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  1. 1. tôi muốn đánh đổi cả sựnghiệp công nghệ của mìnhlấy một buổi chiều vớiSocrates --Steven Paul Jobs
  2. 2. Socratic SeminarsAn Instructional Unit for Pre-service Teachers
  3. 3. What does Socratic mean? Socratic comes from the name SocratesClassical Greek philosopher who developed a Theory of Knowledge.
  4. 4. What was Socrates Theory of Knowledge? Socrates was convinced that the surest way attainreliable knowledge was through the practice of disciplined conversation He called this method dialectic.
  5. 5. What does dialectic mean?di-a-lec-tic (noun) means the art or practice of examining opinions or ideas logically, often by the method of Question and Answer so as to determine their validity.
  6. 6. How did Socrates use the dialectic?He would begin with a discussion of the obvious aspects of any problemSocrates would feign ignorance about a subject and try to draw out from the other person his fullest possible knowledge about it.
  7. 7. The Vision Socrates believed that enabling students to think for themselves was more important than filling their heads with“right answers.”
  8. 8. The VisionParticipants seek deeper understanding ofcomplex ideas through rigorously thoughtfuldialogue, rather than by memorizing bits ofinformation.
  9. 9. What is a Socratic Seminar?A Socratic Seminar is a method used to understand information by creating dialectic in class regarding a specific textParticipants seek deeper understanding of complexideas in text through rigorous thoughtful dialogue, rather than by memorizing bits of information.
  10. 10. What are Socratic Seminars?Highly motivating form of intellectual andscholarly discourse.
  11. 11. What are Socratic Seminars? Usually range from 30-50 minutes  An effective Socratic Seminar creates dialogue as opposed to debate.
  12. 12. Benefits include: Time to engage in in-depth discussions, problem solving, and clarification of ideas
  13. 13. Benefits include: Building a strong, collaborative work culture
  14. 14. Benefits include: Enhanced knowledge and research base
  15. 15. Benefits include: Increased success for all students
  16. 16. Benefits include: Teaching respect for diverse ideas, people, and practices
  17. 17. Benefits include: Creating a positive learning environment for all students
  18. 18. Overview and Review
  19. 19. Four Elements An effective seminar consists of four interdependent elements: 1. the text being considered 2. the questions raised 3. the seminar leader, and 4. the participants
  20. 20. The Text:Socratic Seminar texts are chosen for richness in ideas, issues, values and their ability to stimulate dialogue. A good text raises important questions There are no right or wrong answers. At the end of successful Socratic Seminars,participants often leave with more questions than they brought with them.
  21. 21. The TextSocratic Seminar texts are chosen for theirrichness in ideas, issues, and values, and theirability to stimulate extended, thoughtfuldialogue.
  22. 22. The TextA seminar text can be drawn from readings inliterature, history, science, math, health, andphilosophy or from works of art or music.
  23. 23. The Question: A Socratic Seminar opens with a Questionposed by the leader or solicited from participants as they acquire more experience in seminars.Responses to the opening question generate new questions from the leader and participants, leading to new responses.
  24. 24. The Question An opening question has no right answer  It reflects a genuine curiosity on the part of the leader. Does the factory model of education cause the oppression and failure of many non-mainstream cultures?
  25. 25. The Question An effective opening question leads participants back to the text as they speculate, evaluate, define, and clarify the issues involved.  Responses to the opening question generate new questions  The line of inquiry evolves on the spot rather than being predetermined by the leader.
  26. 26. Starting Dialogue Asking questions is the key! A leader prompts the use of dialogue  Participants learn to be less attached to their ideas and less reliant on persuasion for influencing opinions. Dialogue is a skill of collaboration that enables groups to create collective thinking.
  27. 27. Discussion & Dialogue Discussion in the dictionary is "a close examination of a subject with interchange of opinions, sometimes using argument, in an effort to reach an agreement.
  28. 28. The Leader:In a Socratic Seminar, the leader plays a dual role as Leader and Participant Keeps the discussion focused on the text by asking follow-up questions helping clarify positions when arguments become confused involving reluctant participants
  29. 29. The Leader:As a seminar participant, the leader actively engagesin the groups exploration of the textTo do this effectively, the leader must know the textwell enough to anticipate varied interpretations andrecognize important possibilities
  30. 30. The ParticipantsIn a Socratic Seminar, participants carry the burden of responsibility for the quality of the seminar. There are three ways to do this: Studying Participating Sharing
  31. 31. Expectations of ParticipantsDid I….. Speak loudly and clearly? Cite reasons and evidence for my statements? Use the text to find support? Listen to others respectfully? Stick with the subject? Talk to others, not just to the leader? Paraphrase accurately? Avoid inappropriate language? Ask questions to clear up confusion? Support others? Avoid hostile exchanges? Question others in a civil manner? Seem prepared?
  32. 32. The Process - Pre-Seminar
  33. 33. The Process - During the Seminar QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  34. 34. The Process - Post Seminar
  35. 35. Seminar Planning Form nstruction/theories/miscideas/socratic/form.pht ml
  36. 36. Self Rating Form nstruction/theories/miscideas/socratic/chart.pht ml
  37. 37. Observation Form nstruction/theories/miscideas/socratic/observat ion.phtml
  38. 38. Facility Evaluation Form nstruction/theories/miscideas/socratic/facilitato r.phtml
  39. 39. Assessment Rubric nstruction/theories/miscideas/socratic/facilitato r.phtmlOther Sample Assessments ent.html
  40. 40. References c%20Seminar%20Notes.htm
  41. 41. Socratic Seminar -Factory Model of Education as Discussed by Pre-Service Teachers
  42. 42. The TextEducation Schooling, Learning Models of Education Schools into Knowledge Factories of Pedagogy odels.htm
  43. 43. The Questions Does the factory model of education provide students with the skills needed to increase their chance of survival in the United States society? Does the factory model of education cause the oppression and failure of many non- mainstream cultures?
  44. 44. Student ReactionsLike many, this Socratic seminar was myfirst and I found it to be enjoyable. I feelthat it is beneficial because every voice inthe group is heard. I believe that teaching isa profession in which the professionalsneed to talk more and be more open abouttheir careers and their practices.
  45. 45. Student ReactionsOne of only drawbacks to the seminar is a timerestraint. It is hard to really delve deep into thequestions when everyone needs to talk and thereare only 60 minutes to talk. Much time is neededto talk about these problems but I feel it is veryimportant for us to begin now, while in training,so that hopefully in the future we will continuethe practice at our school sites.
  46. 46. Student ReactionsExchanging ideas in such an environment allowsfor both a broad, and a deep, understanding of atext, and for the ideas that the text elicits. Also,gratification from a community-based,respectfully conducted, shared experience holdsbenefits for all. The drawbacks enter when anyof the criteria are not met. That is, when anycomponent (leader, participant, question, text)does not meet its responsibility, the quality ofthe seminar "can be" sacrificed.
  47. 47. Student ReactionsI felt really nervous going into the seminar with it beingmy first stab. I felt like I was prepared being that I readand re-read the literature, made notes and createdquestions, but then when we all sat down in a circle, mybrain flew the coop. A thought would come to mindand then Id flip through the readings trying to find thesource for the thought, and then Id feel like theconversation had moved on. But, I did like the structureand felt our group worked at being respectful and beingsupportive of what our fellow classmates hadcontributed to the conversation.
  48. 48. Student ReactionsWell, for this being my first Socratic seminar ever, I wasa bit blown away by the whole process. In general, I liketo think before I speak- al least in the educational world,and I found it very hard to listen to what others weresaying while trying to find the quote or piece to back upmy comment. However, I did find the conversation tomove nicely and we really did come up with newquestions and answers to the topics. I was afraid thiswas going to turn into a messy debate over personalopinions- we stuck to the directions nicely.
  49. 49. Student ReactionsThe ability to search out relevant quotes and formulateyour own thoughts while simultaneously listeningdeeply to others comments is a pretty specialized skilland one that I think develops the more you use theSocratic seminar model. I think we did amazingly wellfor a first-try. A Socratic seminar is very much aprocess - it does not fit neatly into a small period oftime, The great thing about learning it well, though, isthat it is very empowering to know that you have just asmuch control over the conversation as anyone else . . .