Portugal In 1415, the Portuguese set sail on epic voyages that would make them the first to discover the ocean routes to India, Brazil, China and Japan, and at the same time establish settlements on the east and west coasts of Africa. An independent kingdom since 1143, Portugal is one of the oldest nations in Europe.
Pyrenees Stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Mediterranean in the East, a distance of some 250 miles (402.5km), the mountains of the Pyrenees form a natural barrier between Spain and the Iberian Peninsula in the south and France in the north.
Andorra This pocket-sized princedom comprises just a handful of mountainous landscapes and meandering rivers.
Gibraltar Ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830.
Strait of Gibraltar Located at the western entrance to the Mediterranean, its sailors are occasionally beset by strong gap winds that can produce dangerous seas, especially when they blow against tide and current.