Seed regulation in India

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This presentation was developed in response to the draft Seed Bill, pending before the Parliament.

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Seed regulation in India

  1. 1. Protecting Farmers Interests in Seed Policies and Legislation Dr. D. Narasimha Reddy Chetana Society, Hyderabad
  2. 2. Seed and plant materialAgricultural productionHigher yieldsFood securityQuality of cropCost of productionAgri-climatic conditions
  3. 3. STAKEHOLDERS Public sector: National Private Public sector- Sector:domestic State Farmers Corporate Seed Sector: Farmers MNCs
  4. 4. Seed Progression Nucleus Breeder Foundation Certified Seed Seed Seed Seed •Public Sector •Marketing•Developing a •Genetically pure •Private Sector •Risk Managementparticular variety •Source for •MNCs •Market Intelligence•Used for foundation seed •Hybrids •Warehousemultiplication •Value-addition •Trademark National Agricultural Research System Improved Higher Public Sector Seed Production Product Mix Revenues agencies Multinational companies
  5. 5. Types of Seeds GeneticallySelf Cross Hybrids ModifiedPollinated Pollinated •Public Farmers •Domestic Public Public Private sector Sector •MNCs
  6. 6. Seed Industry: Volumes250200150 Total Seed100 Production Private sector50 0
  7. 7. Seed Industry: DetailsIndia – biggest seed market$920 million, or about Rs.5,000 crores Domestic $900 million, exports $20 millionOpen pollinated seed market: around $ 118 millionVegetable seed sector employment 7 lakhsLocal and unidentified varieties (farmer controlled)statistics are not known – probably 30 to 50%Highest seed market is cotton (80% hybrid): Rs.1870croresNational Seeds Corporation, 196315 State seed corporations500 private seed companiesNational Seed Association of India (NSAI)
  8. 8. Seed Policies and LegislationEnactment of the Seeds Act, 1966Seed Review Team-SRT (1968)National Commission on Agriculture’s SeedGroup (1972)Seed Control Order (1983)New Policy on Seed Development (1988)National Seeds Policy (2002)The Seeds Bill (2004)Formulation of National Seed Plan (2005)The Seeds Bill, now
  9. 9. NATIONAL SEEDS POLICY, 2002: THRUST AREASvariety developmentplant variety protectionquality assuranceinfrastructure facilitiestransgenic plant varietiesimport and exportpromotion of domestic private sectorseed industrystrengthening of the monitoring system
  10. 10. SEEDS BILL, 2004: SALIENT FEATURESRegistration of kinds and varieties ofSeeds etc.– Evaluation of performance– Compensation to Farmers– Registration of Seed Producers & Processing Units– Seed dealers to be RegisteredRegulation of Sale of Seed and SeedCertification• Seed Analysis and Seed Testing• Export and Import of Seeds & Planting Material• Offences and Punishment
  11. 11. Farmers Public seed system Seed ActPrivate Seed Industry Seed Farmers
  12. 12. Seed Public seed Private seed FarmersFarmers system industry • Seed price• Market Price • Funds • Assured control• Assurance • Research markets • Quality • Subsidies assurance• Credit, etc • Protection of germ plasm • Assured price • Compensation • Food • Higher • Seed production margins replacement rate (SRR) • Freedom
  13. 13. Issues before Seed BillQuality assurance to farmers– spurious seeds– under performing seeds– non-performing seedsPrice Control• Share of seed in the cost of production isgoing upIncreasing yields• Productivity• Quality of produce
  14. 14. Issues before Seed BillBiotechnology Regulatory AuthorityBill– GM seed regulation (by which Act)– Can Seed Act deregister any GMseed?Field Contamination• Legal procedures for seed/varietalcontamination in the fields• Quality of produce
  15. 15. Issues before Seed BillInformal sector• Seed propagation by farmers• Wild seedsProtection of germplasm• Patents• Privatisation of publicproperties
  16. 16. Suggestions Provision for non-commercial seedexchange (barter, free, etc.) Quantitative restrictions (ex.1000kgs) might be feasible on non-commercial exchange Public monitoring of SeedRegistration process, including thedecisions of the Committee
  17. 17. SuggestionsPricing of nucleus, breeding,foundation and certified seeds to bebrought under Seed Bill Compulsory Joint venture forForeign Direct investment (FDI)Compulsory registration of nuclear,breeder and foundation seed detailswith the National Register
  18. 18. SuggestionsPrinting of expiry date on allcommercial seed products, andpunishment for violations Specify the procedure and criteriafor constitution of RegistrationCommitteeProvision for inclusion of farmersrepresentatives on the RegistrationCommittee
  19. 19. SuggestionsRegulation of seed, planting materialand germplasm imports and exportsCompulsory field trials for importedseed registrationNo import of unregistered varietyProvision for liability of importer onviolations, offences and punishmentRemoval of the ‘barter’ from thesection ‘Offences and punishment’
  20. 20. SuggestionsPunishment should be more, formisbranded, spurious and non-conformity to standards of purity Self-pollinating varieties should beexcluded from selective provisions ofthe ActOrganic method of seed productionshould be given encouragement inthe Act
  21. 21. SuggestionsEnvironmental and labour standardsshould be part of the Act, forcommercial seed production Seed price monitoring should bedefined in the ActTransgenic and/or GM varieties infood crops should be discouraged,under Precautionary Principle
  22. 22. Thank YouFor suggestions and comments:nreddy.donthi@gmail.com

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