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  1. 1. A CASE ONSOUThEAST ASIAN ECONOMIC CRISIS<br />By<br />VamsiSomesh M(69)<br />AtinSrivastava(18)<br />NiranjanRajpurohit(43)<br />Divya Jain(21)<br />Ankit Jain(12)<br />PurushottamMahawar(52)<br />
  2. 2. AGENDA<br />Back Ground information of the crisis<br />Case Study Description<br />Effect on India<br />
  3. 3. SOUTH EAST ASIAN ECONOMIC CRISIS<br />The Asian Financial Crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of Asia beginning in july 1997, and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion.<br />The asian financial crisis involves four basic problems or issues:<br />A shortage of foreign exchange that caused the value of currencies and equities in Thailand , Indonesia , South Korea and other Asian countries to fall dramatically.<br />Inadequately developed financial sectors and mechanisms for allocating capital in the troubled asian economies.<br />Effects of the crisis on both the United States and world and<br />The role, operations and replenishment of funds of the International Monetary Fund.<br />
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION<br />Initiated by two rounds of currency depreciation in 1997<br />First round was a percipitous drop in value<br />Thai baht<br />Malaysian ringgit<br />Philippine peso<br />Indonesian rupiah<br />Second round began wit downward pressures hitting<br />Taiwan dollar<br />South Korean Won<br />Brazilian real<br />Singaporean dollar<br />Hong Kong dollar<br />
  5. 5. BEFORE CRISIS<br />Economies of south east Asia<br />Maintained high interest rates attractive to foreign investors looking for a high rate of return<br />Regional economies of Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and South Korea experienced high growth rates, 8-12% GDP , in the late 1980s and early 1990s<br />Thailand , Indonesia and South Korea had large private current account deficit<br />It led to excessive exposure to foreign exchange risk in both the financial corporate sectors<br />In 1990’s the U.S.Economy recovered from recession<br />
  6. 6. IMPACT<br />It began to raise U.S.interest rates to head off inflation<br />At the sametime, South Asia’s export growth slowed dramatically in the spring of 1996, deteriorating their current account position.<br />At the end of 1996, the proportion of loans with maturity of one year or less was 62% for Indonesia, 68% for South Korea , 50% for the Philippines , 65% for Thailand and 84% for Taiwan.<br />
  7. 7. Was THERE A CRISIS?<br />Over $100billion was pulled out of the region in 1997-98 which was 5percent of the GDP<br />Unemployment rose to 0.8milliom in Indonesia, 1.5 million in Thailand , 1.35million in Korea<br />Real wages dropped by 12.5% in korea and 6% in Thailand<br />
  8. 8. CHAIN OF EVENTS<br />Corporate failure at Korea<br />Bank failure at Thailand<br />Political uncertanity at Korea, Thailand, Philippines<br />Policy mismanagement at Thailand and Korea – to defend their pegged exchange rated exhaust their Forex reserves <br />Contagion effect hit Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia<br />International intervention – IMF & Moody<br />
  9. 9. Events from MACRO-ECONOMIC VIEW<br />Exchange rates depreciates<br />Foreign lenders concerned with the repayment of loans, withdraw funds<br />Domestic interest rates soar up<br />Lack of bankruptcy laws and rising Non Performing Loans added to the stress of the banks.<br />Banks become illiquid and decapitalized.<br />To fall of Korean stick exchange.<br />
  10. 10.
  11. 11. Reasons for the crisis<br />Faulty macro economic poliy<br />Demise of Industrial Policy: government used to intervene and control inflow<br />End to policy of government coordinated investment allowed duplicative investment in key industries leading to excessive foreign borrowings between 1993-1997<br />Excessive risk in govt. favoured industries<br />Crony capitalism<br />
  12. 12. CAUSES AND STRUCTURAL FACTORS Contd….<br />Private-sector debt problems and poor loan quality<br />Rising external liabilities for borrowing countries<br />The close alignment between the local currency and the U.S.Dollar<br />Weakening economic performance and balance-of-payments difficulties <br />Currency speculation<br />Technological changes in financial markets and<br />A lack of confidence in the ability of the governments in question to resolve their problems successfully<br />Declining exports<br />
  13. 13. CATEGORIZATION<br />Macroeconomic policy included – balance of payment crisis<br />Financial panic – sudden withdraw from solvent borrower by short term creditors<br />Bubble collapse – overvaluation of financial asset<br />Disorderly workout – impediment to efficient provision of working capital<br />
  14. 14. IMPACTS<br />Indonesia<br />Drastic devaluation of rupiah from 2000 to 18000 for 1US dollar<br />Excessive inflation<br />Riots<br />16 major commercial banks were closed<br />Governor, Bank Indonesia was sacked<br />President Suharto was forced to step down in may after 30 years in power<br />
  15. 15. SOUTH KOREA<br />Won: from 1000 to 1700 for 1 US dollar<br />Credit rating of the country (moddy’s) : A1 to B2<br />National debt-to-GDP ratio more than doubled<br />Major setback in automobile industry<br />
  16. 16. PHILIPPINES<br />Growth dropped to virtually zero in 1998<br />Peso fell significantly , from 26/US$ to even 55/ US$<br />President Joseph Estrada was forced to resign<br />
  17. 17. Measures taken to overcome crisis<br />High saving and investment rate<br />Strong emphasis on education<br />Stable macroeconomic environment<br />Free from high inflation or major economic slumps<br />High share of trade in GDP<br />
  18. 18. ROLE OF IMF<br />Prevent outright default on foreign obligation<br />Limit the currency depreciation<br />Limit inflation<br />Rebuild foreign exchange reserves<br />Reform the banking sector<br />
  19. 19. US & JAPAN<br />The Dow Jones industrial Plunged 554 points or 7.2% amid ongoing worries about Asian economies.<br />The New York Stock Exchange briefly suspended trading<br />JAPAN<br />Japan was affected because its economy is prominent in the region. Asian countries usually run a trade deficit with Japan because the latter’s economy was more than twice the size of the rest of Asia together; about 40% of Japan’s exports go to Asia<br />The Japanese yen fell to 147 as mass selling began, but Japan was the world’s largest holder of currency reserves at the time , so it was easily defended and quickly bounced back<br />GDP real growth rate slowed dramatically in 1997 from 5% to 1.6% and even sank into recession in 1998 , due to intense competition from cheapened rivals.<br />
  20. 20. LEARNING’s<br />The lessons from developing country crises are summarized as:<br />Choosing the right exchange rate regime<br />The central importance of Banking<br />The proper sequence of reform measure<br />The importance of contagion<br />
  21. 21. EFFECT ON INDIA<br />The effect of SEA crisis on India intrinsically is mild for the following reasons:<br />Full capital convertibility is not allowed<br />Lock in period for foreign investment in real estate<br />Floating exchange rate with some influence by RBI during period of crisis<br />Strong fundamental growth with services sector being the prime reason<br />External debt to GDP has been declining for the past few years<br />
  22. 22. There were two kinds of effects to the Indian Economy. <br />The indirect effect would be the effect of the crisis on the world economy and then the effect of the word on the Indian Economy. <br />IMF had forecasted a growth rate of 4% for the world economy for the period of 1997-98. Later this forecast was downgraded to 3.5 percent. <br />Slower rate of growth had effected the world economy would certainly effect the Indian economy and more specifically Indian Exports in a negative way.<br /> Looking at the direct implications of the South East Asian crisis, ie, look at the direct trade links between some of the south east Asian economies and the Indian Economy and examine how they are likely to be affected due to crisis. <br />Thus they had essentially concentrated on the ‘real’ economy as against the financial economy. <br />