Coastal Case Studies


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Coastal Case Studies

  1. 1. Happisburgh, Lyme Regis, Holderness and Mappleton, Blackpool, New Forest see your exercise books
  2. 2. <ul><li>Happisburgh </li></ul><ul><li>Lyme Regis </li></ul><ul><li>Holderness and Mappleton </li></ul><ul><li>Blackpool – A tourist resort </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal flooding in south-east England/Netherlands and Bangladesh </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>This case study looks at the social, economic, political and environmental problems of cliff collapse and issues surrounding managed retreat </li></ul><ul><li>The link for the video we watched in class can be found here: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Also there are lots of other videos on coasts, feel free to watch them as they will help with revision </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>It is a small village with a pub and tea shop </li></ul><ul><li>It is surrounded by farmland </li></ul><ul><li>No main road runs through it so it is not really worth protecting </li></ul><ul><li>Old coastal defences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revetments – now damaged with reduced effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rock armour – old rock armour – now reduced effectiveness </li></ul></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>Political </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the Government or council does nothing they could lose popularity with voters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the Government or council pays for a coastal defence scheme they may have to raise taxes which could be unpopular and therefore lose votes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-housing the people made homeless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Having to move away from the area resulting in losing touch with friends </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance premiums rise due to an increased risk of your house falling into the sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Houses near the cliff are worthless due to the fear they may fall into the sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cost to repair the revetment is £4.6 million – this is too expensive compared to the land it will protect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of farmland – farmers lose income – governments get less tax resulting in a loss of money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of businesses – Pub and tea shop </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Environmental </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building rubble falling into the sea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of habitat – land based ecosystems </li></ul></ul>
  8. 12. <ul><li>Preventing the loss of houses and businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Built on some of the most unstable land in Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Very exposed to the sea on one of our most actively eroding stretches of coastline </li></ul><ul><li>Important tourist location </li></ul>
  9. 13. <ul><li>Started by West Dorset District Council in the early 1990’s </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the money comes from the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1 – new sea wall and promenade east of the mouth of the River Lim – finished in 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2 – protect the foreshore and stabilise the land immediately behind it. Work started in 2005 and will cost £17 million </li></ul>
  10. 14. <ul><li>Further work is planned in future years </li></ul><ul><li>The aim of the scheme is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to provide long-term protection for homes and businesses in the town </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect the coast and the special natural environment that makes Lyme Regis so attractive to tourists </li></ul></ul>
  11. 18. Mappleton
  12. 19. <ul><li>Has the highest rate of coastal erosion in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>7 to 10m of land is lost each year </li></ul><ul><li>The coastline is 4km further west than in Roman times </li></ul><ul><li>29 villages have been lost in the last 1000 years </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of farmland </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of homes </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of caravan sites and holiday homes </li></ul>
  13. 20. <ul><li>The cliffs are made of soft rock such as boulder clay and sand </li></ul><ul><li>This is often not consolidated (cemented together) </li></ul><ul><li>The waves wash away the clay and sands form between the boulders to leave them unsupported </li></ul><ul><li>When it rains, water enters cracks and spaces in the rock </li></ul><ul><li>After heavy rain this can make it unstable and cause slumping </li></ul>
  14. 21. Coastal defences at Mappleton