OT Session 9 Minor Prophets


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Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk & Zephaniah slides for Foundations Bible School (copyright Don Palmer).

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OT Session 9 Minor Prophets

  1. 1. Session #9. Encountering the Prophetic Books (part 3) The Minor ProphetsCovering the books of: Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk & Zephaniah. (Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi – next month)
  2. 2. 1 2 3 Fall of Samaria & 1st Return from Assyrian captivity captivity: 538BC ISRAEL 722BCJonah? Amos Hosea Temple rebuilt Fall of Jerusalem & 516 BC Babylonian captivity 586BC Zechariah Malachi JUDAH HaggaiJoel? Isaiah Nahum Micah Zephaniah Ezra 458 BC Habakkuk Daniel Nehemiah 444 BC Obadiah Jeremiah Ezekiel Before the exile During exile After the exile
  3. 3. Who were they?Why were they labelled “minor”“Book of The Twelve” (Ecclesiasticus 49:10)Repeated themes:1. Warning of judgment due to sin2. Description of the sin3. Description of the coming judgment4. A call for repentance5. The promise of future restoration & salvation6. “The Day of the LORD”
  4. 4. Messages to the Northern Kingdom (Israel): Amos, Hosea (& Micah)Messages to the Southern Kingdom (Judah): Zephaniah, Habakkuk (& Micah)Messages to other nations: Obadiah (Edom), Jonah & Nahum (Nineveh)Mysterious messengers: Jonah (great fish) & Joel (great army of locusts)Messages to the returning exiles: Haggai, Zechariah & Malachi
  5. 5. 1. Hosea The LORD loves unfaithful people.2. Joel The LORD disciplines those whom he loves.3. Amos The LORD speaks, but who will listen?4. Obadiah The LORD will surely repay the proud.5. Jonah The LORD will have mercy on the repentant.6. Micah The LORD demands justice, mercy & humility.7. Nahum The LORD will surely execute vengeance.8. Habakkuk The LORD is powerful and righteous – trust him!9. Zephaniah The LORD is ready to judge yet mighty to save.10. Haggai The LORD will rebuild his temple.11. Zechariah The LORD will establish his kingdom.12. Malachi The LORD will purify his people.
  6. 6. Ministers during reigns of: UZZIAH (2 Chron. 26) aka AZARIAH (2 Kings 15) in JUDAH becomes king when only 16 mentored by Zechariah, a priest (“seeks God”) fortifies city/ “loved the soil” strong military/ defeats surrounding enemies becomes proud/ offers incense/ gets leprosy son, Jotham, succeeds him/ continues renewal contemporary of ISAIAH JEROBOAM ll (2 Kings 14) in ISRAEL last significant king of Israel (41 years) Jonah lives during his reign (God shows mercy)
  7. 7. The times of AMOSIndian summer (2 years before the earthquake)Inner erosion (5:21-24)The person of AMOSNOT a prophet, a shepherd (7:14)“Burden-bearer” (first writing prophet?)The message of AMOSWorking out our faith (social justice)Listening to God (while you have the chance)
  8. 8. 8 burdens (chapters 1-2)3 sermons (chapters 3-6)5 visions (chapters 7-9)
  9. 9. Significance of his name (“lift up/ bear away”)Reaction to his message (Amaziah) 7:10ff.Conviction that God was speaking (loudly) 1:2; 3:4, 8 ** God may stop speaking! 8:11-12
  10. 10. "The LORD roars from Zion and thunders from Jerusalem…” (1:2)“The lion has roared - who will not fear? The Sovereign LORD has spoken - who can but prophesy?” (3:8; cf. 3:12; 5:19) “This is what the LORD says…” “…declares the LORD”
  11. 11. CIRCULAR JUDGEMENTS Damascus Tyre Ammon Israel Moab Judah Edom Gaza
  12. 12. “Hear this word…” (3:1, 4:1, 5;1)n “Chosen yet judged”n “The stubbornness of sin”n “Seek God & live” (5:4, 6, 14)Conc. Judgment is coming (6:8-14)
  13. 13. “You who turn justice into bitterness and cast righteousness to the ground.” (5:7)“You have turned justice into poison and the fruit of righteousness into bitterness.” (6:12)“But let justice roll on like a river, righteousness like a never-failing stream!” (5:24)
  14. 14. 1. A swarm of locusts (7:1)2. A fire (7:4)3. A plumb line (7:7)4. A basket of ripe fruit (8:1)5. The LORD standing by the altar (9:1) …yet there is an ultimate hope (9:11-15)
  15. 15. 1. When God speaks, listen…or else he may roar!2. The heart of our faith is justice & righteousness – not jargon & rituals
  16. 16. Ministers during the reigns of…Uzziah (3rd of 4 good kings/ dies of leprosy)Jotham (continues reforms)Ahaz (wicked king)Hezekiah (another time of revival)& Jeroboam ll (of Israel) …last significant king of Israel (41 years)** Contemporary of AMOS & ISAIAH
  17. 17.  “With bands of love” Who was HOSEA? What was going on in his times? What did he have to say? LOVE…at three levels1. Hosea & Gomer2. Yahweh & Israel3. God & his people
  18. 18. “A spirit of prostitution leads them astray;they are unfaithful to their God” (4:12)“A spirit of prostitution is in their heart;they do not acknowledge the LORD” (5:4)“She will chase after her lovers but not catch them; she will look for them but not find them.” (2:7)
  19. 19. “She has not acknowledged that I was the one who gave her…but me she forgot,“ declares the LORD.” (2:8,13)“There is no faithfulness, no love, no acknow- ledgment (knowledge) of God in the land”(4:1)“My people are destroyed from lack of knowledge…they exchanged their Glory for something disgraceful.”(4:6,7)
  20. 20. “Idol” = an imposter, that which we come to love, desire and set our priorities upon. Replaces that which is greater. A thief who steals our love & devotion!
  21. 21. 1. Violence & bloodshed2. Oppression & injustice3. Corruption & deceit4. Corrupt leadership5. Destruction & invasion6. Hunger, thirst & exposure7. Barren land & barren wombs8. Desensitized to love9. God is distant10. Religion is pointless
  22. 22. The LORD said: “Go show your love to your wife again though she is loved by another!” (3:1)“I will betroth you to me forever;I will betroth you in righteousness and justice, in love and compassion.I will betroth you in faithfulness, and you will acknowledge the LORD.” (2:19-20)“I led them with cords of human kindness,with ties of love; I lifted the yoke from their neck and bent down to feed them.” (11:4)
  23. 23. "Come, let us return to the LORD. He has torn us to pieces now he will heal us; he has injured us now he will bind up our wounds. After two days he will revive us; on the third day he will restore us, that we may live in his presence. Oh, let us know the LORD; let us press on to know him. As surely as the sun rises, he will appear; he will come to us like the winter rains, like the spring rains that water the earth.“ (6:1-3)
  24. 24. “Sow for yourselves righteousness, reap the fruit of unfailing love, and break up your unplowed ground; for it is time to seek the LORD,…until he comes and showers righteousness on you” (10:12)
  25. 25. The times (Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah) A vision concerning Samaria & Jerusalem.The man (“Filled with the Spirit”) 3:8 (“The LORD is coming…toThe address Bethlehem – tell the shepherds!” 5:1-5)
  26. 26. 1. “Penalty and promise” chs. 1-32. “Hope beyond affliction” chs. 4-53. “Mercy over judgment” chs. 6-7
  27. 27. Weep and mourn for Samaria & Jerusalem (ch.1)Unjust stewards (ch. 2)Corrupt leaders (ch. 3)
  28. 28. Ultimate hope:The Kingdom of God ch. 4 (justice & righteousness)The Coming Messiah ch. 5 (security & peace)
  29. 29. “But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, though you are small among the clans of Judah, out of you will come for me one who will be ruler over Israel, (cf. Matt. 2:6) whose origins are from of old, from ancient times."Therefore Israel will be abandoned until the time when she who is in labor gives birth and the rest of his brothers return to join the Israelites.He will stand and shepherd his flock (cf. Luke 1:32-33; John 10) in the strength of the LORD, in the majesty of the name of the LORD his God. And they will live securely, for then his greatness will reach to the ends of the earth.And he will be our peace (5:2-5)
  30. 30. “He has shown all you people what is good. And what does the LORD require of you? To act justly and to love mercy and to walk humbly with your God.” (6:8)“Who is a God like you, who pardons sin and forgives the transgression of the remnant of his inheritance? You do not stay angry forever but delight to show mercy.You will again have compassion on us; you will tread our sins underfoot and hurl all our iniquities into the depths of the sea. (7:18-19)
  31. 31. The reign of JOSIAH, son of Amon (King of Judah) (2 Kings 22-23/ 2 Chron. 34-35) The last days of Judah (revival) Became king when 8 years old Seeks God when 16/ implements reforms Finds Book of the Law (Deuteronomy) when 26 Calls for repentance Prophecy of Huldah Renews the Covenant Celebrates the Passover Killed at Megiddo by Pharaoh Neco (prior to Battle of Carchemish vs. Nebuchadnezzar) (Jeremiah composes set of famous laments)
  32. 32. Warning of final destruction (of Judah)Oracle against Judah (1:2-13) “The great day of the LORD” (1:14-2:3)Oracle against PhilistiaOracle against Moab & AmmonOracle against Cush ty toOracle against Assyria “Migh (3:17) sa v e”The promise of pending judgment (3:1-8)The promise of future restoration (3:9-20)
  33. 33. (or) How dare you speak to God like that!The times (the last days of Judah)The man (?)The burden (complaints with character of God)
  34. 34. Habakkuk’s 1st complaint (1:2-4)The Lord’s 1st reply (1:5-11)Habakkuk’s 2nd complaint (1:12-2:1)The Lord’s 2nd reply (2:2-20)Habakkuk’s song/ psalm of praise (3:1-19)
  35. 35. “I will stand at my watch and station myself on the ramparts; I will look to see what he will say to me. And what answer I am to give to this complaint!” (2:1)
  36. 36. “If God is so powerful,why doesn’t he do something?”
  37. 37. “I am working…thoughnot in the way you expect!”
  38. 38. “If God is so holy,why does he act this way?”
  39. 39. “My purposes are much greater than your particular situation…therefore be more concerned to live out your faith now!”
  40. 40. Hab. 2:4 (“The just shall live by faith’)(Alt. “The righteous one shall live by his faith”)“the just…” (Romans 1:17)“…shall live…” (Galatians 3:11)“…by faith” (Hebrews 10:38)
  41. 41. Introduction: “I’ve heard…do it again” (v.2)1. God came selah (v.3)2. God saw selah (v.9)3. God conquered selah (v.13)Conclusion: “I will rejoice…I will be strong” (vv.17-19)
  42. 42. It’s OK to have (big, hard, tough) questionsMake sure to take your questions to GodBe prepared for unexpected answersLearn to live in, with & by faith
  43. 43. Judgment on EDOM.Historical roots: Jacob & Esau (Genesis 25-36) Edom & Israel (Numbers 20; Judges 11:17-18)“Edom will be conquered…but Israel will grow strong.” (Numb. 24:18) Psalm 60:8-9/ 108:9-10“Remember, LORD, what the Edomites did on the day Jerusalem fell. ‘Tear it down,’ they cried, ‘tear it down to its foundations!’” (Psalm 137:7)
  44. 44. Other prophecies vs. EDOM“They will swoop down on the slopes of Philistia to the west; together they will plunder the people to the east. They will lay hands on Edom and Moab, and the Ammonites will be subject to them.” (Is. 11:14)Isaiah 21 & 34Jeremiah 49 (cf. Obadiah vv1-4 & 5-6)Ezekiel 25 & 35Joel 3:19; Amos 1:11-12; 9:12; Malachi 1:4-5
  45. 45. Root of the problem:Presence of pride (1:3)“The pride of your heart has deceived you, you who live in the clefts of the rocks and make your home on the heights, you who say to yourself, Who can bring me down to the ground?‘”Absence of mercy (1:11-14)“For anyone who does not love his brother, whom he has seen, cannot love God, whom he has not seen.” (1 Jn.4:20)
  46. 46. The nature of judgment:The mountains of Esau will be breachedThe house of Esau will be destroyed“Oh how Esau will be ransacked, his hidden treasures pillaged!…In that day, declares the LORD, will I not destroy the wise in Edom, people of understanding in the mountains of Esau?” (1:6, 8)
  47. 47. Execution of God’s judgment"The day of the LORD is near for all nations. As you have done, it will be done to you; your deeds will return upon your own head.” (1:15)Vindication of God’s people“The kingdom will be the LORDs.” (1:21)** Edom’s famous son… HEROD the Great!
  48. 48. Judgment on Nineveh (ASSYRIA) JONAH…part two!The vengeance of God (Ch.1)The judgment of God (Ch.2)The final “woe” from God (Ch.3)
  49. 49.  The locusts have come! A call to repentance The LORD is coming! (cf. 2:11) A call to repentance The LORD has come!1. “I will drive out the enemy”2. “I will pour out my Spirit” (ie…images of grain, wine, milk, oil & water)3. “I will repay you for the years the locusts have eaten”4. “I will fight for you (prepare for war)”
  50. 50. Gather the people,Declare a holy fast; consecrate the assembly; bring together the elders, call a sacred assembly. gather the children,Summon the elders those nursing at the breast. and all who live in the land Let the bridegroom leave his room and the bride her to the house of the LORD chamber. your God, Let the priests, who minister and cry out to the LORD. before the LORD, weep between the temple porch and (1:14) the altar. Let them say, “Spare yourBlow the trumpet in Zion, people, O LORD. Do not make declare a holy fast, your inheritance an object of call a sacred assembly. scorn, a byword among the nations.” (2:15-17) Why should they say among the peoples, “Where is their God?”
  51. 51. “Even now,” declares the LORD, “return to me with all your heart, with fasting and weeping and mourning.Rend your heart and not your garments. Return to the LORD your God, for he is gracious and compassionate, slow to anger and abounding in love, and he relents from sending calamity.Who knows? He may turn and have pity and leave behind a blessing.” (2:12-14)
  52. 52. This is what was spoken by the prophet Joel (2:28-32): “In the last days”, God says, “I will pour out my Spirit on all people. Your sons and daughters will prophesy, your young men will see visions, your old men will dream dreams. Even on my servants, both men and women, I will pour out my Spirit in those days, and they will prophesy. I will show wonders in the heaven above and signs on the earth below, blood and fire and billows of smoke. The sun will be turned to darkness and the moon to blood before the coming of the great and glorious day of the Lord. And everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.” (Acts 2:16-21)
  53. 53. “All things weird & wonderful”Did it really happen?Literal person (2 Kings 14:25) (Matt. 12:38-41/ Luke 11:29-32; Matt. 16:4)Allegory: Israel = called as a light to the nations turns away from LORD “goes down” Key section cries out to God = Chap. 4! rescued & restored obeys & God works
  54. 54. Jonah flees (ch.1) God disciplinesJonah prays (ch.2) God restoresJonah obeys (ch.3) God savesJonah gets angry (ch.4) God rebukes
  55. 55. 1. God sends a violent storm2. God provides a great fish3. God provides a vine4. God provides a worm“You are a gracious and compassionate God, slow to anger and abounding in love.” (4:2)“When God saw what they did and how they turned from their evil ways, he had compassion and did not bring upon them the destruction he had threatened.” (3:10)“Salvation comes from the LORD.” (2:9)
  56. 56. “Those who cling to worthless idols forfeit the grace that could be theirs.” (2:8)
  57. 57. Then some of the Pharisees and teachers of the law said to him, “Teacher, we want to see a sign from you.” He answered, “A wicked and adulterous generation asks for a sign! But none will be given it except the sign of the prophet Jonah. For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of a huge fish, so the Son of Man will be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. The people of Nineveh will stand up at the judgment with this generation and condemn it; for they repented at the preaching of Jonah, and now one greater than Jonah is here.” (Matthew 12:38-41)“A wicked and adulterous generation looks for a sign, but none will be given it except the sign of Jonah.” Jesus then left them and went away. (Matthew 16:4)