2001 Stress & Coping In Japanese Middle Childhood (Japanese)

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Kilburg, Donald F., III & Nishikawa, Kazuo (2001). Stress and Coping in Japanese Middle Childhood. The Bulletin of the Faculty of Education, Mie University (Educational Science), Vol 52. (in Japanese)

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2001 Stress & Coping In Japanese Middle Childhood (Japanese)

  1. 1. ~m*$~W$l'ffiliJf~*c~ ~52~ ~WN$ (2001) 227 - 242 .& B*0%£0A~VACA~VA~~rr~ Donald F, Kilburg ill * j:§) II fO:K * * Stress and Coping in Japanese Middle Childhood Donald F. KILBURG and Kazuo NISHIKAWA ill Abstract In spite of numerous popular reports of Japanese children's stress and coping, there have been very few systematic studies. This research explores stress and coping in Japanese children during middle childhood. Several existing instru- ments (Jose, 1991) were modified and translated to measure daily and major life event stress, coping strategies, and perception of parenting style in Japanese children of 4th through 6th grade. Data were analyzed in a 2 (sex) x 2 (age) x 2 (perception of parental warmth: high/low) x 2 (perception of parental control: high/low) design. Everyday and major life event stress were considered in four contexts: education, family/home life, health/fitness, and peer relations. Additionally, coping was considered along the lines of approach, avoidance, emotion-focused, and problem-focused groupings, in response to the scenario of: "kids teased or avoided you." Older children reported greater education-related stress. Girls reported greater health/fitness and peer relations stress. Older children reported greater use of approach/problem-focused coping and avoidance/ problem-focused coping. Girls reported greater use of approach/problem-focused coping. Children high in perceived parental warmth reported less use of avoidance /problem-focused coping. Cross-cultural comparisons of stress showed a number of single-item differences. events) le-::Jl'-C 20 JJH30)~tR1W5ERtt~m (;1 t &» (0:: l'L:"wliB!:tHT-.,-n'7.>o ~~11'W: 1 iJ'G 7 ~C'O) F,,~ 1m ~ttJIJj'He, 7 ,§)tllj,Rtt..tC'oftvfnO)tI:l*~iJ'iJl B*O)n~O)A r VA le~ L L:"~~I!IO)liJf~~ ~~C~~~~O)Wtt~1W5ELko ~~~~~~ leJ:.7.>liJf~(H~~IeZU'o {iiJ'Ie Yamamoto ofn-F'nO) tI:l*~~~~Ie c"O)tjtt¥£,~ L L:"' 7.> l and Davis (1982) iJ' ~ c ~ -.,t: liJf~ c L L:" ~ iJ'~1'lFo'~ nt:o Gn7.>< Gl'C'ct7.>o CO)g~XC'(iB*c7'j I) ~~~~~tI:l*~O)~~¥£~..tO)~tt~, B* :h 0) / j$13Z4 1f~ iJ, G 6 1f~ ~ C' 600 :g ~ )(1~ Ie c 7' j I) :h O)n~O)Fs'IeBJJlilUJ~~jf;~iJ', litE LL:", A l- vA~~C~B~B<]tJtI:l*~ (every- B<]tJA l- VAPJ~~'tiJ:,if,fleJ:.I) A r V 7-B<]C'ct 7.> day life events) c i~tWJ tI:l*~ (major life tI:l*~Ie -::J,'L:"(i, B*O)n~rs'Ie;1li, '-¥JetiJ:iJ' Department of Psychology, DePaul University, 2219 North Kenmore Avenue, Chicago, Illinois, 60614 USA * * ~m*$~W$l'ffi -227-
  2. 2. Donald F, Kilburg III • j§}J I fD~ ~Ght:o A l- vAO)f!I[OCK-:;"-C{J:, 8*O)n 6 (Wertlieb, Weigel, & Feldstein, 1987)0 tx • c T j I) h 0)n.-C {J:, t, ~ {i G$:tl(:~j!:$a ~~~~~~Y-~~~~f-~~~<~ffl~6 {c;Jo,'-C 8*O)n.0)1J1Ji~ ~ A ~ i- A 7 }V-ciJ;) c:: c1Jiliii!'16 G:ht: (Band, & Weisz, 1988; 6 c " -j ~ -j {c, JFJ 6{I;!j[OJ1Ji~Ght:o t:t:' L Frydenberg, & Lewis, 1990; Jose, Cafasso, ~{*c L -c, A ~ i- 7. c L -cfj£,~~ 61=.$$aK & D' Anna, 1994)0 BZxtK~~{J:J;1z!J.i1!:C:1J' ~"7 'Y -:;"-cx1t~{J:li!Jfi!l'-C{J:tJ"o C:'t;, GO)ooO)n. ;:lf5effl~2;U, Yf.:tE1t::J- 1:::°/'f A ~ 7 T:; - ~ t, ~$£f {CtJ 6 {~C:'~ ~ A ~ i- 7. O)f1l[OC1Ji~ ts < '0 *1t, f5e -j {I;!j[OJ1JiiMl, '-cm:ht:liJfj'W, !/:jU5L~ES1 60 'rl£~K-:;"-C, 8*O)n~-C{J:~~1Ji-tx~~ c ::J - 1:::0 ;7'JfiiJjlt~Ii:{ij:K" -c~~i~ / -:; 6 c " -j ~ ~ff~KA ~ vA1Ji~,'o -j {c5t1t L -C" 6 (Compas, Worsham, & Ey, Yamamoto and Davis {J:, 8*=-:;O)x1t 1992; Kliewer, 1991; Spirito, Stark, Grace O)TO)A~V7.~ffiO).Wtl~~§~«~-ciJ;)6 and Stamoulis, 1991)0 cm.L~o.~~, 8*cTj~h~"C:h~:h 4'IElO)liJf9t{J:, Yf.OOAtc~ 6liJf9t0)z L c" H',lj ~!R§O)x1t~'If~~fif ~ -c, '-C t" I~XBJj1t2: i~,~~~O)AM~G~~8*0)~m~~~~ :h~*WmKttUn.~,~<~;!:!<ff~6M[OJ~ 6A ~ VAfj£,~C, "C:htcxt6l21~6t:l6tc$ffl~6 iJ;)6 cmBJj L -C" 60 8*O)n.K;Jo, '-C'rl£~1Ji ::J-I:::°/;7"A ~"1T:;-tc-:;"-C, ~'J1tJ6£fjfJfHt-fO) ~C;,:ht::I!I!ffi c L -c, .~{J:, 8*K;Jo"-C{J:~ ltt)(~2;l6t:~~iHr-j c:: c~~12Q L -c, '60 :±~ ~tc~' '$~H;j'{j 2: tt ~ -j c ~ 6 ~ -j {c, -tx~ ~§~~i~ Tj~hO)n.~~L~~-j~~~ ~ ~ iMl"$~:i!RX:~*166x1t~EE1J1Jim1J'6 c vAK~~Ml!;:i!~;JoHF'rl£~~, 8*O)n.t, ftiJW Lt:o ~~M:::'-j1J'~lii1J'166C::c-ciJ;)60 ~2 {J:, 8* 8*O)n.0)7. ~ v7.::J-I:::°/;7"{c~~6Xi!ik O)~1l"i'tcYf.OOAO)tJl.J~tc~6n.tc-:;, vt:o: A ~ v {J:, A ~ vAfj£Jij~tc~~6t,0)~~tJ;Jo'l>tJ"0 AliJf9t~m:iT;~6C::c-ciJ;)60 ~-CtCI}lJ9E2::hL,' L1J'LT j I) hO)n.O)"C:h{c-:;"-C{J:, liJf9t0) 6m~o)Tj~hA~MacL~::J-~/fhT~ £fi1Jif'F C;, -C" 6 0 Band and Weisz (1988) h I) - (Jose et al., 1994) Hm~· ii'mffl 8 * L, {J:Folkman and Lazarus (1988) O)r,,9Ji!1j~Q O)n.Kxt~ 6ii'mffl'tI£~~B~ 6 c:: c1J'GfriJI660 1t::J - 1:::°/;7" (Problem-focused coping) c Jose et al . (1994) {J:Folkman, & Lazarus ~tw~,~1t::J - 1:::°/;7" (emotion-focused cop- (1988) 0) ~ M / r,,9Ji!1j ,~1t ~ (emotion/ ing) c,'-j:ll!'t~{C§&.Lt:o r,,9Ji!1j~}i~dt::J-I:::° problem-focused) 0) ~ ESIc M<ill / IEliM /;7Wgtm~:m~~~1tc"tt6C::c-C, ~1J~M~ (approach/ a voidance) O)~ESI~*Jl.l;..g,:httt:o Ji?At::J_1::0/ ;7'{J::±tm~:m~~~{t 2:tt 6 c:: c -CA M<ill~ESIc~A~vAKML-C~m·$~~fi~ l- v7.tCxt6l21L~-jc~6fi~-c~60 .~{J:, "C K~~M6I21~6C::c-ciJ;)~, lEliM~ESI~A~vA~ :h-'C':hO)n.{J:2:i~'itJ7. ~ v7.#jjjjj{C~~Lt: iM~6fi~K~~-cM6I21L~-jc~6gOC-ciJ;)60 ~K,Hl;.O)Y1'~0)::J-~/f~~~~6M[OJ~ L~cO)~ESItc1JD~ -c, *Ji!O)lt~ A Y l' }v~i{ffiO) iJ;)6C::c~:iT;Lt:o !m1!iK~"C::ctc, n.0)§2¥R ~ESIK~L-Ct,~B~60.O)lt~gOC~~mO) 15{c~:h{i, ~~~::J _1:::0;7" (r,,9Ji!1j~,~1t::J_ 1:::0 / A l- vAKJl!,;W~6c;!:!<tc, A ~ vAM6I211i~1J~ / ;7") {J:£f~O)~rr c;!:!<{c~'l>i t;:{J:t~'ij'i:-:iT;~O) 9E:i!2:tt6m~~~ESIT~6c~~Gh6~G-c tc)(tL-C, =~~::J-I:::0/;7" (~tw~,~1t::J-I:::°/ iJ;)60 Erik Erikson (1963) {J:*Ji!O)~mtcM~ ;7") W~1JD~6{I;!j[OJ1JiiJ;)6 (Altshuler & Ruble, 6 1~1J'2:J c imtEffjiHI£J " -j, Ij$:tl(:O)n. c 1989; Compas, Worsham, & Ey , 1992) 0 WHc;Jo,'-C c ~ :htjm~tJlt~gOCO) 2 {]!ijjjj~:iT; Band and Weisz {J:.~O)T'- Y 1J'C;" ~M~ Lt:o ~1J' c" {J:, *Ji!1Ji~m~ 6 ~twO) v« Iv c, ,~1t::J - 1:::0 ;7"1Jir,,9Ji!1j~#'At::J / _1::0/;7"~~:ii! < ~mO) § 21W1iffitcxtL -c*Ji!1JiJfBJtffO)f1l[OCtc~ 9E:i!~ 6 c:: c O):I!I!ffiO)~-:; L -C, ~'~,9,1t::J- c :h 60 mtEffjiJ {J:ii'mtrJ {cfi~~ 6 ~ -j lffii1l'fi'i¥J~ 6 f1l[ 1:::°/;7"{J:§ {C~~ 6 Jt;{Cm:hK < "t:l6, WBj~$ OCtc~:h 60 ~, 'mtEffjiJ'rl£~:iT;~*Ji!{J:, ~mO)fi~ 'l1§' c" :h{C < " c " -j m:¥R~*(f't:o ~lffiitJl.L, m~c~tJ~mJliJ~Jlm'1'~ 6 ~ -j {cl± ~o)Tj~hK;Jo~6liJf9t~,n.~£f~0)* [OJ+ 6 c:: t c {c~1J~fL -j (Maccoby, & Martin, 1JDc;!:!<{C~~~<O)'/-~~}v~f- l- ({fu1l§'1J' 1983 ~%.no C;, O)x~) ~fIJffl~ 6 ~ -j {UJ 6 c:: c~:iT; L -C" ~1J' c" ~fift;" .g,:I!I!~tJffjij~J.H={$"s 1J' § ffi t G ~228~
  3. 3. B *0) w..0) A l- i- A UtM:rrtIJ HJm~Mr~~JJl(i, T#to).l~:g~sq '1±~ t::J c l -j J:.-j tJJi1j~~ I;:-JJ7.> r i- A'±.~~ A sq~~~1!1: m:~. < ;f§~~ 7.> c il5BJl ii' (e:~ h c .:. G ITfi l --C, ifP W. :.I')@]~/r,,';!lj:l*,~1t::J - Ie::to J --Cl7.>(Grolnick,&Ryan 1989)0 .iI'~c 1::'/,:7"i-!I)(7.>.:. (iPtJlt:'0 c -j (Band, & _M~O)a.sq~£ •• i-*~7.>,:,c~m."C~ Weisz, 1988)0 7.> h c'~, T#tli':' h G O){!!lJITfi(e: it -:> --C, *J.!O) l 7, ifPOY~T'iifPO):5J'1T J:.I')*<i5:/~ffl:l*,~ Ii~~JJlO)~:g~(e::to l --CBJlll~UJ#l.lIJi:~~.:. ilj c 1t::J-1::'/':7"i:~OfJ(7.>t:'0-j (Wertlieb, et m~~h7.>o~fflO)~m~~."C~7.>O)"C, ':'0) al., 1987;Frydenberg, & Lewis, 1990)0 J:.-j tJ~:g~~(i::x:1tsq'lt~(e: J:.7.>l!~1.Ji-5titM:' J 8, .0).~~i-.<~~~7.>w..~,~<~~ o -j 0 Hunsinger et al. (1998) (i.iliiJt!l: c. ~7.>W..J:.I')A r vA(iPtHt:'0-jo ii' ~ (e: :> --C, Chinese-American cEuropian- - l 9, .00.M~i:.<~~~7.>w..~,~<~~ American O)*Ai:xt~c L --CiJl.IJ~'l:!JXi-rr", ~7.>W..J:.I')A r vAil5~lt:'0-jo tz; fl!{~(i, .iI'~ (e:-:>l--C(ijjljjllfc Mii{f.l Lt:: 10, .ililJtI: i-. < ~:g~ L• ii' ~ i-{g;< ~:g~~ 7.> . W ~:g~{tfj1oJ L t: ilj, _*IJtI: (e:~ L--C Chinese- i:~ (i .Ii, c'i;, I"de::> - l--C~. < &:g~~ 7.>w..J:.1') American ~Europian-American J:.I')~~ (e: A r vAli~lt:'0-jo .<~~~7.>,:,ci:~G~KL~o ~--CB*O). 11. .iI'~i-.O:g~~7.>W..(i, {g;O:g~~7.> (iT#t(e: c'O).(e:~:g~ ~ h --C 7.>iI'cl -j .:. C ~, l w.. J:.I')*<i5:/ ~ffl:l*,~ 1t::J - 1::' :7":~ < Jli( /' i *-~/':7I~~3/'0)%"CArvAcxtM:rrtIJ M:'0 -jo O)!iJf~(e:Bt{t--CIDill« c ~1!;j<;8IEl .:.hi "C G h7.> 0 a .~~i-~<~~~7.>w..~,.<~~~7.> O)!iJf~i-~~L--C,W..O)ArvA~~cArv w..J:.I')@]~/M;!lj:l*~1t::J-~/'~i:~<!I)( A ::J - 1::' /' ~ (e: -:> l --C Ylr 0)J:. -j tJ{&mil5~~~ 7.>t:0 -jo hiJi}7.>o 13, .iliIJ'~i-.C .iI'~i-{g;<&:gffi~7.>U(i, .ililH!I: • ii' ~ O)~:g~Ie:~L --C, j!y-:> )./{g; c O 1&m 0)~,Hl:;.~b{tllfO)CP"C*<i5:/~ffl:l*,~1t::J- 1::' 1. ~~~jftJ6i'.(e::tol--C, :5J'1T(iRTJ:.I'),*l /' :7"- Jli( .> il5m: P ts l t: 0 -j0 i 7 .:.c ~ A r i- A i: ~ ~ t: 0 -j (Yamamoto, & 14, .ililH!I: • ii' ~ O)&:g~K~ L --C:t!;le:.< ~:g~ c Davis, 1982)0 ~7.>w..~,.~ttc.~~o)~~K~L--C, 2. ~~~jftJ6i'. (e::to --c, ifftW. (iifP W. :.I') l J ~-:>O)./~O)~l:;.~b{tllfO)CP"Cm:~*<i5:/ ,*l'A r vAi:~~t':'0-j (Yamamoto, & ~ffl:l*,~1t::J - 1::' :7"i:~ < Jli( .>: 0 -j0 /' 7t Davis, 1982)0 3. RT(i I~Jth!1!.i- ht::/{q,ra'fl.h(e: ~ ht::J ~ "}j ~:k cl-jJ:.-jtJJi1j~~(e:tJ7.>A r VA'±.~~ITfi(e: :tol --c, :5J'1T J:.I')*<i5:/~ffl:l*,I;,?At::J 1::' :7" - /' fiJi~:f,' i-~ < Jli( t: 0 -j (Wertlieb, et a l., 1997; 7.> ~IDill~~(i~«--C, =m~p;j 0)= -:> O)IJv~:t3He: Frydenberg, & Lewis, 1990; Jose, et al., PJi~~ 7.> B*AW..114 A "C~ 7.>03 ~c M~fl. 1994)0 O)CPim*MO)W..iI%~~ 7.>/J,,¥:~"C~.>0~~ 7 4. :5J'1T~I~Jth!1!.i-~h~/~Mfl.hK~h~J ~O)mmw, 3 if'±.21A, 4 if'±.30A, 5 if'±. 32 c l -j J:.-j tJJi1j~~ (UJ 7.> l- i- A'±.~~ITfi(e: A A, 6 if'±. 26 A "C~ 7.>0ifl!ili(i 8 ~ 12~(e:?1:ffi :tol --c, RT J:.I')@]~/r,,';!lj:l*,~1t::J- 1::' :7" /' L, -'jZts)(i10.56~ (SD=L08) "C~7.>0 3if i-~ < Jli(7.>t:'0-j (Jose, et a l., 1994)0 '±.c 4if'±.(iifPllfi-mmzL (N=51, M=9. 55, 5. ifftW.'i I~Jth!1!.i: ht::/{q,ra'fl.hK ~ ~h SD=.54, :5J'1T27:;S,RT24:;s), 5if'±.c6 t::J c'-jJ:.-jtJJi1j~~(e:tJ7.>A r VA'±.~~ if'±.Iiifftllfi-mmz~ 7.>(N=58, M=lL 45, SD ITfi Ie::to,--c, ifPW.J:.1') *<i5:/~ffl:l*,~1txtM: =.50, :5J'1T 33:;s, RT 25:;S)o rrtIJi-~ < Jli(M:'0 -j (Band, & Weisz, 1988 ; Altshuler and Ruble, 1989; Compas, et aI.,1992)0 6. ifftW.~I~Jth!1!.i-~h~/~Mfl.hK~h -229-
  4. 4. Donald F, Kilburg ill • [!3J11 fD~ -¥~~ 1) ~ttk~~M~~~~~ffl~~~~ct j1[Fo~*.a;(:')(1~ 6 @]:g:~*66 60 j1[Fo~~(i, 1:t,5 ts iJ' -0 t: (E); if,--U!5 ~~ffi*., ::J-~/~Ar7T'/-,.~~~ 2)~~S~-ok~~~~ttk~G~-o~L 6j1[~~Gtt6~/~~ttA~1~~~60j1[~ i -0 t: (M); Jl'H3 (i, T j. I) fJ ~F7fl~2: nt:. T;r. 'Y Y I) A l- B. ::J-to/Y"Ar7T'/- (Ap/E:Approach (Jose, 1991, 1994, 1995) ~, B*~/J~:f3Z 3 £F /Emotion-focused ~ ili:/ ~ '~ 1* #, it 1:~G6£F1:~%.~, B~(8tt1:t,5~~ffi*. ::J - to / y", Ap/P: Approach/Problem- ~J:.U_~tt1:t,5~~ffi*.~~~6Ar~At focused ~ili:/ Fo~ 1*"'~it ::J- to / yo', ~ ::J-~/'~Ar7T'/-, ~J:.U.~ll'~A91 Av/E: Avoidance/Emotion-focused @] Jv(:'~~ 6&i(%I~iJlIJJE~ t:.66(:.i~JEL~m' -tz; 6 ~/~m1*#'it::J-to/y", Av/P: 1${.I~~tjlW, c'~ffi*.H£~ L-EniJic'n < G" Avoidance/Pro blem -focused @] ~ / Fo~ ~ A r i- A ~ ~ I~ C Lt:. iJ' (tJ L : 0, j.>L : L g 1*}~it::J - to / Y'') #~~: 2),~m~~2:nkl)~M~n~2:n 1. hkL~~~~~ffl~M~~~~~~~S t:.1) Lt:. t " J:.-) tJilb~ ~ ~ffi*.(:')(1!zl!,~ 6 -) < ts 6 J:. -j t:.~fif~ ~::J / r P - Jv~ 6 J:. -j ~,:., c'~::J - to /"fA r 7 T '/-~1*m Lt:.iJ' t:.~66 t: (Ap/E ~~'~ti1CiliIJ::J to / no - cts L : 0, j.>L : 1, :}F~~ : 2), WJl.~ll'~Il~ 2, ht:. Ui}jIJ~At:'-E~Fo~~~mbf<:~Jl;Ij'j~ t ~iJ' flt~ti1CiliIHlj: 2:t:.~~ 6 ~cizf:it:.-:J" ~ ~ ~ (i < n6 J:. -j *66t:. (Ap/P ~:@:J'!:(8'/ ~-' - i 6 f!£flt cts L : 0, j.>L : 1, :}F~ t:. : 2) , Jv-tJ-;i'- r::J- to/y")o ~:g:::t 60 ::J- to / Y"fJ T ::J") - (i, 1{IjJFa~iJi I ~ 3, hkL~-E~~~~ct~~~~.66k ts t: t:.~j:t!J~~ L i:.; ~ 6 " (iiIjJFa~~n(:. L t:.J (Av/E ~~2:}F~::J - to /y")o t',-), ;W,JELt:'~T I) ;t~-Iill!:(8t:.c'-)&Jt~ 4, ht:. L (iFo'~~ c t ~Ci5;{..tJ,'J:.j (:. L~, - 6 iJ":.11t-o ~1W{jffi2:n6 pJTmIfifFa~(i~ ~~, 0 30 ~tJl. Lt:.I))lMtnJ:. -j t Lt:. (Av/P ~@]~ %.~PJT~~6~~~f!l.ff~~':'J:. -0 ~~1iifj2:n ::J- to/·n tz.; C, WJl.~ll'~~flt~i(%I(C: Control ti1CiliIHlj:, W: Warmth ~iJ' 2:) 1[F,,~IJ[§{9IJ (*:tJT:j'I)-r;:-::l~, 1IJj§~l:i-~ 1. ht:.L~WJl.(iht:.L,:.m~~~~A.,t~G {9IJ:if.;) ~J:. -j t Lt:. (C)o A. 1:t,5.~ (E: Everyday Life Event B~(8 2, ht:. L~WJl.(i~~t:.~ tCi5::t1JiJi)t-oL" ts; ffi*., M: Major Life Event _tlJ ts ffi* ~ t" fb~~Jil.HJ][ L ~ < nt:. (W)o .) 1, %~/%lf!i1:t,5~Jj~ (Family/Home ~:fJTT'-tf-1 / Life, 47 total) ~1Z9~ fJ T ::J") - (i 2 ('tlj:) X 2 (£Fl!J(;)X 2 I 1) ~ ts t: ~ %~ ~g1EiJ'iJirr;;~(:. -0 t: (E)o ts (ti1CililJ:iE;·~) X2 (~iJ'2: :iE;·~) ~~60 2) ~ ts i: ~ jilijWJl.iJi)lMttll§' 0 Lt:. (M) 1${~~Fa~~'tlj: t£Fl!J(;~J:.lJWJl.~ll'~Il~flt~~i(%I (i 2, 1JtJm/7 1Y r ;{. A ~Jj~ (Health/ 1!ltrz:~~'IlfH~p.x: A r i- A:I*& (%~/%lf!i, L, Fittness, Gtotal) 1JtJm/7 1;1 r;{. A, ~~, iljJra~~iJi) t::J - to 1) ~ tJ t: (i ~ ~~i*][~ c t iJi~(;: tJ -0 t: /' yo' r 7 T '/ - (~ili:/ro~~1*,~.1t, ~ili:/~ A o», m1*}~it, @]~/ro~~1*,~.1t, @]~/~'~,~,it) 2) ~ tJ t: (i][, ,rr;;~t:. ts -0 t:; ~ 6 HilJ' 'i1Jt~~~'IlfH~p.x:~6 0 c'HliJt~ Lt:. (M)o 3, ~~~Jjj:~ (Education, 11 total) 1) ~tJt:.'i~~iJ'WI:f'fL ~"t:.J:.I)!I!"p'x: *5 ~ *lHIi( -0 i: o», A" VA$¥.~ 2) ~ ts i: Wliz;:f3Z~t: (M)o L 5trrlDfj'E (Yamamoto, & Davis, 1982) t 4, iljJFa~ iJi ~Jj~ (Peer Relations, ~ 12 lttx:L~, t€Jit L~~A r ~A(:'-:J"~(i, £F total) ft~%.'i£Fj.>~%.(;:l:r.«~ J:.I) ~" A r ~ A -230-
  5. 5. B *Q) %.li!Q);:Zr- v;:z C x1M,fillJ ,cil~ L 'L ,.~ C " -) fi5~i::if; 2' tJtp -0 tz; Up ;:z r- v;:z7J$~~J:.O{Jt"c"-)fi5~t,:if;2'ntJ7J>-o Lf;:W~:it:ljUJil.K-::>"'L'i, "f~Q)%.li!tl:"f:J>% t: (Table 1)0 tz t: L " < -::>7J>Q) -;:z 'ift~ J;- J:.O~";:z l- v;:zi:~,1~~L'L,'t:o i-g' !J1l-::>Q) Q)1J7J$~,';:Z r- v;:zi:~,~-t7.,L.ci::if;Lt:o ~ ;:z r- v;:z:l*6]1)c-::>"'L'i, "f~%'i"f:J>%J:.O, 1 ,c!J1l-::>Q);:Zi- ;:z:l*6C. ~W~lE, r- ( ~~/7 '1' ''l ~~IJtJ tI:l:JIHJ:l*6C.KiW'L J:. O:*: ~ tJ;:Z r- v;:z i: r- ;£-;:Z, f;:W, {rjlrB9~-I*) ,c-::>"'L, ft~'iB,*, !W; 'L " t: (Table 1 , Table 2, Figure 1) t 0 ~tI:l*"$Q)~~/7'1'~r-;£-;:zAA.c~M~-I*AA L. Q)fi5~'i{&:m 2 i:3t:f,'j'-t7.,0 (7('c, J]j§pg:g,c .,c-::>"'L, ~~J:. O~,'7. r- i- ;:zi:~,~ L'L" -::> ,''LQ)5HJTl''i, ~~IJtJ tI:l*"$Q)CPQ)~*:ilR.X: t: (Table 3 , Table 4, Figure 2)0 !m1!>K~" ~Q)~v~~~-K~L'L,"f~%~"f:J>%J:.O L. c K, :tz:~Q){rjlrB9~-I*;:zr- v;:z 'i"flflli Ul<K~ ~ ,'7. r- v;:z i:5i: ~:,jJ>'cts -0 tz; 'f 'L " 7., L. C 7J$BJl ~-t7.,Q)Kx1L'L, ~~'iT~L'L,'7.,o ~2 ,c ~fiffl~c~.~o,ft~~~~cL'L~~J:. @~Q)J]j§~Q)IX~i:*~-t7.,c,:tz:~~~~J:. O;:Z r- v;:Z~~Q)f'll!t7J$~~"c"-)fi5~'i1~Gn O'fLfiiE L < -t7., L. C~0)7°v ''l s- ~ -i:5i:'f 7., ts.t» tz; it:, {llZm 1 ,cIX L 'Lft~'if;:W~:it -0 "$~l':*: ~ tJ;:Z r- v;:z i:!W; t 'L " tz.; i t:~FB9 ,c Table 1 Multivariate Analysis of Variance: Children's Major Life Event Stress Source Hypothesis df Erro df F P SEX 3 103 1. 27 .289 AGE 3 103 6. 94 .000 SEXX AGE 3 103 5. 39 .002 Table2 Mean Stress Scores for Major Life Event Stress by Age Education Family Peer Age N M SD M SD M SD Younger 51 ,33 .60 .83 .59 .79 .82 Older 58 .75 .67 .69 .50 .59 .76 .9 .8 CD 5 .7 ~ ~ ,6 1n .5 I ~ I 1!!l!!m!!!H~ I context ~41 Eleducation IIIiIIIfamily/home life ~ .3 .2 ~peer relations younger older Figure 1: Mean major life event stress by AGE. "Education": p=,QQ1. -231-
  6. 6. Donald F. Kilburg III • [§JII fD~ Table 3 Multivariate Analysis of Variance: Children's Everyday Life Event Stress Source Hypothesis df Erro df F P SEX 4 102 2.55 .044 AGE 4 102 .96 .434 AGE X SEX 4 102 .51 .728 Table 4 Mean Stress Scores for Everyday Life Event Stress by Sex Education Family Health/Fit Peer Sex N M SD M SD M SD M SD Girls 49 .87 .51 .77 .44 .86 .59 .95 .56 Boys 60 .81 .61 .72 .38 .64 .51 .64 .63 1.0 i I Cl> .9 '- 0 o CJ) ~ .S, I .~?3 ~ Icontext -ffl o ID Cl> s ~ 71 .6Ll • ~I II I LMlI Ohealth/fitness ~peer relations Eleducation IliliIlIfamily/homelife girls boys Figure 2 : Mean everyday Iife event stress by SEX. "Hea Ith/fitness": p<.05;" peer relations": p<.01. -;§-ht!-7.>(IC]IDilI-t7.»;:cl<::-:J~'-C7·v·y:/1'- ~i(9;o~ nt:~iJ)~ I<::~-t 7.>*6!J11: i is l'~-:> b i is ~5tlj7.>:j:J.t~l'b, !!IH·J:.VJ%l~q l- vAHI,~ tz.; ~-:JO)A ~ vA~&I<::-:J~'-C, ~iJ)~tHf~ l-C~'7.>o tJmtfii3~:iT;~tH'o {&~81;J:5Zfif~ntJiJ)-:>t:o ~i(9;o nt:*1Ef1iIj'tti:1<:: O)*6!jIH;J:~q:f-3& ~ -:J~'-C : l~llJj§~fi~-t7.>c,~~~~fi<S9;o-t7.> l'~7.>o~-:JO)A~VA~&O)~fil'ti,*1E~tt n.I;J:, tt&:*iJc$.~~A..0)7· t> .. :/ l' - I<::~ / I;J:c'o)~&I<::Xi -C b~~tJmlj~i.li'it-c~,tJiJ)-:> l il-t 7.>l±l*:j:J~ff~I<::3i < g~ l n't: (Table tz; ;:nl;J:{&~ 9 C{&~ 10 ~)z:ti'f t. tH'*6!J11:l' 6~JRno U1.GO)*6!J11:t;J:, J:.1-)~iJ)tJitWgOC ~ 7.> i t:lJj § ~fil' I;J:, {ft ~'*1Ef1iiH~ 0 Hi(9;o-t 7.> ~lfJl:7.>WJl.I;J:, 't~1~*IH<::~ ~'-ctajj)jffitJMf.!fHi'ft:Jt n.ti,~<S9;o-t7.>n.J:.VJB.0)$.~~~ ~,;: c ~*l-C ~,7.> 1<::J!x. J:.-j 7.>01El~I;J: t:{ft i v·y :/ l' -I<::~il-t 7.>±l*:j:J~3i < ~~ l-C ~,t: l ~'~iJ)~ ~:iT;-tWJl.J:. T-{#0)$.~~~~Jl.iJ-t VJ, ~.~~:j:Jg~~~7.>$.~~~v~:/1'-~ 7.> c ~~:9J-t 7.> J1ii3'tttiJ{~ ;: c ~:iT;L -C~, 7.> ;: O ~, ~il-t 7.> l±l*:j:JI<::-:J ~'-CI;J:g~~-t7.>;: iJ{~tJiJ)-:> c J:.-j1'~7.>0 t: (Table 5 ~JROo Yamamoto and Davis (1982) c I;J::0$1:O) -232-
  7. 7. B::zfs.:Q)~~CV ~ 7. i- 7. Ui!l1!,rrtIJ Table 5 Selected Life Events, Stress Intensity, and Stress Occurrence by Control Low (N=55) High (N=54) Event Stress Intensity % Experiencing Stress Intensity % Experiencing M SD M SD "you got a grade that was less .67 .77 "82 .48 .69 "59 than you expected" (ELE # 22) "you got a bad grade on your .35 .67 '36 .56 .74 '59 report card" (MLE # 27) * = Significant difference at p<. 05, .• = significant difference at P <.01 Table 6 Selected Life Events, Stress Intensity, and Stress Occurrence by Warmth Low (N=55) High (N=54) Event Stress Intensity % Experiencing Stress Intensity % Experiencing M SD M SD you had to do something be- cause you're a boy/girl. but you .53 .69 "66 .33 .64 "39 did not want to do it" (ELE#37) "you got a bad grade on your .58 .76 '62 .31 .64 '33 report card" (MLE # 27) * * = Significant difference at p<.Ol ttl)!7J$ iI) 07J$, E --:J 7. ~ CV i- 7. r~Hoj1~--:J ,,--c (;I:, CV7; l)ncvlJIl.~ (46%) c(HIl{J;;(l--C,'t:o 7. ~ i- 7.'t;tS8<.Jl±l*~cv*I,~',liIji'iHI'i~1~1:l::tx:PJ xi!K'{8<.J'~ Yamamoto GCVB::zfs.:A!hI.~(;I: 9 % 64. fjgC'iI) 00 Yamamoto GCV7; I) :IJ}'JI(l,~(;I:, 7J$~ tY.l:l",q:.l --c"t:o b ljilijliJfj'C*5:lf1:7J$1:I::,,~PJ 42. 8 %7J$lji1;~cv*I.I~~7J$iI) tz ; -:JJ1E(~CVliJf9E -") ~~G,:iffiffi*cvllX:.~~~-:>kc~t0B::zfs.:A 1Z:::iO 0 B ::zfs.:A!hI.~:iO of J::.CJ"'!ltk cvliJf9EcvB::zfs.:A !hI.~CV',liIJi'i(;I:, amamoto Y GCV3)tCV 27J'G::zfs.: !hI.~(;I:, "i"n b 6 %.raTcv*I,~$C'iI) -:>iz ; liJf9Ecv*ft.raT~iC'~.~T.~5i!.GhkLC Yamamoto and Davis (;I:"CCVWEI3q:., 7; I) 1~ts. 00 t~iJlij(~1I:.7.> i 7J$, 80 ift; CV ::zfs.:*I~ B CV :IJA*~(~1:I::,,~ l t:~CV B::zfs.:A*~cv*J1:'t!t(~£ 'i§j-E.#8<.JIlX::9J7J$, 1~--:J,' --C :IJ"-1~.,7 -1 ~ q:.9l $~ CV ' -5 < ~tlJCV:ptJ: 2: 1c:*66--C,' 00 Yamamoto G c IJ CVil)7.>bCV'~!i£X.t:CV7J' bffihtH'o CV7;~:lJA~~~NC'~, 12.3%CV~m~~ ~cvttl)!cl--c,~~~cv~'tq:.*I.lk!hl.~ q:.~ i n t: L C 7J$ 0 iI) C 'W'iS- L --C ' 0 0 1E(~CV , B CV',liIJi'i Yamamoto (;I:, G CV ~ 7" }v C' (;I:26 % ~ ::zfs.:A~~~~Nc~@CV=ftC'~,~.cv*I.q:. CV7;~:lJAc~%CVB::zfs.:A~"Chq:.*I.l--c lk~m~3%.raTC'iI)-:>ko 1E(~~B::zfs.:CVL "t:o -:JJ~@cvliJf9EcvB::zfs.:A!hI.~C'(;I: 20 % l cv*5:lf1:q:., B::zfs.:)({I::(~:iOo:t0lE@:2:q:.~tJl.-g0 L 7J,tJ.iJ' -:>tc; B::zfs.:Acvl±l't$7J$L CV10 ifrB91z::~1j c CV&~C'(;l:tJ:, '7J' C 15;t tz.; 8<.J,~{J:l;Tl--C"7.>cJ::.<fi,lm2:h00 LCV~(;l:A Yamamoto and Davis (1982) CV7; I) :IJ DtIJ~CV&~C'iI) 7.> c5i!.x. 7.>0 A~ ~7"}vC";I:, 10. 9 %cv~m7J$Wifcv*I.q:. ~ L --c, ,t:7J B::zfs.:A ~~}vC'(;I: 3. 6 %J.:JTC' +j- :J-C;,;~l'A t-77'V-(i);j<IJIfl iI)-:>koa.8<.J~.~~G, B::zfs.:C'~Wifq:.iI)i fim6~,if~CV!hl.~~if:P!hI.J::.IJ@~/M. IJ~1it!ll tJ:,' J::.-) '~5i!.;t 7.>0 t: t: lWif7J$lrfi h ~,9'{1::::J- t," ~ :7' 7. ~ '7 T :/ - q:. ~ 7.>L c (;I::Pts tJ:,' 7J' G 7J', J::'~7J$~" 7J'G tJ:CV7J,(;I:)t7J' tJ:, '0 G " c T~ It:o L CV{LZm';I:~lliE2: h ts.t» -:> tz; xi CV N lmll)j(l?R, ' L C 1~, :iffiffif.ll llX:*liJ$ < ts 7J'-:>t: !l1!,rrtIJCV!l9--:JCVn ::J"I) T - (:j~ilI/F,,9.~,~{I::, c~ t --c" 01JI1.~CV',liIJi'i(;I:, ~@cvliJf9Ecv B::zfs.:cv *ilI/~tw~~{I::, @~/F,,9.~,9,{I::, @~/~ IJII.~ (48 %) C Yamamoto and Davis (1982) m~,9,{I::) 7J$)ttfT2: n t: c ~, if~!hI. (;I: ~/F,,9 @ -233-
  8. 8. Donald F, Kilburg ill • j7§}l1 fD~ Ji!fi~}i?A~::J1::' /' ~~ J: I) ~ < 1*ffl L "'[I, ,t::O)C' - riiftrJ: - < I) @]Jm:/r,,~Ji!fi~£1~::J 1::' /' :7'i:~ if) 7.>(Table 7, Table 8, Figure 3 ~J~Oo fljfflj-7.>c TiJIiJ ::o c. n GO)f&~ii:#«::~~2' U fi~5cfi~7C'T~2'nk~~~~2'n~~~ n~~~ko L~L.~~O)tt~~~~Gnko tz; LiJ'L!!l!!I];j(i5l11,'C.ci::, i'll~(::$~~iiJ:1) gg~O)::J_I::' /' :7":JJ I) -iJ{5ttJT2' nt::~, ft T::J' ~ < M(:i1I/r,,~im~JiM~::J 1::' /' :7'Hljffl L 'n -tz; - r ii~r J: I) M(:i1I/r,,~im~},~d~::J1::' /' :7'i:~ < - c.O):JJT~~-O)::J-~/'~~~Ji!fiO)M~~~L flJfflL"'[ 1,'t: (Table 7, Table 9, Figure 4 "'[~<O).~~~r5T~-i:~OO)C',$~~ ~Jl?Do ::J-I::'/,YlJ[§O)5tVTC'ii, ftrii~r ~7.>~~r.~~i:2'n7.>/~M~n~2'n7.>J J:1)~ffl~,~~~tl~~TT--r~~rr~i:~ c 1,' ') ~ T I) :;t:l*iJL(::~1;J] (::x1~j- 7.>~:1JiJ{§Bi¥ ~ < Jl)( .> c ~jf; L t: (Table 10 ~moo 7 c. j-7.>c.ci:jf;j-J:')~mbn7.>o~O)::J-~/'~ gg~O)::J-~/'~:JJT~~-O)5tVTC'~,.O) ~§O)5tVT~$.~i:jf;2'~~~ko .~2'i:~<~~j-7.>~.~,~<m~j-7.>~. f&~ 3 ii, ftrii~rJ: 1)M(:i1I/~,t~!1:1:tsd~::J- J:1)@]Jm:/~Ji!fi~£1~::J-~/'~i:~<Jl)(~k ~/'~i:~<~fflj-7.>cT~Lkofi~4~,~ (Table 11, Table 12, Figure 5 ~mno c. nii Table 7 Multivariate Analysis of Variance: Coping as a Function of Sex and Age Source Hypothesis df Erro df F P SEX 4 102 3,04 ,021 AGE 4 102 5.48 .000 SEX X AGE 4 102 1. 59 .181 Table 8 Mean Coping Scores by Age App./Emo. App'/Pro. Avo./Emo. Avo./Pro. Age N M SD M SD M SD M SD Younger 51 .73 .37 .53 .43 .43 .32 .43 .26 Older 58 .75 .40 ,76 .38 .55 .35 .59 .27 .81 i .7 <D '- o o CJ) 6 OJ . c '5.. o coping strategy o .5 CJ) ~ approach! emotion ~ 'u .4 § approach/problem mIiI acoidance/ emotion ~ .3 DIlJ]aOidance/problem younger older Figure 3 : Mean coping scores by AGE. "Approach/problem": p<.Ol; "Avoidance/problem": p<.Ol. -234-
  9. 9. a:Ljs:O)IJl!.j[O)A r VA cxiM:1itIJ Table9 Mean Coping Scores by Sex App. /Emo. App. /Pro. Ava. /Emo. Ava. /Pro. Sex N M SD M SD M SD M SD Girls 49 .81 .43 .79 .44 .55 .35 .53 .26 Boys 60 .69 .34 .55 .38 .45 .33 .50 .29 .9 .8 Q) •.... a 0 C/) OJ .7 c '5. coping strategy a o .6 C/) ~approach/ emotion ~ '0 .5 ~ approach/problem IIlIIII acoldance/ernotlon ~ .4 []]![]]aOidance/problem male Figure4: Mean coping scores by SEX. "Approach/problem": p<.001. Table 10 Selected Coping Strategies by Sex Girls (N =49) Boys (N=60) Coping Strategy M SD M SD "I talked to someone in order to feel better." (CISCS# 11, '1. 10 .69 '.80 .63 emotional social support) "I asked someone to give me help to solve the problem." ".76 . 63 ".45 . 53 (CISCS#12, instrumental social support) "I got into a fight." (CISCS# 8, aggression) .67 .63 .70 .70 "I smoked cigarettes or drank alcohol in order to feel .04 .20 .07 .26 better." (CISCS # 1, drug use) "I blamed my self for the problem." (CISCS#18, self- ".74 . 64 ".43 . 50 blame) * = Significant difference at p<.05, * * = Significant difference at p<.Ol Table 11 Multivariate Analysis of Variance: Coping as a Function of Warmth and Control Source Hypothesis df Erro df F P WARMTH 4 102 3.29 .014 CONTROL 4 102 2.31 .063 WARMTHX 4 102 .28 .887 CONTROL -235-
  10. 10. Donald F. Kilburg ill • jf§JII fD7:: Table 12 Mean Coping Scores by Warmth App. /Emo. App. /Pro. Avo. /Emo. Avo. /Pro. Sex N M SD M SD M SD M SD Low 55 . 72 .42 . 69 .42 . 51 . 36 .58 .29 High 54 . 77 . 35 . 62 . 43 . 49 . 33 .45 .24 .8i I ~ .7 fA OJ .8. .6 coping strategy o () en ~approadvemotion fA '0 .5 t3 approach/problem tmIIm.oidancejemotion ~ .4 rnnn m.oidancejproblem Low High Figure 5: Mean coping scores by WA R MTH. "Avoidance/problem": p<.05. f&m 12 i:- ~ < 3Z:ffl-9 6 t, o::n: &5 6 L iJ' Lifu 0) 0 /'i:-~~O)ffl~t~~-96t,1%WU$~SS~- B!iJ'2:I=~:iI-96{&~~(f&ml1, 13, 14) li3Z: fti:-~-9O);z,. &5 6 Yamamoto G Ii ~ l- i- ~ ~ 0 ffl2:h~~~ko~§~~~t,.~2:tO)~:ilU O)~'flJJj~~~~ liiftfJilt :t!<1=:lfI:l-9 t ,~ 6 1% ~m: 2:h ts iJ' ~ tz; *1EiIlIJ·tlj:,--ct, ::J- (:' /' If 1= ~ Wi:-mko~~O)ffl~~U~O)~~~~fiss~~ t O)~:illi~1c;(16 GhtJ.iJ'~ t::.o ~~Ii.~l(2:htJ.iJ'~t::.o LiJ'L'±$~O)~ ~ i- ~~~~*~~§O)~~~U,if~~Uif1>~~ ~~<tiW~:iI~~~,~~~m*$~~~8~ ~ ~ SSm*$0)~~~~i:-ft.-96ct~~~Lko CO)ffl~U8*AO)~.i:-~.tL--c~mi:-~ .±~ ~ t- .A~ffTl=~' --C, tiWI=~:iI-9 6 m* m:-96ctK~~, ~~~~t~~fi~K~-96 $~i~tWJ.m*$O)~ ~ ~~iJ'if~~K~~~' ffl~H£~ 2: t1: 6 c t H~:~L --C 6 i -9'8* , 0 c t iJ' ~ 2: h t: 0 C h Ii Yamamoto and O)*m~UYjghO)*mt~.O)~~~~~~ Davis t-ft-96 0 CO)1%.lIU=~i!l!-96~§t i:-~-9~~~~i:-.~L,~K~~2:hk.O). L --C~O)~ ~ ts t, O)iJ'2;i h 60 1&5 t: W'Ftl<: ts WSS.iJ'2: t*1EiIlIJtlj:iJ'~ t- ~ t::J - (:' /' l- ;ll=l=j. ~{iiJiJ'~' c t i:--9 6 ~ ~ tJ. ~ '7 7"JH=~~i6 i x. 6~';~H}1iJ«6 t ~&5 -o tz ; C hkJI&5~kU~~~-ki:-~~k~if-ki:- Lt::.~ -96 0) I=~J& Lt::.J I~' gxJj1i:-llih t::.J A r vAO)H.~ fiIl.@SStJ.~ffTiJ',llX:*jlH=~i!l!-9 6*~0)~§ 1= <A rVAI=;t:;(1.Q~~:ii:> (f&~2) ~~-9 6 'M'J'W ~ , --C '±~ffT 1= H.llm -96 0 if~~ Yamamoto and Davis (1982) Ii, if~ 0) li~itJ.'llX:fj1HfJ(6Ctl=~i!l!-96, ~~~, ~.Iiif1>~~~~< O)~ l- ~~Hn~L--c'6 ~~ljtJ.~~lF8~SStJ.m*$~ ~ ~~i:-ft.-960 c t i:- Jii. , t: Lt::.o 1Ji!l''f 0) 1% = ;z,. Gh 6 I'~ >' - !:j:U ~~ljtJ.m*$O), 1:@*D~~~'IlX:¥li:-lfJ(6J t -236-
  11. 11. B*O)n~O)A ~ VAUt!ll!,rrmIJ B~i¥JtJ t±l**0) IWl~J::.I)~, ,P.t~Jt~Jl:h I.:J t;::~ii L--C"/:J::. -j C'iDs, *lVf~O)li~,,~]]13t;J: (;J:±71tiTC'(;J:~f~~Rt;::71~~:h ""[1,'/: ~tljtJ 0 l11i:~0) 0) J::.I) b r.t~BtJ~~~Jj~~~~ L--C" ~o t±l**t;::iD ~$~J1f.P.t7' V '10/ -v- (;J:, $Etn7J~ l11i:~O)A vARrJ[(;J:20J]13t;::iffJ!~/tJ"7J~, * ~ ~~~t±l**O)ftW~iiA~VA~J::.I)~<~~ lVf~O) A ~ V A~iiRrJ[ (;J:i Ii' 80 ]] 137J'G~P.t I 1'~fJI!EI3O)$71i¥JtJmBjjl;::tJ~o .:.O)JJj13O)A~ ~:h-C,'~o .:.O)lVf~*5~I;::~-j< c, B*O)$ V A~~*5~I;J:~"¥I;:::;~l:f£tC'iD $EtO)nM7J~ -:>1:0 pn(;J:&;'-9L-b1'«:-CO)A ~ VAI;::-:J"-C, $Et B~i¥J~t±l**C'~~<,~~~t±l**cL-C~ nJ::.l){ft,'[RC't;J:tJ,'cJ~.tJ-tt~o JiJlii¥JtJftWAl- VA~5t'j~':'ct;::-:J"-c, ,,< <:A ~ l/:AI;::;!=SI:t,Qt!t~> ({!iW?1) -:J~O)fJI!EI3~~;tG:h~o.lt;::, IWl~J::.I)~ Yamamoto and Davis (1982) (;J: ' j. I) 1J 7 "P.t*1i~JI)h I:J c" -j B~i¥JtJt±l**O)A ~ V A -tj- /7')vC'11:~~~t±l L-tJ7J'-:> L-7J' -l11i:~ 1:0 L A5<7J~(;J:, {iliO), f71J;tl;fl$fX"rr < O)t;::/q"* ~B*A-tj-/7'~C'~ •• A~VA~~&C~& t: (;J:~.l/l.t;::~b-crr -:> c" -j J::. j tJft~~R t:J - O)ji!ij:;1]t;:::jo,,-c, ~TI;J:RTJ::.I)*i5tJA ~ VA O)t:j:JO)P.t*1it;::~ii ']]13 t;:: ::. :> ±71fiTO) L-tJ, J - -C, ~~~L--C,'/:o l11i:~I;J:B*AO)~TnMI;J:, - t:j:J iD,' "*,'I;:: ts -:> ~ 7J'b %I:hts "0 • 2 C'I;J: -c" 1lJ~!:I;::RTJ::. V '1 0/ -v - ~5t(j '?>1'H;ii52.t;::" I) 7' I;::B~v«)vC'(;J:, fJ1.bftgjjibftW~7'V'1 O/-v- ~c~.L-~0*lVf~0)?-9~.:.O)m~~~M ~,$Etnr;::b$pnr;::b~L;J::.-jr;::~;t~~b L-tJ,'o %I:htJ, '0 )(t~i¥JI;::~(;J:T{:!t7J~$Ett;:: ~ I;::Vt-:> ts *lVf~O)-tj-/7'~c~-:>~RT~,~~cL--C -c,±~~ftWi¥J.mr;::.3C'~<~~~b%l:h ~Tc~~O)~~~A~VA~~t±l**~~~L- tJ"o $pO)nMI;J:B~i¥JtJt±l**C'(;J:tJ <, ~ -C,'/:o ~I~'H;::A~ vA±5HiTC'I;J:, •• A ~ V ~~t±l**0)1J~~~-C'~~~:h~J::.-j~±~ A~rJ[I;::1JO;t RTI;J:j}l~/71 -C, '1 l- *A:joJ::. tJ$~~{dfiO)1JC', $EtnJ::.1) E1E13C"'~':' c~ a~M~~~RC'~TJ::.I)*i5~A~VA~~~ ff~:h-C,'~ c b~;t G:h~o L-""[I,'~o ]]135HiTC'I;J:RT(;J: J]13C'J::.I)~" 2 $pn(;J:$Etn Ii c'ftWi¥JP.t~~ iDIf ~~*,;:: A ~ VA~, l]]13C'J::.I)~H'j'jrJ[~~,~L--c" {JEvtJ,'O)(;J:(;J:-:> L- i51) -c"~o B*C'(;J:, ~5fIJ 1:0 *lVf~C'I;J:, ~T7J~~xti¥Jt;::RTJ::.1) ~ < 0) ~$fX"O)A$~U-j':'c~6$~~G~"*~0 A ~ vA~~~1'~c,'-jlliEl9l11;J:tJ7J'-:>/:o $~J1f.P.t7'v~O/-v-O)~.~*~~.:.O)m~~ RT~ •• /71~~*A~RC'*i5~B~i¥J -c" ~ J::.-j t;::,!U~o .:.O)~J1f.~I;J:, B* BZI!9( L- tJt±l**A ~ vA~¥jH1i'U:o .:.O)~R(;J: 11371 ::It{tC'I;J:¥WlnMWlI;J::/il(ffO)~MC'iDc" -j r.t ~ ~E-j~;t~~~~t;::L-~JIEl71O)~.O)':'c < %I G :h i: ¥R15' c - 3& l' ~ (Shwalb, & ~~U;:: U:J Im~~ U:J 0) J::. j tJ~ < O):!lI-~ - Shwalb,1996)0 A ~ V A O)±71fiTI;:::jo,,-C,{fu i¥J • ~~t;::~1' ~*,jfi~2; A.,C'" ~o -JiJlir;:: • 0)3-:JO)A~VA~R( •• /71~~*A,~ 7' j. I) 1J C' ~"/':'~:h -C" ~ J::. -j I;:: (Atti, & M~~,*~/*&~~ C'~$.~~~G:h~ Brooks-Gunn, 1989; Adler, Kless, Adler, 7J'-o i: 0 p .:.:h I;J: I;z ~ i5 C' iD ~ 0 t: -tf ts G 1992), B*AO)RTIHt~i¥J~ii!n;::-:J ,,-C, M Yamamoto and Davis (1982) (;J:~ I;z ts t±l* ~~ :h~~~1;::~.g.1' ~ J::. -j t;::c,' -j 7'v '10/ -v- *I;::-:J,'-C, B*A -tj- /7')vl;:::jo"-C~~tJ$. ~~TJ::.I)~<5t'j-C"~J::.-jC'iD~o ':':h(;J:, ~~~, ,t:: L--c" ~ 7J'GC'iD~o ~O)*5~C'I;J:, ~T(;J:RTJ::.I) 1371O):;r-:itMlJEtJ$71:J,'-C%l G t;:: - $Etn~J::.I)~<O)A~VA*~t;::~~L-, J::.I) :h~':' c t;::, fjH1L7J~ptJ"c '" -j.:. c ~*L--c" *i5 ts. A ~ V A~~.ljl L--C,'/:o ~J::.-j t;::,!oU'):h~o t: -tf4@j 0) lVf~C' I;J:Yamamoto G 0) *5:lf!: c RTt;J:"* I:, {,*,rs'~~t;::-:J,'-CO) B~i¥J*~t;:: -$ L- 7J'-3& L- ts 7J'-:> I: 0) 7J'o • 1 t;::, c' 0) nM ~TJ::.I)~"A ~ vA~~L;-C,,~o .:.O)~i5i'.O) b 1:~~A.,$Ett;:: ts ~"* C't;::r.t, 'ilmImO)~iti~[IDC' A ~ V '1 -tj- - I;:: (;J: IX 0) J::. -j tJ]] 13 iD~: 7J~ 1 if.,tJ A~VA7~~t±l*.~~<~~L--Ci5~~~-jo 1:(;J:::7 AO)1XJ1f.7J~iDtJt:O).:. c~c'-j~,-:>-c,' '7 ~O)lVf~C'xt~cL-~t±l**O)~.:.~mrJ[~,* ~7J'~u;::tJ -:> 11XJ1f.7J~iDtJ I:J I: I;:::!~Jtll~~-t ~ I;::$EtnO)~7J~~ < ~,~~1' " -j.:. c (;J:tJ7J'-:> ~ t: c~, ~~~~~M~:ht;::1'~c~L-~J IA~ .:.c 7J~~;t G:h ~ 2 t;::Yamamoto G7J~ ~ iDts t: 7J~J I;:: J',!!i,11tUJc ~ L-I: c ,1i!:hI.: Jo t 7 .:. *~, * 0 • I. 'I:: L- A ~ V A O)$.~I;J:, I: b -:> G$~J1f.P.t Ii B 0) R T (;J: 7' j I) 1J 0) RT c~~ -237-
  12. 12. Donald F, Kilburg ill • ~}I1 fo*: (Miller, Danaher, & Forbes, 1986), ;fE[xiB<J :tolj- ~>'tLfiH::~ ~1Z91<: -0 L -) i 05?BJl ~ n ~ 0 ~ 1<::5I5r~ I) {$rs90) L. c 1<:~~{Je -0 L, {$rs97.nl<: 11<:~t*0)-tj- :/70 JVc' I;l:, :5I5rO)lcIHLf~1'*1;l:,Jt{* ~n~ L.cH}c'< 'i51<:-t~~ -) tJ{~fOJ;/»it~o illiJ{>, Jj' - 1>. I<:~-t ~ L.c:tJ c' (Adler et al., :toi- G < ~r(i{$rs91<::3Z:~~ n~ t:l6l<:, {$rs9 1992) ~16<,,-oL:mn~o :toi-G<!J~~O):5I5r I<:~I<:A Gn~ L.c 1<:~JC.~it ~ 0 L.O)m!fRli, 1)I1J~:I;l:;fE[xiB<J I<:Jj' - 1>. HI;iJr ~ < {> -0 L ~,~ c ~rlimJfDB<JtJtl~B<J~1'*HjH~-t ~ 0) 1<: ~Jc. ~ (JV- Jv~ A ;f- - 'Y '7 /' '" '~ f I<: llj -0 L'T J -0 L ~, it~ c~, -) ~J[$~c ~~-t ~ (Wertlieb, et ~)#MR1'*I<:.~-t~o~~O):5I5r~~~~~ a l., 1987; Frydenberg, & Lewis, 1990; Jose et 1)~I<:Et<wil~~nt.: (Jv-Jvl<:,'iB.~tJ) Jj'-1>. a l., 1994)0 L.nl;l:~r;/»'J-"'-7Jv-tj-;f-- l- • ::I- 7°v--'r-I<:tJ-oLff< O);I.Pt~ntJ~'o ~21<: 1:::0:7"A ~ :7 T :;-I<:~~ /' '~Jc.;/»it ~ L. c O)&i!9I: #M~1'*A~vA~W~-t~~~O)~r~,~~ ~it~o O):5I5r~I)~< •• ~tl~B<J~1'*l<:nl)~inL ~rli I~tt!l~~ ~ n~/{$rs97.nl<: ~ n~J ff < PJfig'tLf;/»t i ~ 0 :liii~ I<:~~ c tLfO)3BLf'Fffl;l:, I c ~'-) :f7i:6r,I<:xiM:-t il'!fl<:, :5I5r~ ~ I) ~,M'tB<J :@: • f$51B<J <:~~~rO)rs90)m~B<J~§t'tLf 1 c, it ~ ~, ~B<J~-"'-7N-tj-;f--~~~~~~ffl-t~MfOJ~ 1i1±~B<J • ,M't~B<J El2~7f;0).flt<itLf~ &i!9I: .n' L it -0 tz; L.nlif$51B<JI<:'tLff9:1'iIj£~0)511tc::I ~ .n, ~ ~ -) 1<: 5' :Z P Gn ~ 0 .:=. J; - '" 3 /' A lJ 1JvO)itIlf,fI<:~~-t ~ ~ -) I<:J[ <A" I/AI~IMli!9.Q~fJ~O)M~> (1&~8) :Z ~o L.n G O)$@i::I - 1:::0 :7"I<:~-t ~i~O)[P /' Grolnick and Ryan (1989) 1<:£-5 < c, ~Jl. ~~ G 1<:~iiIi Gn~o t O).WB<J~~~~~<~~-t~~.~,~<~~ ~r;/)4±~B<JtJ L.c I<:~JC.~~;bn ~ c -) ~, -) -t ~~.~ I) A ~ t- A ;/»{~~, cTiJ!IJ~ nt.:o ~7. 4'iHLfli, lJ§51tJTI<:~-:>L~ GI<:BJllitl<:tJ~o i~ ~L.cl<:,*~~o)~A~vA51~~~,~~~ G nt:*5="1'lli, ~r(HL{ilE L.~ {>~mJ-t ~ L. c nk.~~crmo)A~VAO)MI<:~~~IMl1'*~ I<:~~-t~fv'~ "'-7-~, ~I)~<§tlj-L~'~ ~i(9) GntJ;/)'-o tz.; L.;/)' U' < 'J;/)'O)lJ§51fffl<: c ~'-) $~~:3Z:j;'f-t ~o :fL{ilE L. < -t ~ L. c "'-0) :to~'L~~tJi't;/»~i!,16 G nt.:o .;/)' ~ ~{~ < ~i!,ffi 7° v~ '" -7- (;fE['fI<:~ tEt < ,I(!;!,;bn~ L.c) ~ -t ~~.I;l:, ~ < ~i!,*D-t~~.~ I):@~~I<:{~~' *I,~-t ~ L. c Ii, *1<:~rO)rs91<:#:@I<:J[Gn~0 m<:~~1iIj- Gn ~c ~, -), l~tljtJ t!:B!t$ J Yamamoto and Davis (1982) I<: £ -j' < c, (major life event) ~*U~L.L~' s, L.O)i'tl;l: :5I5rIHxW~~:f7i:15C~ ~ I) ~~ 'A ~ i- A ~§tlj- ~ ~'~~;/)'EP~B<J~it~o .;/)'~~~<~i!,~-t~~ $;/»TiJ!IJ~ n~o c § -) L.;/)'L.*~~I<::to ~'L~ .0) 3510) 1 t::I:tiJ>{~~':@~~m<:~~W~ It.:o ~tJ'tLfi'tI;l:~J[ ~ n ts.t» -0 tz; Yamamoto G Ii -n~<~~-t~~.~~:to~i-3510)2~it-o fB[~0)J[~ ,t:' L.t.:'tLfi't~, B*3t1tl<:it ~~W~ tz; :tot L.iS~' L.c 1<: ~ vAo)~~I<:~L. A Lli, O)'tLfi'tI<: ~ c ~BJl L.n' ~o jilij~~O)*5="1'lO)~ ~ L. 0)~1Z9 li~~tJi't~7f; L.L ~,tJ ~'0 ~.;/»W~ -3& 1<: ~'L, 'J ~1<:*~~~{Jeffl ~ nt:mJ1!tlJ§ It.::@*D~O)m<:~1<: :tolj- ~i't~li, ~~O)~*m<: ;/», ~WI<:xi-t ~'tLfi'tHEW-t ~ t:I6O)~~;/»{~ ~O):i!m<:I<:&i!9I:-t ;/)' t~ntJ ~ ~'0 *~~O)*5="1'l ;/)'-ot.:O);/J'tffintH'o it.:{t!lO)PJfigtJ~BJlc L. ~~~~nk.O).~~~~~.ftO)~:i!I<:~~ L, Yamamoto and Davis (1982) O)~~;/J> -t~c~,-)3t~O)W~c-3&-t~ (Grolnick, & ~Jiilj~ nt.: 15 ~WJ ~ I), :m:tE0) B *~ li~r 1<: Ryan, 1989)0 :@~*O)m<:*JH<:~-t ~~1UlT- lJ M-t ~~W;/J>~~tJ1.~ n~ ~-)I<:ts. -0 t: L.c ;/»it ;/»L.O)J[m~BJllitl<:-tM:'iS -)0 If Gn~o .;/)' ~ liiXO)lJ§ O)~ -) tJ*I~~-t ~f1l1~1<:~ <A" I/AI~1Ml9.Q~ii~I~<IS{).Q't'i~> ~-t ~ L.c;/)' J[ ~,t:' ~ nt.:o ts.t: li:5l5t:';/),G I it !!!ll1l7K~~' c 1<:, ~rl<::to~'L, L. ~tljtJt±l*$ i t: li~t::;/)' G c ~'-) L.c ~foJ;/),~ L.ts lj-nl;UJ O)cjJO){$rs9~1'*A ~ i- A I;l:~~ c #1<:i:!il1JO-t 0 ~ G~~-oko ~0Eit~k~i-n~L.k<~~-o -n:5l5rO)nli~~c#l<:iJlJX~L.L~'~o L.nG t.:Jo L.O)~-)tJ~.~tJtLff9:1'iljitllf,f~, .;/),~ 0){$rs9Rt*O)i~tljtJ t±l*$A ~ i- A Ii I~JttiZ~1'* ~{~ < ~£~-t ~~.li:to:toUtt=51O)':::::';/», ~ < ~.nLL.i-okJI:7:7AO)#MctI6LL.i-o ~i!,*O-t~~. li=51O)-;/»*I,~ L.L ~,t:o L.0)$ t:J Ie L MJl. L.;/)'-0 t:;t5(::i!;/»$: -o L L.i -0 t:J ~O)-'JO)~BJlc L.L, ~~'.;/)'~Hi!,~-t~~ c ~'-o t:lJ§ ~2;Uo ~~ ULf0) xli1'Fffl li~:i! .00.~,~<~~-t~~.0).~I)~=~ttf9: -238-
  13. 13. 8:<$:O)n.O)A ~ vA~x-H.!Himu ~ljAA~~f!!l -::> L IjtJ,' C ~ 7J':15;tGnGo ,,< -::> t,O)Tml'~ Gf1i!EB7J':15;t GnGo ~ 11;: J::~20)~ijlttJ'ttJ:f9:~IjAA~I;: '-C li'ttJ:&7J>.i±l -::>, .~~~.~~~~Gt-::>O)H~~ C0)2~~ ~ntJ7J'~t:::o cnli8*x1~0)~l'ti, 'ttJ:19:~1j I;:-::>,-C, f~,~11§-O)F,,'I;:ilS ' G~~O)~mufriImH~ 7J>BJl~';:51{~ n' G c ~ ~&:~ L n' GPJti~,ttJ: L i±lj"GI;:titEl.j"~"t:::PJtiHtJ:7J>ilSGo ~21;:=-::>0) 7J>:15;t o 515-=fKX-i GnG L -Ct,R:-=fl;:x-iL -CVe ~~~GmGnk~~~~~L-C, cnGO)n. O),ttJ: L < l!lR G~ ~ c I.' ~ 'ttJ:f9:~IjAA~7J>~" ~ G c ~~~~~~~~e~.j"Gc~l',m~~~~ ~~j"o CO)Jj§I;:-::>,'-CiiA ~ vAO)~~I;:rM1 M~~.~~~.~tt~~~j"G~al'ilS~kPJ L -cttJ:&7J> GntJ 7J'~ tz ; C n 1j:515R:1;:511~ JiI. L ti~'ttJ:7J>ilS ~ 3 1;:Jt;:g:0) 51~51m7J>, :fJ':1§l Go 2 A -cAA~~ nG'~f9:~IH;:-::>"-C, 515-=ft,R:-=ftlD] t 91~~~~G.~~c.~ttO)51m~.i±lj"G .K.~(ik~~.~l'ilSGC~~~j"O)l' +51~51Be~Mk~~~kC~~:15;tGnGo Ii tJ,' t: ~ ~ 7J'0 :f.f*O)liHJ'El', .7J' ~ ~.1tljtt~~l3iJj" Gij[;~I;: <A" I/AI~~9.Q.*IJttJ:O)AA~> ({&*9) ~F"'~&:Jt;O)7./<~~:151.1t-C, 2 51~ljJ: I) ~"Jt; L (Grolnick, & Ryan, 1989)K;!j!;-::J ~, ~" < :g:frilm~M-::>R~~O)&:Jt;~*~GC~~~l)b :fJ':1§l~.1tljttHi,{~j" Gn.lif~ < ~i,{~j"Gnli ~n.~~~~l'ilS~~o •• K.o).~~~. J:I)~,'A ~ vA~~t-c"GC7iJjIJ~nGo • ~tt~,~ •• ~O)m~~.;t-c8:<$:O)n.O)A v.t: C ~ I;:, '±:~tJ A ~ v A51tJTl;: ~"-C~-2~ ~ ~ i- A1;:~Wj" G Ii c'O), ~~tJ~ti~~!jf1:f::: t r nk.~tt~nliO)~~j"GA~vAO)~~~~ "tJ, '0)7J' t,~ntJ, '0 f.iiJiiJ 8:<$:O)n.~AAO)-=f ~.~rMI~~Jil.Gn~~~ko L~L~§51tJTl' {j:U;:~,'-C Ii, ~~l'O).~7J>'±:~tJ~ti~~ ~~ ~&~~GnGo=-::>O)~.rMI~Jj§~A~VA -C"G~~;tGo ~~.~rMI~j"Go .~~~<~~j"GnliO) 38 %7J>f~,:ii~i'i0)~*l~~~j" ' G 0)1;:~ L -c, :::J C /7A "'5:r :/-O);fIJffl - ~,'.1tiJ'ttJ:H-2~j" Gnlili 59 %7J>1(- l'ilS Go ~ <:::J- c /71~d'S 1j'.Q~.~:> (f.&*5, f.&* 6) ~M>tJC~I;:, 82%O)f~".*IHtJ:~~-2~j"Gn ifffi:O)nliliifYO)n.J: I), ::J_1::0 ~ ::7"~~ < li7J>AA~J:I) f~, '~*l~ J1)( t: ~" ~ O)I;:~ L-C, ~ fiJfflj" G ~" ~ C C7J> cni l'JiI."t::~ n -C*t::: ~,'.~ttJ:H-2~j"Gnlili 59 %l'ilS Go co) (Band, & Weiz, 1988; Altshler, & Ruble, ~1lfWc"~ mBJll' ~ G t: ~ ~0 ~1(- G < {~, '.*Ij 1989)0 *I;:~ttfj:~t¢'H~::J - 1::0 ~::7"Ii, 7' j. I) tJ tt~~~j"GnliO)~ •• ~~v~~.-O)~~ O)-=fiJ:tl'ifltifl ::It1;:±(I1JOj" ~ 7J> ,t:: ~ n-c ~ GC JiI.' Ii, ~".*ljtt[-2~n.J: I) 51B7J>*~" ~" ~ f5 tz; :<$:liHJ'El'Ii= 0) 9 1 7°0)~ffl~,¢'d~::J - -::> C ~ l'ilS Go f~".*iJttJ:[-2~n.li, §!'1itJ,'~ ~~~(~~~~~) O)~~G~t,ifltifl&~.i±l *l1;:-::>"-C0)8,*,~tJi±l*$~iR.l', 82 %O)~ ~ ntJ7J' ~ tz; L7J' L~~/~ffl~,¢.i.1~::J _ 1::0 ~ .*~ilSl),-~.~~i±l*$~iR.l'~~%l' ~KrMlj"Gif.&~7%0)~~*l'ilSl),&#0) ilSG0 ~".itJjtt~-2~nlil' Ii 8 ,*,1:(,5~iR.l' t, f.ii~~~~j"Go ~~1:(,5~iR.l't,~%O)~.*l'ilSGo Lk~~ Fc'lm~,¢.i.1~::J 1::0 ~ ::7"l'Ii, ~~O)~:iiliHJ'El;: - -c~".*iJ'ttJ:H-2~j"GUl'Ii, ~7°v''l ~" -CI<P G ~7JdJ±(I1J07J>!11!~~I;:JiI." n -c,' t:.: t5 ~. -7J>J: I)~ < ~ t Gn-C"G PJti~tt7J>*iJ!lj~ Go L~L:<$:liHJ'EO).t,§n:~ftf.ii~O)--::>~, nGo ~~tJ7J>GCO)f.ii~O)f~ttHiHtljGT'- if~O)nliliJ: I)~ < ~~. ~~jillj~O)Fc'lm~,¢.i. 9 ~1~-c,'tJ,'0 1~::J- 1::0 ~ ::7"~fIJffl -C, »t: C ~ l'ilS Go ~~Fc' L <A " 1/A 1~d'S1j'.QIlitJ'~ c.*ljftJ:O)~:a::f'Fffl> lm~,¢.i.{~::J 1::0 ~ ::7"Jj I;:Ii, r L t;f G < Fc'lm - § 0) (f.&* 10) C~~:15;t~<-ctj"~J:~,U~~~~TV~ Grolnick and Ryan (1989) I;:;!j!;-::)~, ~" < ~ Jil.t:::) 1'f*H~, I) A;f- - 'Y ~y- b 0) J: ~ I <t: .*iJ'ttJ:[-2~/f~".7J'~[-2~n.li, ~".*ljttJ: ts C ~~ Lt:::J rf.bliFc,lml;:f.iiU!-::>J: ~ tJ C ~ < [-2~/~".7J'~~-2~n.J: I)~,'A ~ VA~. ~Mt,L~~~kJrU~®O)A~.~kl)~1(- ~~~j"Gc7~~nko L~0.~~~.~tt ~~ ~ t: I) §HR~ Lt:::V) t:'i Lt::: V) L t.:J 7J'ilS O)~li~ffl~~.l'~~~~ko CO)=-::>O)~~ Go ~~~lm~,¢.i.{~::J - 1::0 ~ ::7"O)Jj§I;: r 1(-O)Fc, lj:mli~~n:l'ilS G ~:15;t G 0)7J>m1~~l'ilSGo lml;:-::>,'-Ct, ~ ~ffl~~1~J: ~ ~~~t.:J rfidi jillj11§-O)F,,'I;:mlif'Fffl7J> JiI.GntJ,' C ~ K -::>"-C .a~~.j"GCc~l'~Gk~Kl'~GC~~ -239-
  14. 14. Donald F, Kilburg ill • j:f§JII fD~ «L15;tt::J ifldU,,9JmH¥lR:LJ::, ~ ct-7:l-t::J Children's Integrated Stress Coping Scale- iJ{j;) ~o O)®:IDIhlR)1e::-g«L1%=;t~L.c~*I6L,'tJ"o fi: ~ll!J'l~tJF,,9Jm~,¢,i,1t~ t,' /' -j"rimilI/F,,9~ - Jose et al. 0) ~ - t' /' -j'RJJ!Jj:~~8'JtHt~ftjj ~,¢,iAt~ ~ 7T/-re::~Gn~0 L.nGIe::ri'~'W loJ~iJlhL"~o xt~8'JIe:::;$:liJf~l'tj:, ir#tiJ{ .~~~M~~m~~V)~ain~o L.0)J::, ~:f'tH~~ 2:nt:: V) fcj:JFa9:7f.;t'Ue:: V) Lt::J c " 2: nt:: ~~T-j~~-j~,i~:f'tH~~2:nk/~M:7f.n ~~&o)~~l',@~o)~~~~~&l'O)xt~fi re:: nt::J c " ~ W52.1e::xt~-g 0) ~~jJlf!8'J 2: ~ 1e::~ i}]~iJlljJE L " ~o t::"MAAIhO»7 ~ 7'0) ~ i- ~ L ~ ;t ~o -f n~;tmilI/F,,9~~,¢,i,1t ~ - t,' /' -j"ri~ ~m,le::t; " L 1j:, !15rli:terJ::, f) @]i!lVF,,9~~,,¢,i, IfIli ~1e::j:IIl1JD-g ~xt L L, ~ffl~,¢,i,1t ~ - t,' c ~ 0) 1t~ - t,' /,-j"~~ < fi~ O)t:.'7:)~o /' IfiJ{-f ~ l'tJ ,,O)ri;a < ~~t:: G rs , '0 ~71 L. !15r~:terJ::,V)~.tt~J::,v)~<~~L.C~W n~~~O)%.O)~~~i~:f'tH~~2:nk/~M 15 Lt::o LiJ>L L.o)~lill~l' Ii ts» '0 L.0)*5~ :7f.nre:: nt::J $.tl!~MlR:-g ~ 0) Ie:: V) ~~ 2: J::, LL ~.~O)I~MO)B:;$:O)~~~%.~m.Lk~ "~ L. c ~~~-gM:'7;, ~o 1e::*l~Lt::$~c~3&LtJ"o !15rli, ~mP'il' <~-~~?'I~SI1~'t'i~> Cf&:E3,&:E4) f ~~<c~.~~~:f'tH~~2:nk~&l'~,:ter B:;$:o)%.Ie::t;"L, ~lfIlire::~~tJ < ~ - t,' /' J::,V) ~~.tt~~W-g~O)~ •• •• 2:nko -j're::~L Lll~tJ'rlj:~iJ{lit~i(2: nt::o :terri!15r to-f G < CISCS liB:;$:O)%.O)~.tlj:~+71 J::, ) milI/r,,9~~,sdt V ~ - t,' /' :l~~ < fljm-g ~ iJlljJE L"tJ "O)t:: 7;,~ 0 lj(:.tlj:~~-g:r]§ L Ii c ,, ~ *5~ l' j;)~ tz.; flllJl;l]8'J § 71fJTl'ri, t: tJ:r] i;bt::UHj-A.iJ>~Lt::J c"~ ~O)l'j;)~o L. r~~-:>0)~-~/'~~~7T/- (~ffl·~~ nW~Ie:: B:;$:Ie::t;"L, Jitf*8'JtJ~.~~~-g ~ 8'J1]-;f--~, i!i:~8'J. ~~8'J1]-;f--~, El21F-~fD iJ>c'~iJ>~Jl;j(l'j;)~o t;-f G < L.O):r]§li, B:;$: ~J::, V)~ < fUm L L"t::o 0) !15r Ie:: " L ri~Ie::Jitf*8'J~.-x-t~c 1iJ3Zxtle::, t; .tz:rri!15rJ::, V) ~5<:8'J~~HfUL. CiJ{~, ,t:: 2: ~:f'tH~/{cj:JFa9:7f.n:/T :t~~LL,'~t::f:j-tJO) t) nL"~ (Wertlieb, et al., 1987; Frydenberg, ~7;,~o~.tt~~~k~~~V)Lk~-~/'~ & Lewis, 1990; Jose et al., 1994)0 L.n G 0)$ ~~7T/-0)f7IHi, i;bt::UiEl711e::~:f'tH~~ ~c:;$:liJf~O), '/-:/fJV1]-;f-- ~~-t,'/,-j"~ Lt::A~t::t::"t::J c"~ ~0)1'j;)7;,~0 t1-*0) ~:r]§~~Gn~*5~c~~~8'J~.~tt~~G liJf~re::t;"nj(:.'rlj:O)~f*8'J%.tl!~BJllitle:: LLt; nko:ter~~.8'Jt;J::,a~.8'J~.~&.-g~ < O)ri, !ffre::fBi:,~~iJ{~:f'tH~/{cj:JFa9:7f.n:/T t):t t::I6~, !15rJ::,V)ffuAO)1]-;f--~ ~~ < *16~ L. ~@]1%=~*I6Gn~~~~,~W8'J~L.cl'j;)~o c iJ{•• 2: n t:..o .:te G ri!15r J::, ) iWj*~0)132 V ~~8'J~:terri!15rJ::, V) ~ <, milI ~ - t,' /' "f tlt'i'ljt; J::, jfff§t~8'Jxt~~~ a L tz; ~~7T/-~~m-g~J::,~~~;t~oM~Lk ~~:ter~!15rJ::,V),i~:f'tH~~2:n~/~M J::, ~, :ter ri!15r J::,) ~ <milI/F,,9~:~t¢,iAt - ~ V ~ :7f.nle:: :n~J c " ~~i52.l'El21F~~~ 2 < fljm t,' /' -j"~~ ~ L.C iJ{71iJ> ~ tz.; :terri i t:; 1l~ -g ~ iJ> c " ~ WEB iJi" < -:> iJ>15;t Gn ~ M~ ~ 0 l'ritJ"iJ{ (P (08), !15rJ::,V)milI/~t1l'~,¢,i, ~«t:: J::, re::, !15:teifL~iE L 2: re:: " LW/J ~ ~ ( -:> 1t ~ - t,' /' -j"~~ ~ L.C iJ{" 2:nt::o i!i:~8'J'/ - ~~8'JmfrIre::1Ii2: n L " ~o :terri1J(::ii c ~ 16t: :/ f JV1]-;f-- ~ rimilI/F,,9~~g1t ~ - t' /' -j" t: ~!15rJ::, V)~~ftjjloJiJ{~"t:'7;, ~o 2: GIe:: L, ~ T~0-~ain,M.8'J~-:/f~1]-;f--~~ El21F~iJ{ B:;$:0)~1Ue:: ,'Lll!;jj'j'jMiJ(O) V) m<: t; J::, milI/~'~~,g1t~ - ~ /' -j"jJ T ~,' t) - re::ai n ~ L t::Cfm:ruJ -» L " ~ c -gnr;f, :teriJ{-f O)!ff ~o L.nG=-:>O)'/-:/fJV1]-;f-- ~ jJT~"t)- W:O)~:iire:: ,'L J::, ):ii&L L " ~iJ> ~ffintJ ,'0 t; V O)*5~riiWj"*~l'll~l'j;) ~ tz; Jose et al. (1994) re::£-j'"L, !15rri:ter <~-~~~~S~~R~~O)a~>(tiE7) J::, ) @]i!lVF,,9~~#'dt~ - t,' /' ~~J::, < ff~ L.c V ~~O):terri~~O)!15r J::, ) milI/~'r1l'~,¢,iAt V iJ{TiJllj n ~ 0 :;$:liJf~l'Ii L.0) f&:m 2: rii§JE2: nt::o ~ - t,' /' If ~~ < ~ ~ C TiJllj2: n t: (Wertlieb, :;$:liJf~c~nGO)*5~cO)~~3&~,~~O)m~ et al., 1987; Frydenberg, & Lewis, 1990; Jose tJliJf~:1Ji!LO)t§j!iUe::£--j < iJ}~~,tlj:iJ{j;) , s et al., 1994), LiJ>Ulj:c~IfIliO)5<:li{'Fmrill~ Jose et a l. (i.~O)fBi:,~~~re::@~O)~ l- ~'/1]-- l'~~~ko~lfIli·tt5<:li~m~~M~~~~~ "O)BZrc,;Ie::~ L, ~ - 1:::' /' :7RiJ!' (CISCS- L ~ 1e::~L L 0)7:l-1l~1'j;) ~ tz; :terO)i?RtUtJtI:l* ~240- ___ ,j"',
  15. 15. 8*~%~~A r vAU'1M:rrtIJ $:jjU7r.~{tjJF,m~f*A r v A t;J:~:@t;!:t:t;::±fI1JIJ-t G ~~tH~~~m~~8*~~~~~-~~~~ iJ:i, -1J!;l3~-ct;J:r~-tGo ~"t:<:tt;::<:~it :tH'""(t;J:m~tJj9JiIJi:-i1l:IttJiJ'-:> i: ; t" -)J:.-) , ' t;J:~ - t." ~ If t;::;joU-G 'ri~ • ~:@~ t -3& L ts t,(PJIi~tEiJ:i~.z GhGo "0 t:,;:A,~:I~JJ'ri' ifttrn3i::1if'Ffflt;J:-~£Lt~ A r i- A YT I) :t iJ'ffl , ' G h G t fj( 1±l~ h G ~ i: 6 -)U!LtGo *5 ~ <::I - c / ::il;::;pI:1-Q 1li1J~~~:J:J:~:> (f&m 11, l)if~~%~~if~~%~J:.IJ.ftArvAi:- i&m 12) ~<U.-tGo 8*~~~YA-JA~if~~~ AA~~h~J:.-)~,%~Um~~h~.~~~ Gt;;ic'~L< ts s; :tEIJ 1Jt;::J:. -:>""( - ~ t. 0 ~ :7"A l- :7 -J:; - iJ''/f/J-:> 2) if~~ tJ G t;;ic'%mt;J:~:Itll~i:- ~ nG t "-) n't:o ~t;::{ll".iJ'~ Hr,~-t G%~t;J:~ < ~r, J:. -) tJtJ~ -c t;J:F,,''§:!*,¢'d~ - ~ t. 0 ~ :7" i:-f5e-) 0 ~-t G %~t<::lt«""(, J:. IJ ~ < @]i!!/F,,',§:!*,<;$A~ if~~~G~cim~~,~.B1~~M~R{~~ ~ - t.0 ~ -:>""(,<tz; LiJ' L=~~ :7"i:-f5e :7";1/- 7' -It G J:. IJ ~.B1'!lt~i:-R{~ ~ -It G <: t -c, ~:Itll UHIJ~~~~917'~~-~~~Ar:7-J:;- ~~nG<:t~M~-tGM~B1~~IJ1Ji:-~~ I<::;jo,'""(~t;J:tJiJ' -:>tz; <:~~.z Gn G ~,*t;J:, if Go i t:ifJlif;iJ''/f/J G t ~- t.0 ~ :7"A l- :7 -J {ll, '.iJ' ~ i:-~r,~-t G%mt;J:~:Itll~i:- ~ nt:/{tjJ :; - ~;J]1m~{±1J bR:h Go F8~51-nt<::nt: YT ~ I) :tt<::M L ""(~~B1-C<§)G ~- 3) Y::~t;J:!;l3~J:.1J rfi!~/7 -{ '~ r '*' AJ A r ~~~Ar:7-J:;- &~~~Ar:7-J:;-) i:- vAt{tjJF8~OOf*A r vAi:-~qI.-tGo t:o: :7Z, ,""(" G:h tf-ct;J:tJ, '0 U L 6im~t;J: EIcJ&~~ A r vAt;J:y::~-ct;J:ifttrnt;!:t:td~1JIJ-tG~t<::X'1 B1~~~~hGJ:.-)~~IJ1J-C,~~B1~Ar:7 L""(,!;l3~-C~.~-tGoY::~~!;l3~J:.lJbEl -J :; - ~rt.:h IJ i:- L J:. -) t L ""(" G J:. -) t;::~.z Go 5t~51-~ ~{tjJF8~t~~]*OOf*~m~tJOO{,'i:-~-:> @]i!!/F,,',§:!*,<;$A~ - ~ t. 0 ~ :7" -J ~' i: I) - t;J:, !'x~ ""("Go J:.-)~~§i:-a~ r:h~L~~n~~,§-c~~ 4) Yamamoto and Davis (1982) ~t;1i~ t;:: " t ,' -) IJ i:- Lt:J r:h t: L (;J: ~ <: t i:-~ .z ., ~ &L""(,!;l3~~Y::~J:.IJ.ftArvA~~L""( tJ,' J:. -) t<:: G <: t -c, F,,''§i:-~tJl L t: IJi!!if J:. -t ~"A r vAi:-~t""((H'tJiJ'-:>t::o :m:tE~8 -) ~6":lt:J r:h i: LtU,,',§i;::~,'""(foIb LtJiJ'-:> t *-ct;J: Yamamoto G ~1F!jrt.J:. IJ Y::~~.ft t: J 0 <: ~ J:. -) tJ A r :7 -J :; - ~, Jose, ~mm~nGJ:.-)~~-:>~<:t~~.zGnGo Cafasso and D' Anna (1994) t;:: J:. -:>""(, ~:Itll 5) Y::~ t;J:~:Itll~i:- ~ n G t "-) -c t;J:!;l3~J:. tJ~ ~/#M51-h~J:.-)~~,§~~~m~~t-:>""(~ 1J~-Y.N~~-r~-~~~~~<f5e-)o ~W-c,~hB1·~~B1~tt~i:-~~t~.zGh Y::~~.*~~-Y.N,*,~rry-:7i:-~<~-:> tz; ""("GiJ', -1J!;l3~~J.lZAOO{lf,t;J:~IijjG L~~ <::I - c /?'I;::;PI:1-Q*1EliiIJt~~XiJ~> fi~i:-~-:> ""("Go HIliIJtiHIIJ~-t G~§ t;J:.!JI;::CPPSQ (Chil- 6)Y::~~~:Itll~i:-~n~IF!j~~,!;l3~J:.IJEl5t dren's Perception of Parenting Style i:-jt6":lG <: tiJ:i~"o Y::~t;J:!;l3~J:.IJt±~B1~ Questionnaire) - t: ~ 4 ~ § i: if -c <§):> iJ', HIliIJ .~ML""(, El?ti:-~.zG<:t-cMM:LJ:.-)t tit<:: ~ ,,""( tH:JJ~iJ:itJiJ' -:> tz; -t Gm~iJ:i<§) Go <::I - c/~;fj;::;PI:1-QIli1J~ t*1Ei!iIJt~~3i:B:f'Fffl > (f&m 13, f&~ 14) 3t ift!; .~~t.~~~~1i~ffl~~~-c~~-:>~o <:~t;1i~iJ,j~ Ght:WEll t;J:,' 6 "6~.z GhGo Adler, r. Kless, S" Adler, p, 1992 Social- Ght::o ,,< ~iJ,t;J:JlIJt<::~i1Ht ~ 1 t;::.iJ'~ t.IliIJ ization to gender roles: Popularity among 'ri~ Rl3tiJ'f£!-t i5"t::o ~ 2 t;::flt~§{~t::!> iJ' 8 *~ elementary school boys and girls, cj:liTrtt<::~ .iJ, L ~ t<:: ~,,""( b.iliIHi~ ~"""( b cj:l Sociology of Education, 65, 169 -187, F8~B1tJ~~~<§) G <: to ~ 3 t;:: 211UHRB1tJJ~Jt Altshuler, J" & Ruble, D,1989 Devel- tJ -J zt I) - i:- ffl" i: <: t t<:: IJ, ~-WJ>tJ![jl!liJ'~ J:. opmental changes in children's awareness ~~~-:>~o •• ~*~~-c~Gn~.ftB1~. of strategies for coping with uncon- -241-

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