Consider the following mathexpression:1 + 2acbNormally a reader will read this as, “1divided by b plus 2ac.” But this can alsobe interpreted as1___b + 2ac
Test your screen reader:How does it read3 + x ?7Type in variations of this fraction tosee how your screen readerresponds.
Problems faced by people withvisual impairments:1) Braille texts can take a long time to make, andnot everyone who has a visual impairmentcan read Braille.A decrease in Braille literacy is due to manyfactors including lack of qualified teachers.
Problems faced by people withvisual impairments:2)Enlarged texts canbe big and heavy,making theminconvenient to totearound.In addition to being heavy, enlargedtexts and Braille texts can also beriddled with errors.
Problems faced by people withvisual impairments:3) Texts on tape can be cumbersometo deal with (going back or forward,pacing issues, etc.) and can presentinterpretation problems.
Problems faced by people withvisual impairments:4) Texts may make references tocolored images that studentscannot see or that are in blackand white print.
Problems faced by people withvisual impairments:5) Closed-circuit televisions canbe helpful, but if a student hasto push one from class to class,they can be problematic.
StatisticSurveys have found that asmuch as 90% of instruction inmath classes is based on thetextbook (Bouck and Meyer, 2012).
A Solution:eTextwith mathematics mark uplanguage, MathML(OpenMath, TeX, or LaTeX)
An eText is:an electronic text.It can be used with MathML(mathematics markuplanguages) to make the textreadable by various users.
How It WorksWith a fraction like1 + 2cAn eText reader will say, “BEGINFRACTION, 1 divided by c, ENDFRACTION, plus 2.”
Enhanced learning for all:This not only helps students with visualimpairments but also those withcognitive, learning and readingdisabilities. It can also be used by the generalpopulation and willbe most useful tostudents who areauditory learners.Making math texts more accessible willenable more students to realize theirpotential in this subject.
ResourcesInformation on slides:Bouck, E.C.; Meyer, N.K. (2012) eText, Mathematics, andStudents with Visual Impairments. Teaching ExceptionalChildren. Vol.45,Iss.2;p.42-49Images (in order):http://www.accesslinx.com/Braille.jpghttps://content1.animepaper.co/thumbnails/preview/249506/1/animepaper.nethttp://www.hmheducation.com/gomath/images/sl4-go-math.jpghttp://www.visualphotos.com/photo/2x6309893