Jean-Marc ItardThe first documented efforts to provide intervention services to a child with special needs in 1800.
She suggested that teachers observethe natural, spontaneous behavior of children and then arrange learning experiences to encourage t their development
Jean PiagetAccording to Piaget, the purpose of education is toprovide opportunities that allow a child to combineexperiences into coherent systems (schemes) thatconstitute the child’s knowledge.
Bloom (1964), claimed that about “50%of the [intellectual] development takes placebetween conception and age 4.Under the belief that children’s intelligencedevelops early and rapidly and thatenrichment early in life can have profoundinfluences on the child’s development,federal funding for Project Head Start wasprovided in 1965.
The formation of the International Council forExceptional Children (CEC) in 1922 provided theimpetus for what some believe to be the mostinfluential advocacy group continuing to providenational leadership on behalf of children withspecial needs.The 1930 White House Conference on ChildHealth and Protection was a milestone inmarking the first time that special education hadreceived national recognition.
Laws Affecting Early Childhood Ed.Rehabilitation Act of 1973prohibits discrimination on the basis of disabilityin programs conducted by Federal agencies, inprograms receiving Federal financial assistance.
Laws Affecting Early Childhood Ed.1974 Public Law 93-380 EducationAmendments Buckley Amendment, Title VEstablished a total federal commitment to theeducation of children with disabilities; concernsincluded education within the least restrictiveenvironment, nondiscriminatory testing, andprivacy rights.
Laws Affecting Early Childhood Ed.• 1990 Public Law 101-336 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)Ensures full civil rights for all individuals withdisabilities including reasonableaccommodations in preschools and child-carecenters.
Laws Affecting Early Childhood Ed.• 1990 Public Law 101-476 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)Marked a change in philosophy away fromlabeling children as “handicapped children” toreferring to them as individuals first, with“disabilities” following as a secondarydescription.
Laws Affecting Early Childhood Ed.Public Law 102-119 Individuals with DisabilitiesEducation Act of 1991Ensuring comprehensive early interventionservices to young children and their families.
Laws Affecting Early Childhood Ed.No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001NCLB is a reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary EducationAct, which included Title 1, the governments flagship aid program fordisadvantaged students. NCLB supports standards-based educationreform based on the premise that setting high standards andestablishing measurable goals can improve individual outcomes ineducation. The Act requires states to develop assessments in basicskills. States must give these assessments to all students at selectgrade levels in order to receive federal school funding. The Act doesnot assert a national achievement standard; standards are set by eachindividual state. NCLB expanded the federal role in public educationthrough annual testing, annual academic progress, report cards,teacher qualifications, and funding changes
Laws Affecting Early Childhood Ed.Public Law 108-446 Individuals with DisabilitiesEducation Improvement Act of 2004Reauthorization of P.L. 105-17 continuingauthorization of preschool services under Part Band early intervention services for infants andtoddlers under Part C with allowance tocontinue early intervention services untilkindergarten.
Trends in Early Childhood Special Ed.• Family-centered ApproachRather than the traditional focus on the child, afamily-centered approach views the child’sdevelopment within the context of the familysystem.Public Law 102-119 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1991
Trends in Early Childhood Special Ed.• Community-Based Inclusive SettingsEach child’s individual plan must state the degree towhich the child will receive services in “naturalenvironments.” Natural environments include not onlythe child’s home but also neighborhood play groups,child development centers, Head Start programs, andany other setting designed for children withoutdisabilities.
Trends in Early Childhood Special Ed.Interagency and Interdisciplinary CollaborationFacilitates the learning of skills necessary towork in teams comprising various disciplines,sometimes from several agencies.Culturally Responsive PracticesFamily characteristics will continue to becomemore diverse and complex.
Trends in Early Childhood Special Ed.Coordinated, Comprehensive ServicesTraining programs have moved away from curricula thatfollow traditional disciplinary boundaries toward curriculathat foster multiagency and multidisciplinary collaboration.Evidence-Based PracticesThe focus on educational standards and outcomes hasresulted in federal policies that have contributed the currentemphasis on evidence-based practices in early childhoodspecial education.
Trends in Early Childhood Special Ed.Activity-based intervention , embeddedintervention , routines-based intervention, andnatural learning opportunities refer to everydayactivities in which the child’s interventions can beembedded or infused.Standards-Based CurriculumBy 2005, 45 states had developed curriculumstandards for 3- to 5-year-olds, and some had orwere working on standards for children from birthto 3 years old (Gronlund, 2006).
Trends in Early Childhood Special Ed.Child OutcomesRelated to the current emphases on evidence basedpractices and standards-based curriculum, earlychildhood special education focuses on positiveoutcomes for children and families.Recognition and ResponseAn emerging practice called “recognition &response” (R & R) is based on Response toIntervention.