Perceptual organization chapter 3

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  • Also called "grouping," the principle concerns the effect generated when the collective presence of the set of elements becomes more meaningful than their presence as separate elements.
  • Perceptual organization chapter 3

    1. 1. Chapter 3-3
    2. 2. <ul><li>how we select, organize, and interpret sensory information. It is an active process. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the rules that guide us unconsciously in this task? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we really understand how we organize information that is received by our senses? </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Illusions trick your brain into seeing something that is not actually present. </li></ul><ul><li>Your eye sees something that’s physically there, but your brain interprets it as something different. </li></ul><ul><li>Illusions show us truths about how our brains organize information! They reveal the ways we normally organize and interpret our sensations. </li></ul>
    4. 8. <ul><li>1. “Form” Perception : how do we see shapes and content. Look into “Gestalt” principles. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Depth Perception : the ability to see objects in 3 dimensions. </li></ul>
    5. 9. <ul><li>Gestalt: a German word for “form” or a “whole” </li></ul><ul><li>Gestalt: an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes. </li></ul>
    6. 10. <ul><li>Gestalt theorists followed the basic principle that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts </li></ul><ul><li>In viewing the &quot;whole,&quot; a cognitive process takes place – the mind makes a leap from comprehending the parts to realizing the whole. </li></ul>
    7. 11. <ul><li>Fundamental Principle: Perception is organized and dictated by the several principles of the perceptual field. </li></ul><ul><li>  Perceptual field: the total sensory scene taken in by any one of the senses at any given moment in time. </li></ul><ul><li>The brain organizes fragments of sensory data into gestalts or meaningful forms. How does it do this? </li></ul>
    8. 12. <ul><ul><li>a perceptual tendency to separate whole figures from the background. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Figure – the part we pay attention to. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ground – everything that is not the figure. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They help to define each other. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 13. <ul><li>Vase or two portraits? </li></ul><ul><li>Circle or a square? </li></ul>
    10. 16. <ul><ul><li>i. Proximity —group nearby figures together. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 17. <ul><li>The Gestalt law of proximity states that &quot;objects or shapes that are close to one another appear to form groups&quot;. Even if the shapes, sizes, and objects are radically different, they will appear as a group if they are close together.   </li></ul>
    12. 20. <ul><li>Gestalt theory states that things which share visual characteristics such as shape, size, color, texture, or value will be seen as belonging together in the viewer’s mind. </li></ul>
    13. 22. OXXXXXXXXXX XOXXXXXXXXX XXOXXXXXXXX XXXOXXXXXXX XXXXOXXXXXX XXXXXOXXXXX XXXXXXOXXXX XXXXXXXOXXX XXXXXXXXOXX XXXXXXXXXOX XXXXXXXXXXO
    14. 27. <ul><li>This involves the brain's provision of missing details thought to be a part of a potential pattern, or, once closure is achieved, the elimination of details unnecessary to establish a pattern match. </li></ul>
    15. 29. <ul><li>The ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two dimensional; allows us to judge distance. </li></ul><ul><li>Partially an innate ability, but experience reinforces and amplifies. </li></ul>
    16. 32. <ul><li>Depth cues that depend on the use of two eyes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convergence : the rotation of the two eyes in their sockets to focus on a single object, resulting in greater convergence for closer objects and lesser convergence if objects are distant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binocular Disparity: The difference in images between the two eyes, which is greater for objects that are close and smaller for distant objects. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 33. <ul><li>Cues for perceiving depth based on one eye only. </li></ul><ul><li>Also referred to as “pictorial depth cues.” </li></ul>
    18. 34. <ul><li>i. Relative size-smaller is farther away. </li></ul>
    19. 48. <ul><li>Nearby objects reflect more light than faraway objects. </li></ul><ul><li>We assume light comes from above. </li></ul>
    20. 51. <ul><li>Monocular cues for distance aid our sense of distance and size. </li></ul>
    21. 53. Horizontal lines usually appear shorter than vertical lines.

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