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Operant conditioning ch 5.4

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Operant conditioning ch 5.4

  1. 1. Operant ConditioningChapter 5.4<br />
  2. 2. Classical conditioning<br />Learns associations between events it doesn’t control.<br />Respondent behavior — behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus. (opposite of operant behavior)<br />Responding to an uncontrollable event<br />
  3. 3. Operant ConditioningWhat’s in it for ME?<br />The learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses.<br />Operant behavior – voluntary behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences.<br />
  4. 4. B. F. Skinner<br />1904-1990<br />American psychologist, author, inventor, advocate for social reform, and poet.<br />Wanted to find principles that controlled behavior.<br />Wrote controversial books (“Walden II” and “Beyond Freedom and Dignity”) which describe utopian society based on rules of behaviorism.<br />
  5. 5. Law of effect<br />Rewarded behavior is likely to recur!!!<br />Logically, behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.<br />Edward L. Thorndike<br />This was Skinner’s starting point.<br />
  6. 6. Skinner Box (operant chamber)<br />
  7. 7. Shaping<br />An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.<br />Training a rat to press a bar.<br />
  8. 8. Reinforcers<br />Any event or stimulus, that when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again.<br />Can be material, such as a cookie, money, drugs.<br />Can be immaterial, such as attention, praise, good grades, or the absence of something.<br />Can be abstract, such as a sense of accomplishment or satisfaction, being “right.” <br />Note: What is reinforcing for one may NOT be reinforcing for another.<br />
  9. 9. Reinforcement (This is actually positive reinforcement)<br />Response- event/stimulus  same response again<br />(behavior)<br />Cleans<br />His room  gets a cookie - likely to do it again to get another cookie.<br />Study hard<br />For a test. - gets an A - will study hard next time to get an A again<br />
  10. 10. Any event that strengthens the behavior it follows. A heat lamp positively reinforces a meerkat’s behavior in cold.<br />
  11. 11. Two types of reinforcers <br />Positive reinforcer <br />The reinforcement of a response by the addition or experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus. (adding something to the equation)<br />Examples:<br />Training a dog using doggie treats<br />Getting an “A” on a test.<br />Paycheck at the end of the month.<br />The high after taking cocaine.<br />Giving a child what he wants when he throws a temper tantrum. (An example of bad behavior being positively reinforced!)<br />
  12. 12. B. Negative reinforcer <br />The reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus. (i.e. subtracting something from the equation)<br />Response  unpleasant thing  same response <br />(behavior) removed, escaped, again<br />or avoided<br />Take Tylenol  headache goes away  take Tylenol again next time.<br />
  13. 13. Negative Reinforcer<br />Examples: <br />Put on seat belt to stop the warning beeper.<br />Drink alcohol to take the stress/anxiety away.<br />After drinking coffee, grogginess goes away.<br /><ul><li>Parent gives a child what they wants to stop the whining. (unpleasant situation is escaped.)</li></li></ul><li>Primary and conditioned reinforcers<br />Primary Reinforcer:Innately reinforcing stimulus like food or drink. (Usually satisfies a biological need.)<br />Conditioned Reinforcer:Is a learned reinforcer.It gets its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer. Sometimes called secondary reinforcers. (praise, paycheck, good grades, attention, etc)<br />
  14. 14. 15<br />Immediate & Delayed Reinforcers<br />Immediate Reinforcer:A reinforcer that occurs closely to a behavior in time. Rat gets a food pellet for a bar press.<br />Delayed Reinforcer:A reinforcer that is delayed in time for a certain behavior. A paycheck that comes at the end of a week.<br />We may be more inclined to engage in small immediate reinforcers (watching TV) than large delayed reinforcers (Getting A in a course) which requires consistent study.<br />
  15. 15. 16<br />Reinforcement Schedules<br />Continuous Reinforcement:the reinforcement of each and every correct response.<br />Partial Reinforcement Effect:the tendency for a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses to be very resistant to extinction.<br />
  16. 16. 17<br />Ratio Schedules<br />Fixed-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses e.g., like piecework pay.<br />Child gets a reward for every 10 stars he earns.<br />Variable-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. <br />Slot machines<br />Fishing<br />(Hard to extinguish because of unpredictability.)<br />
  17. 17. 18<br />Interval Schedules<br />Fixed-interval schedule: Reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.<br />Paycheck comes every two weeks.<br />Mail delivery once a day.<br />Variable-interval schedule: Reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals. produces slow steady responding. <br />Pop quizes.<br />Unannounced inspections.<br />
  18. 18. Reinforcement schedules<br />Fixed Ratio—produces rapid rates of responding with short post-reinforcement pauses.<br />Fixed Interval--produces a scalloped pattern of responding which there is fewer responses at the beginning of the interval, but as the interval nears the end, responding increases.<br />Variable-ratio—produces an overall high consistent rate of responding.<br />Variable-interval—produces a low consistent rate of responding.<br />
  19. 19. 20<br />Schedules of Reinforcement<br />
  20. 20. You decide:<br />A used car salesman gets a bonus of $1000 for every 10 cars he sells.<br />Fixed ratio<br />Each time you call into the radio station you get a chance to win the Grand Prize of a new car, but you can only call once a day. <br />Fixed interval <br />Credit card companies offer gift certificates after earning 5000 points through credit card purchases.<br />Fixed ratio<br />Joe doesn’t always get the phone number of an attractive girl he approaches.<br />Variable ratio<br />
  21. 21. You decide:<br />The college will unexpectedly inspect dorm rooms to make sure they pass health codes, therefore students try to keep their rooms neat all the time.<br />Variable interval<br />Buying lottery tickets.<br />Variable ratio<br />Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 25,000 miles of travel.<br />Fixed ratio.<br />
  22. 22. 23<br />Punishment<br />An aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows. <br />Response  aversive event  response doesn’t happen again<br />Jimmy shaves Jimmy never<br />the cat for fun  spanking  shaves the cat again<br />(This is an example of positive punishment.)<br />
  23. 23. Positive Punishment: an aversive stimulus that decreases the behavior that it follows. “Punishment by application.”<br />A spanking.<br /> A parking ticket / prison sentence<br />Negative Punishment: withdrawing a desirable stimulus that decreases the behavior that it follows. “Punishment by removal.”<br />Response (behavior) remove pleasant  don’t do that <br /> or desirable response again<br /> stimulus<br />Time outs from privileges.<br />Revoked drivers licenses.<br />
  24. 24. 25<br />Punishment<br />It can cause the organism to avoid the punisher instead of the behavior.<br />Punishment can create fear & anxiety, which does not promote learning.<br />It conveys no information to the organism.<br />Unwanted behaviors may reappear in its absence or another unwanted behavior replaces it. <br />In people, it may encourage lying to avoid the punishment.<br />It may result in aggression towards the agent.<br />For people, hitting provides a successful model for aggression.<br />
  25. 25. If you must punishment…<br />It should immediately follow the behavior it is meant to punish.<br />It should be consistent.<br />Punishment of the wrong behavior should be paired, whenever possible with reinforcement of the right behavior.<br />
  26. 26. Applying Operant conditioning…<br />Behavior modification – the use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about desired changes in behavior. Used in schools, psychiatric wards, prisons…even animal training.<br />Select target<br />Choose reinforcer<br />Reinforce right behavior; do not reinforce inappropriate behavior<br />What is a token economy?<br /> a type of behavior modification in which desired behavior is rewarded with “tokens”<br />
  27. 27. 28<br />Applying Operant conditioning…<br />In sports, reinforcement principles can enhance athletic performance.<br />
  28. 28. 29<br />Applying Operant Conditioning…<br />At work, reinforcers affect productivity. Many companies now enable employees to share profits and participate in company ownership.<br />

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