Chapter 1 history of psy


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History of Psychology

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  • Identical twins, Oskar and Jack were conceived during a shipboard romance between a German Catholic woman and a Romanian Jewish man. The couple, bound for a new life in the Caribbean, separated shortly after the twins' birth in Trinidad in 1933. When the parents split, the brothers' lives took radically different turns. Oskar returned to Germany with his mother where he was raised a Catholic and, in the spirit of the Nazi era, joined the Hitler youth. Jack stayed in the Caribbean with his father who raised him as a progressive Jew. Years later, a brief meeting found the young men on opposite sides of the ideological and ethnic spectrum. The two hardly knew each other when they met again and began to appreciate each other during a 1979 United States research project on twins. In Oskar and Jack the brothers tell their incredible story, permitting us to observe their similarities and differences and to ponder the meaning of identity.
  • Chapter 1 history of psy

    1. 1. History of Psychology <ul><li>Psychology comes out of a combination of Philosophy and Biology. </li></ul>
    2. 2. Ancient Nature-Nurture Debate <ul><li>Socrates and Plato (469-399BC)— the great early philosophers believed the mind could be separated from the body. Knowledge is innate—born into us. </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle (384-322 BC) believed that the soul was not separable from the body. Knowledge NOT innate, but learned. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Continued Nature-Nurture Debate <ul><li>Descartes (1595-1650) - scientist and philosopher. Also believed that Knowledge is innate. Looked at how the mind and body communicated, studying nerves and body movements. </li></ul><ul><li>John Locke (1632-1704) – Believed the mind is blank slate. His work along with Francis Bacon led towards the principle of Empiricism. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Empiricism <ul><li>The view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation. </li></ul><ul><li>The beginning of modern science </li></ul>
    5. 5. Science: <ul><li>systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experimentation. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Who is the Father of Psychology? <ul><li>Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) — did the first true psychology experiment which attempted to measure the speed of thought. </li></ul><ul><li>A philosopher and physiologist </li></ul><ul><li>Worked in experimental and cognitive psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>Known for “objective introspection” </li></ul>
    7. 7. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) <ul><li>Father of Psychoanalysis </li></ul><ul><li>Science of the mental life. </li></ul><ul><li>Best known for such theories of the unconscious mind, repression, the interpretations of dreams and defense mechanisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology becomes fixed (fixated?) on understanding the inner mental processes and thinking. </li></ul>
    8. 8. The Pendulum swings <ul><li>From 1920-1960, Psychology is redefined as “the scientific study of observable behavior”. </li></ul><ul><li>Since thinking, introspection and feelings can’t be observed, it is dismissed. Because science is rooted in observation, only BEHAVIOR can be studied and researched. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Fathers of Behaviorism <ul><li>John B Watson </li></ul><ul><li>B.F. Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>Ivan Pavlov </li></ul><ul><li>Theories of classical conditioning, operant conditioning, rewards and punishment. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Pendulum swings again <ul><li>Humanistic Psychology takes hold around 1960 with the belief that people are more than just their behaviors. Thinking and feeling ARE important. Emphasizes human potential, needs for love and acceptance, and environmental influences on growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Rogers </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Maslow </li></ul>
    11. 11. Psychology comes of age! <ul><li>Psychodynamic perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Biopsychological perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Family systems perspective </li></ul>
    12. 12. 4 major theories in counseling <ul><li>Psychodynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive behavioral theory </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic theory </li></ul><ul><li>Family systems theory </li></ul>
    13. 13. Nature-nurture debate <ul><li>The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider issues like alcoholism, obesity, depression, and personality traits. Are they genetic or caused by the environment? </li></ul>
    14. 14. The Jim Twins <ul><li>Jim Springer and Jim Lewis </li></ul><ul><li>Separated four weeks after birth </li></ul><ul><li>Reunited at age 39 </li></ul>
    15. 15. Jim Twin Simularities. Both men: <ul><li>Had first wives named “Linda” and second wives named “Betty.” </li></ul><ul><li>Named their sons “James Allan.” </li></ul><ul><li>Owned dogs named “Toy.” </li></ul><ul><li>Drove the same color and same model of Chevy. </li></ul><ul><li>Chain smoked Salem cigarettes. </li></ul><ul><li>Chewed their fingernails. </li></ul><ul><li>Vacationed in the same spot each year. </li></ul><ul><li>Got headaches at the same time of the day. </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoyed mechanical drawing and carpentry. </li></ul><ul><li>Had excelled in math in school and struggled in spelling . </li></ul>
    16. 16. Oskar and Jack <ul><li>Oskar and Jack were born in Trinidad but separated and raised by different families. </li></ul><ul><li>Oskar was taken to Germany, where his grandmother raised him as a Catholic and a Nazi youth. </li></ul><ul><li>Jack was raised in the Caribbean as a Jew, by his father, and spent part of his youth on an Israeli kibbutz. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Similarities <ul><li>When arriving at the airport, both were wearing wire-rimmed glasses and mustaches, both sported two-pocket shirts. </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting idiosyncrasies were shared, such as, they both: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>liked spicy foods and sweet liqueurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>were absentminded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>had a habit of falling asleep in front of the television </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thought it funny to sneeze in a crowd of strangers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>flushed the toilet before using it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stored rubber bands on their wrists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>read magazines from back to front </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dipped buttered toast in their coffee.. </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. An integrated approach— Three main levels of analysis <ul><li>Biological influences </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological influences </li></ul><ul><li>Social-cultural influence </li></ul>
    19. 19. 1. Biological influences on behavior & mental processes <ul><li>Genetic predispositions </li></ul><ul><li>Genes responding to the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Illness and disease </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of substances on the body and brain, such as alcohol, drugs, sugar, etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical changes in the body (connected with such things as hormones, aging, stress, sleep, weather, etc…) </li></ul>
    20. 20. 2. Psychological influences on behavior & mental processes <ul><li>Learned fears and other learned expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional responses </li></ul><ul><li>General personality traits and ways of thinking (such as optimistic or pessimistic, careful or spontaneous) </li></ul><ul><li>Self talk </li></ul><ul><li>Trauma and loss </li></ul>
    21. 21. 3. Social-cultural influences on behavior & mental processes <ul><li>The presence of others </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural, societal, and family expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Peer and other group influences </li></ul><ul><li>Compelling models (such as the media) </li></ul><ul><li>Social-economic status </li></ul>