonardo DaVinci“I obey Thee, Lord,first for the love I, inall reason, oweThee; secondly,because Thou canshorten or prolongthe lives of men.”~ Leonardo DaVinci
  176. 176. Leonardo DaVinci“You think the body isa wonderful work.In reality this is nothingcompared to the soulthat inhabits in thatstructure . . . It is thework of God.”~ Leonardo DaVinci
  177. 177. Leonardo DaVinci “A lie is a terrible thing. Even if it spoke great things about God, it would take away from God’s grace.” ~ Leonardo DaVinci
  178. 178. Leonardo DaVinci“The works of God are appreciatedbest by other creators.” ~ Leonardo DaVinci
  179. 179. Albert Einstein “ I want to know how God created thisworld. I‟m not interested in this or thatphenomenon in the spectrum of this or thatelement. I want to know His thoughts, the restare details.”“I believe in . . . God, Who reveals Himselfin the harmony of all being.” ~ Albert Einstein
  180. 180. Does it sound like these men didn‟t believe in God as Creator?Albert Einstien Leonardo DaVinci Galileo GalileiJohann Kepler Isaac Newton
  181. 181. Science has been marching towards independence froma creator for hundreds of years. In the 21st century, science is no longer pure!Today, science begins its pursuit of knowledge with roadblocks already in place, which limit a free pursuit of knowledge, by ruling out any possibilitieswhich could point towards God.
  182. 182. Even if the evidence would naturally point to a Creator/Designer, this conclusion is not allowed to be considered! Any scientist who crossesthis imaginary line, risks losing all credibility, tenure, grants, position. . . not to mentionthe ridicule of other scientists –which translates into a mediocre career, with little pay.
  183. 183. “Science ought to be a search for thetruth about the world, now we shouldn‟t pre-judge what might be true. We shouldn‟t say, „I don‟t like that explanation so I‟m going to put it to one side‟. Rather, when we come to a puzzle innature we ought to bring to that puzzle, every possible cause that might explain it.”
  184. 184. “One of the problems I have with evolutionary theory is, it artificiallyrules out a kind of cause Paul Nelson is Philosophereven before the evidence of Biology specializing in evolutionary development has a chance to speak- & developmental biology. He is also a fellow of the and the cause that is International Society for Complexity, Information and Design.ruled out is intelligence.” Dr. Nelson received his Ph.D. from the University - Paul Nelson, Philosopher of Biology of Chicago Department of Philosophy. Unlocking the Mysteries of Life Script, p37 #176. See: UnlockingtheMysteryofLifeScript.pdf
  185. 185. This stands for „nonoverlapping magisteria‟ and is a term coined by Steven J. Gould. It means that science and religion are separate „magisteria‟ or domains and they should never intersect with each other. Gould said,“The net of science covers the empirical universe . . . [while] the net ofreligion extends over questions of moral meaning and value.”* *Stephen Jay Gould, “Nonoverlapping Magisteria,” Natural History 106 (March 1997). See also: Stephen Jay Gould, Rocks of Ages (New York:Ballantine, 1999).
  186. 186. The very fact that Gould desired to create NOMA proves that NOMA does not work! If science and faith never intersected, then NOMA becomes unnecessary. His statement that they never should,does NOT change the fact that they often do! It is wishful and biased thinking which has been promoted as scientific integrity!
  187. 187. NOMA states that “the net of religion extendsover questions of moral meaning and value” While this may be true of other religions it is NOT true of Christianity! Christianity makes specific claims about the real world, while offering real dates and real places which have never been proven false! So God, through the Christian Bible does not limit His statements to issues of morality & values!
  188. 188. What Gould has successfully done is create a rule in science, which silences the Bible by claiming that its statements are NOT concerning the real world.In his book, Rocks of Ages, Gould reduces the Bible‟s account of Jesus‟ appearance to Thomas, following His resurrection, to simply being a moral tale.* *Stephen Jay Gould, Rocks of Ages, 14.
  189. 189. This was necessary for Gould to do under therules of NOMA, because most accounts ofJesus‟ resurrection appearances come fromthe Bible - and NOMA says religion mustconfine its claims to matters of morality andvalues.Again, there might be some religions that canfit comfortably with NOMA, but Biblical Christianity simply cannot! It is not just built on faith, but on actual historic events.
  190. 190. Law professor Phillip Johnson has also beenstrongly critical of the NOMA concept.“Stephen Jay Gould condescendingly offers to allow religious peopleto express their subjective opinions about morals, provided theydon‟t interfere with the authority of scientists to determine the „facts‟- one of the facts being that God is merely a comforting myth,” * *Phillip E. Johnson, “The Church of Darwin,” Wall Street Journal (August16, 1999).
  191. 191. What does all of this have to do with Evolution? Everything!!!! It is due to this original departure from ‘True Science’ that evolutionary thinking found a foothold in all other fields of science.In the same way that no true grasp of science can be obtained without acknowledging that there is a rational Creator / Designer, you cannot understand the falsehoods of Evolution without grasping its origins in science. It was founded upon humanism and a departure from God’s Word.
  192. 192. So,What is TrueScience again?
  193. 193. Science is . . . the study of anyobservable occurrence by way of Scientific Method.