PENGEMBANGAN SISTEM INFORMASI               disusun                 oleh      Ir KI PRAMONO HA, MMSi             JAKARTA  ...
DAFTAR REFERENSI1. Hawryzkiewycz. I.T ,Introduction to System Analysis and Design,    Kedua Prentice Hall Singapore, 1992 ...
BAB IPENDAHULUAN    kipram    3
A. Information System Building Blocks                      kipram                                                4Irwin/Mc...
Front- and Back-Office Information Systems• Front-office information systems support business functions  that reach out to...
A Federation of Information Systems                        kipram                                            6Irwin/McGraw...
Information Systems Applications                      kipram                                                7Irwin/McGraw-...
Jenis System Informasi  a. Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)   - meng handle data-data transaksi   - kuat b. Process Co...
• Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)   – Automate handling of data about business activities (transactions)• Management ...
B. Pengembangan dalam analysis dan design :  - Methodologies     •Comprehensive, multi-step approaches to systems developm...
• 3 komponent kunci dalam information system   – Data   – Processing   – Interface• Data vs. Information   – Data      • R...
Modern approach to systems analysis• Process-Oriented Approach   – Focus is on flow, use and transformation of data in an ...
• Data-Oriented Approach  – Depicts ideal organization of data, independent    of where and how data are used  – Data mode...
Databases and Application Independence• Database  – Shared collection of logically related data  – Organized to facilitate...
C. Organizational Responsibilities in Systems Development• Systems Analysts work in teams   – Project Based   – Includes  ...
• IS Manager  – May have a direct role in systems development    if the project is small  – Typically involved in allocati...
D. Skills of a Successful Systems Analyst    – Analytical       • Understanding of organizations       • Problem solving s...
• Programmers  – Convert specifications into instructions that the    computer understands  – Write documentation and test...
• Other IS Managers/Technicians  – Database Administrator     • Involved in design, development and maintenance       of d...
E. Principles of System Development • Get the system users involved. • Use a problem-solving approach. • Establish phases ...
F. Representative System Development Methodologies• Architected Rapid Application Development  (Architected RAD)• Dynamic ...
The PIECES Problem-Solving FrameworkP   the need to improve performanceI   the need to improve information (and data)E   t...
Cross Life Cycle ActivitiesCross life cycle activities are activities thatoverlap many or all phases of the methodology.  ...
Sharing Knowledge via a Repository                      kipram                                               24Irwin/McGra...
Approaches to Development• Prototyping  – Building a scaled-down working version of the system  – Advantages:     • Users ...
• Joint Application Design (JAD)  – Users, Managers and Analysts work together    for several days  – System requirements ...
G. SIKLUS PENGEMBANGAN SYSTEM INFORMASI (SDLCIrwin/McGraw-Hill    Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights r...
SYSTEM ANALYSIS                 1            Survey and             plan the              project                         ...
1.1                             Request                 Survey            Request                                         ...
2.1                       Approval                    Model      System              to                        the      Ow...
3.1                                    Approval                   Outline                System                 to        ...
H. Systems Analysis  4 Yang harus dimilikinya :  –   Systems Thinking  –   Organizational Knowledge  –   Problem Identific...
1.Systems Thinking• System  – Bagaimana prosedure hubungan business nya    yg digunakan dalam bekerja setiap unit atau    ...
• Characteristics of a System  –   Components  –   Interrelated Components  –   Boundary  –   Purpose  –   Environment  – ...
• Important System Concepts  – Decomposition     • The process of breaking down a system into smaller       components    ...
• Important System Concepts (Continued)  – Modularity     • Process of dividing a system into modules of a relatively     ...
• Important System Concepts (Continued)  – Logical System Description     • Portrays the purpose and function of the syste...
• Benefits  – Identification of a system leads to abstraction  – From abstraction you can think about essential    charact...
• Applying Systems Thinking to Information  Systems  – Information systems are subsystems in larger    organizational syst...
2.Organizational Knowledge• Understanding of how organizations work• Knowledge of specific functions and  procedures of or...
3. Problem Identification• Problem: Difference between an existing  situation and a desired situation• Identification is p...
4. Problem Analyzing and Solving• Four Phases  – Intelligence     • All relevant information is collected  – Design     • ...
Technical Skills for Systems Analysis• Constant re-education is necessary as technology  changes rapidly• Activities to ke...
Technical Skills for Systems Analysis• Understanding of a wide variety of technologies is  required   – Microcomputers, wo...
Management Skills for Systems         Analysis• Four categories  –   Resource Management  –   Project Management  –   Risk...
Resource Management• Systems analyst needs to know how to get the  most out of the resources of an organization,  includin...
Project Management• Two Goals   – Prevent projects from coming in late   – Prevent projects from going over budget• Assist...
Risk Management• Ability to anticipate what might go wrong  in a project• Minimize risk and/or minimize damage that  might...
Change Management• Ability to assist people in making transition  to new system• Ability to deal with technical issues rel...
Interpersonal Skills for Systems            Analysis• Mastery of interpersonal skills is paramount  to success as a System...
Communication Skills• Effective communication helps to establish  and maintain good working relationships  with clients an...
Interviewing and Listening• Means to gather information about a project• Listening to answers is just as important as  ask...
Questionnaires• Advantages:  – Less costly than interviews  – Results are less biased due to standardization• Disadvantage...
Written and Oral Presentations• Used to document progress of project and  communicate this to others• Communication takes ...
Steps to Improving Communication                 Skills• Practice  – Conduct a training class  – Volunteer to speak• Video...
Working Alone and with a Team• Working alone on aspects of project  involves managing:  – Time  – Commitments  – Deadlines...
Facilitating Groups       • Involves guiding a group without being a         part of the group       • Useful skill for se...
Managing Expectations• Managing expectations is directly related to  successful system implementation• Skills for successf...
Systems Analysis as a Profession• Standards have been established for  education, training, certification and  practice• S...
Standards of Practice• Endorsed Development Methodology  – Specific procedures and techniques to be used    during develop...
Standards of Practice• Standardization of Roles  – Roles are becoming better defined across    organizations• Development ...
Ethics• Professional Ethics   – ACM Code of Ethics• Business Ethics   – Stockholder approach      • Any action taken by a ...
Career Paths• Consulting• Information Systems within a large  corporation• Software vendors• Other opportunities outside o...
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Bab 1 pendahuluan 2010

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Bab 1 pendahuluan 2010

  1. 1. PENGEMBANGAN SISTEM INFORMASI disusun oleh Ir KI PRAMONO HA, MMSi JAKARTA kipram 1 2004/2007/2010
  2. 2. DAFTAR REFERENSI1. Hawryzkiewycz. I.T ,Introduction to System Analysis and Design, Kedua Prentice Hall Singapore, 1992 2. Kowal, J.A , Analyzing System , Prentice Hall New Jersey, 1988 3. Whitten,J.L dan Bentley,L.D, dan Barlow, VM Analisis dan Desaign Berorientasi Objek, Kedua, Richard D.Irwin.Inc, 2000 4. Martin J, Information Engineering, book II , Prentice Hall Singapore 1990 5. Kendall,K.E dan Kendall,J.E ,System Analysis and Design, Kedua Prentice Hall New Jersey, 1992 6. Hoffer,J.A dan George J.F dan Valacich,J.S ,Modern System Analysis and Design , The Benjamin / Cummings Publ. Company,Menlo Park 7. Senn,J.A , Analysis and Design of Information System , Kedua Mc Graw hill, Singapore ,19898. Ebert, R.E , User Interface Design , Prentice Hall New Jersey, 1994 kipram 2
  3. 3. BAB IPENDAHULUAN kipram 3
  4. 4. A. Information System Building Blocks kipram 4Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  5. 5. Front- and Back-Office Information Systems• Front-office information systems support business functions that reach out to customers (or constituents). – Marketing – Sales – Customer management• Back-office information systems support internal business operations and interact with suppliers (of materials, equipment, supplies, and services). – Human resources – Financial management – Manufacturing – Inventory control kipram 5
  6. 6. A Federation of Information Systems kipram 6Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  7. 7. Information Systems Applications kipram 7Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  8. 8. Jenis System Informasi a. Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) - meng handle data-data transaksi - kuat b. Process Control system - algoritma yang rumit - untuk pabrikan : inventory control, air traffic control, system embeddedc. Lain-lain : - MIS - DSS - EIS kipram 8
  9. 9. • Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) – Automate handling of data about business activities (transactions)• Management Information Systems (MIS) – Converts raw data from transaction processing system into meaningful form• Decision Support Systems (DSS) – Designed to help decision makers – Provides interactive environment for decision making• Expert Systems (ES) – Replicates decision making process – Knowledge representation describes the way an expert would approach the problem kipram 9
  10. 10. B. Pengembangan dalam analysis dan design : - Methodologies •Comprehensive, multi-step approaches to systems development –Techniques •Processes sesuai pekerjaan , lengkap and comprehensible dalam satu project team –Tools •Computer programs yang mendukung application dalam tehnik analysis and design process kipram 10
  11. 11. • 3 komponent kunci dalam information system – Data – Processing – Interface• Data vs. Information – Data • Raw facts – Information • Derived from data • Organized in a manner that humans can understand. kipram 11
  12. 12. Modern approach to systems analysis• Process-Oriented Approach – Focus is on flow, use and transformation of data in an information system – Involves creating graphical representations such as data flow diagrams and charts – Data are tracked from sources, through intermediate steps and to final destinations – Natural structure of data is not specified – Disadvantage: data files are tied to specific applications kipram 12
  13. 13. • Data-Oriented Approach – Depicts ideal organization of data, independent of where and how data are used – Data model describes kinds of data and business relationships among the data – Business rules depict how organization captures and processes the data kipram 13
  14. 14. Databases and Application Independence• Database – Shared collection of logically related data – Organized to facilitate capture, storage and retrieval by multiple users – Centrally managed – Designed around subjects • Customers • Suppliers• Application Independence – Separation of data and definition of data from applications kipram 14
  15. 15. C. Organizational Responsibilities in Systems Development• Systems Analysts work in teams – Project Based – Includes • IS Manager • Programmers • Users • Other specialists – Characteristics of Successful Teams • Diversity of backgrounds • Tolerance of diversity • Clear and complete communication • Trust • Mutual Respect • Reward structure that promotes shared responsibility kipram 15
  16. 16. • IS Manager – May have a direct role in systems development if the project is small – Typically involved in allocating resources to and overseeing system development projects.• Systems Analyst – Key individuals in the systems development process kipram 16
  17. 17. D. Skills of a Successful Systems Analyst – Analytical • Understanding of organizations • Problem solving skills • System thinking – Ability to see organizations and information systems as systems – Technical • Understanding of potential and limitations of technology – Management • Ability to manage projects, resources, risk and change – Interpersonal • Effective written and oral communication skills kipram 17
  18. 18. • Programmers – Convert specifications into instructions that the computer understands – Write documentation and testing programs• Business Managers – Have power to fund projects and allocate resources – Set general requirements and constraints for projects kipram 18
  19. 19. • Other IS Managers/Technicians – Database Administrator • Involved in design, development and maintenance of databases – Network and telecommunications experts • Develop systems involving data and/or voice communications – Human Factors Specialists • Involved in training users and writing documentation – Internal Auditors • Ensure that required controls are built into the system kipram 19
  20. 20. E. Principles of System Development • Get the system users involved. • Use a problem-solving approach. • Establish phases and activities. • Document through development. • Establish standards. • Manage the process and projects • Justify systems as capital investments. • Don’t be afraid to cancel or revise scope. • Divide and conquer. • Design systems for growth and change. kipram 20
  21. 21. F. Representative System Development Methodologies• Architected Rapid Application Development (Architected RAD)• Dynamic Systems Development Methodology (DSDM)• Joint Application Development (JAD)• Information Engineering (IE)• Rapid Application Development (RAD)• Rational Unified Process (RUP)• Structured Analysis and Design• eXtreme Programming (XP) kipram 21
  22. 22. The PIECES Problem-Solving FrameworkP the need to improve performanceI the need to improve information (and data)E the need to improve economics, control costs, or increase profitsC the need to improve control or securityE the need to improve efficiency of people and processesS the need to improve service to customers, suppliers, partners, employees, etc. kipram 22
  23. 23. Cross Life Cycle ActivitiesCross life cycle activities are activities thatoverlap many or all phases of the methodology. – Fact-finding – Documentation and presentation – Feasibility analysis – Process and project management kipram 23
  24. 24. Sharing Knowledge via a Repository kipram 24Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  25. 25. Approaches to Development• Prototyping – Building a scaled-down working version of the system – Advantages: • Users are involved in design • Captures requirements in concrete form• Rapid Application Development (RAD) – Utilizes prototyping to delay producing system design until after user requirements are clear kipram 25
  26. 26. • Joint Application Design (JAD) – Users, Managers and Analysts work together for several days – System requirements are reviewed – Structured meetings• Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools – Facilitate creation of a central repository for system descriptions and specifications kipram 26
  27. 27. G. SIKLUS PENGEMBANGAN SYSTEM INFORMASI (SDLCIrwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved kipram 27
  28. 28. SYSTEM ANALYSIS 1 Survey and plan the project Documentation Repository Project and 2 System Scope Study and Documentation analyze the existing system Documentation System Improvement 3 Objectives Define and priortize Business to the design phase the business Requirements requirements Business Requirements to the configuration phase kipram 28Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  29. 29. 1.1 Request Survey Request System System for problems for Owners Owners system and system and Users services opportunities services Request problem Project for survey charter system statement services Project charter 1.4 1.2 Problem survey Present Problem statement Negotiate statement the Scope statement project project Project plan Repository scope scope statement Problem statement Project plan Scope statement 1.3 Plan Project templates System the and Management project Project standards kipram 29Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  30. 30. 2.1 Approval Model System to the Owners continue current 2.2 project Process models Analyze system the business processes scope statement Detailed Process anaysis Study system models Findings models Process analysis data 1.4 All prior 2.3 Present deliverables problem statement Analyze the and problems project revised Repository cause/effect and project plan analysis opportunities System Project System models plan models Cause/effect analysis cause/effect analysis System 2.5 2.4 improvement Modify system Establish objectives and project improvement system constraints scope and objectives improvement plan and constraints objectives kipram 30Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  31. 31. 3.1 Approval Outline System to Business Owners continue Requirements project system improvement Revised objectives scope Revised and plan requirements 3.2 plan statement Model outline business requirements system statement outline requirements 3.5 Modify project All prior plan deliverables Repository and system models scope System models Business Discovery prototypes requirements Business priorities requirements outline Requirements 3.3 statement Build outline discovery 3.4 System prototypes Prioritize models Business Requirements Discovery prototypes kipram 31Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  32. 32. H. Systems Analysis 4 Yang harus dimilikinya : – Systems Thinking – Organizational Knowledge – Problem Identification – Problem Analyzing and Solving kipram 32
  33. 33. 1.Systems Thinking• System – Bagaimana prosedure hubungan business nya yg digunakan dalam bekerja setiap unit atau keseluruhannya – Mempunyai 9 characteristics – system yang berjalan termasuk environment – A boundary separates a system from its environment kipram 33
  34. 34. • Characteristics of a System – Components – Interrelated Components – Boundary – Purpose – Environment – Interfaces – Input – Output – Constraints kipram 34
  35. 35. • Important System Concepts – Decomposition • The process of breaking down a system into smaller components • Allows the systems analyst to: – Break a system into small, manageable subsystems – Focus on one area at a time – Concentrate on component pertinent to one group of users – Build different components at independent times kipram 35
  36. 36. • Important System Concepts (Continued) – Modularity • Process of dividing a system into modules of a relatively uniform size • Modules simplify system design – Coupling • Subsystems that are dependent upon each other are coupled – Cohesion • Extent to which a subsystem performs a single function kipram 36
  37. 37. • Important System Concepts (Continued) – Logical System Description • Portrays the purpose and function of the system • Does not tie the description to a specific physical implementation – Physical System Description • Focuses on how the system will be materially constructed kipram 37
  38. 38. • Benefits – Identification of a system leads to abstraction – From abstraction you can think about essential characteristics of specific system – Abstraction allows analyst to gain insights into specific system, to question assumptions, provide documentation and manipulate the system without disrupting the real situation kipram 38
  39. 39. • Applying Systems Thinking to Information Systems – Information systems are subsystems in larger organizational systems – Data flow diagrams represent information systems as systems • Inputs • Outputs • System boundaries • Environment • Subsystems • Interrelationships kipram 39
  40. 40. 2.Organizational Knowledge• Understanding of how organizations work• Knowledge of specific functions and procedures of organization and department• How work officially gets done• Internal policies• Competitive and Regulatory Environment• Organizational Strategies and Tactics kipram 40
  41. 41. 3. Problem Identification• Problem: Difference between an existing situation and a desired situation• Identification is process of defining differences• Differences are defined by comparing the current situation to the output of a model that predicts what the output should be kipram 41
  42. 42. 4. Problem Analyzing and Solving• Four Phases – Intelligence • All relevant information is collected – Design • Alternatives are formulated – Choice • Best alternative solution is chosen – Implementation • Solution is put into practice kipram 42
  43. 43. Technical Skills for Systems Analysis• Constant re-education is necessary as technology changes rapidly• Activities to keep skills up-to-date – Trade publications – Professional societies – Attend classes or teach at a local college – Attend courses sponsored by organization – Conferences and trade shows – Browse Websites – Participate in new groups and conferences kipram 43
  44. 44. Technical Skills for Systems Analysis• Understanding of a wide variety of technologies is required – Microcomputers, workstations, minicomputers and mainframe computers – Programming languages – Operating systems – Database and file management systems – Data communication standards – Systems development tools and environments – Web development languages and tools – Decision support system generators kipram 44
  45. 45. Management Skills for Systems Analysis• Four categories – Resource Management – Project Management – Risk Management – Change Management kipram 45
  46. 46. Resource Management• Systems analyst needs to know how to get the most out of the resources of an organization, including team members• Includes the following capabilities – Predicting resource usage – Tracking resource consumption – Effective use of resources – Evaluation of resource quality – Securing resources from abusive use – Relinquishing resources when no longer needed kipram 46
  47. 47. Project Management• Two Goals – Prevent projects from coming in late – Prevent projects from going over budget• Assists management in keeping track of project’s progress• Consists of several steps – Decomposing project into independent tasks – Determining relationships between tasks – Assigning resources and personnel to tasks kipram 47
  48. 48. Risk Management• Ability to anticipate what might go wrong in a project• Minimize risk and/or minimize damage that might result• Placement of resources• Prioritization of activities to achieve greatest gain kipram 48
  49. 49. Change Management• Ability to assist people in making transition to new system• Ability to deal with technical issues related to change – Obsolescence – Reusability kipram 49
  50. 50. Interpersonal Skills for Systems Analysis• Mastery of interpersonal skills is paramount to success as a Systems Analyst• Four types of skills: – Communication skills – Working alone and with a team – Facilitating groups – Managing expectations kipram 50
  51. 51. Communication Skills• Effective communication helps to establish and maintain good working relationships with clients and colleagues• Skills improve with experience• Three types used by Systems Analyst – Interviewing and Listening – Questionnaires – Written and Oral Presentations kipram 51
  52. 52. Interviewing and Listening• Means to gather information about a project• Listening to answers is just as important as asking questions• Effective listening leads to understanding of problem and generates additional questions kipram 52
  53. 53. Questionnaires• Advantages: – Less costly than interviews – Results are less biased due to standardization• Disadvantages – Less effective than interviews due to lack of follow-up kipram 53
  54. 54. Written and Oral Presentations• Used to document progress of project and communicate this to others• Communication takes several forms: – Meeting agenda – Meeting minutes – Interview summaries – Project schedules and descriptions – Memoranda requesting information – Requests for proposals from vendors and contractors – Oral presentations kipram 54
  55. 55. Steps to Improving Communication Skills• Practice – Conduct a training class – Volunteer to speak• Videotape presentation and do a self- appraisal of your skills• Make use of college writing centers• Take classes on business and technical writing kipram 55
  56. 56. Working Alone and with a Team• Working alone on aspects of project involves managing: – Time – Commitments – Deadlines• Team work involves establishing standards of cooperation and coordination• characteristics of a high-performance team kipram 56
  57. 57. Facilitating Groups • Involves guiding a group without being a part of the group • Useful skill for sessions such as Joint Application Development (JAD) • lists guidelines for running a successful meeting2.572.57 kipram 57
  58. 58. Managing Expectations• Managing expectations is directly related to successful system implementation• Skills for successful expectation management – Understanding of technology and workflows – Ability to communicate a realistic picture of new system to users – Effective education of management and users throughout systems development life cycle kipram 58
  59. 59. Systems Analysis as a Profession• Standards have been established for education, training, certification and practice• Several aspects: – Standards of Practice – Ethics – Career Paths kipram 59
  60. 60. Standards of Practice• Endorsed Development Methodology – Specific procedures and techniques to be used during development process – Promote consistency and reliability across all of an organization’s development projects• Approved Development Platforms – Organizations standardize around a specific platform, sometimes tied to development methodology kipram 60
  61. 61. Standards of Practice• Standardization of Roles – Roles are becoming better defined across organizations• Development of a Common Language – Common programming languages – Common modeling languages, such as Unified Modeling Language (UML) kipram 61
  62. 62. Ethics• Professional Ethics – ACM Code of Ethics• Business Ethics – Stockholder approach • Any action taken by a business is acceptable as long as it is legal and maximizes stockholder profit – Stakeholder approach • Any action that violates rights of stakeholder must be rejected – Social Contract approach • Any action that is deceptive, can dehumanize employees or that could discriminate is rejected kipram 62
  63. 63. Career Paths• Consulting• Information Systems within a large corporation• Software vendors• Other opportunities outside of systems analysis kipram 63
  64. 64. kipram 64

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