26 land use


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

26 land use

  1. 1. Announcements – May 2 Wednesday, May 4th, Last lecture No discussions this week (May 2-4) Final Exam, May 9, 1:30
  2. 2. CNN - Report links urban sprawl to health problems. September 27, 2004 People who live in areas with a high degree of sprawl are more likely to report chronic health problems such as high blood pressure, arthritis, headaches and breathing difficulties compared to residents in less sprawled-out areas. "People drive more in these areas, they walk less." A sprawling area is defined in the study as a place that has streets not well connected, lower population density and areas that are far from each other, such as schools and shopping malls.
  3. 3. Land-Use Planning <ul><li>Lecture Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Trace the history of land use in North America </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the problems of unplanned growth </li></ul><ul><li>Learn mechanisms for land-use planning </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Why are cities and suburbs located where they are? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is there so much traffic congestion and poorly designed highways? </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Need For Planning <ul><li>1/3—1/2 world ’s land surface altered by humans. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most change done with minimal forethought to consequences. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Need For Planning <ul><li>Most land-use decisions based on economic considerations or short-term needs rather than on unique analysis of the landscape. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural ecosystems should be considered a non-renewable resource </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>First U.S. colonists converted landscape to farming, and then to towns and cities. </li></ul><ul><li>A good place for a city was: </li></ul><ul><li>On or near a waterway </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste disposal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by farmland </li></ul>Historical Forces That Shaped Land Use In North America
  8. 8. The “Big Grove” 200+ yr old Burr oak
  9. 9. Water and Urban Centers
  10. 10. Rural-To-Urban Shift <ul><li>Industrial Revolution triggered switch from rural to urban living </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial jobs to be found in cities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immigrants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congregated in, and subdivided cities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offered variety of cultural, social, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and artistic opportunities . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Where have you spent most of your life? </li></ul><ul><li>Urban environment (city) </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-urban environment </li></ul><ul><li>Rural community (e.g. small town in country) </li></ul><ul><li>Natural or agricultural environment </li></ul>
  12. 13. Migration from Central City To The Suburbs <ul><li>Industrial Revolution led to polluted waterways and crowding & congestion in central city </li></ul><ul><ul><li>roads and rail transport became more common </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Migration from Central City To The Suburbs <ul><li>Undesirable city conditions & expensive city land caused people & development to move to outskirts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1950 —60% urban population lived in central cities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1990 —30% urban population lived in central cities. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Migration from Central City To The Suburbs <ul><li>Agricultural land surrounding towns was converted to housing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap, easy to build on & little restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Land began to be viewed as a commodity, not a non-renewable resource to be managed. </li></ul><ul><li>Most single family houses after WWII were built away from city congestion. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Los Angeles Melbourne http://www.suntimes.com/3838469-417/chicagos-population-drops-6.9-collar-counties-grow-census-shows
  16. 18. Precipitation in coastal San Diego Co. averages 216-240 mm/year (9-10 inches/yr). A typical household in San Diego uses an average of 1220 mm (49 inches) of water /year for outdoor use/irrigation. San Diego County Water Authority
  17. 19. Las Vegas 1973, ~350,000 1991, ~930,000 2000, ~1,560,000 2006, ~2,013,000
  18. 20. Orange officials sue couple who removed their lawn March 02, 2010|By Amina Khan City codes require that live landscaping cover 40% of the yard. Quan and Angelina Ha say their water use has dropped 80% since they replaced the grass with wood chips and drought-tolerant plants. Some Southern California cities fine residents for watering their lawns too much during droughts. But in Orange, officials are locked in a legal battle with a couple accused of violating city ordinances for removing their lawn in an attempt to save water.
  19. 21. Suburb Migration <ul><li>Convenience and personal automobiles escalated decentralized housing patterns and diminished importance of mass transit. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased energy efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased cost of supplying utility services </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Urban Sprawl <ul><li>Urban Sprawl — Pattern of unplanned low density housing and commercial development outside of cities usually on undeveloped land. </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy suburbs </li></ul><ul><li>Tract development </li></ul><ul><li>Ribbon sprawl </li></ul>
  21. 23. Factors That Contribute to Sprawl <ul><li>Lifestyle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased wealth of population. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Houses and cars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building on agricultural land less expensive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tax laws encourage home development. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planning and Policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historically, little coordination of effort. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoning ordinances prohibit land use mixing </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Problems Associated With Unplanned Growth <ul><li>Transportation and traffic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little thought to transportation corridors. </li></ul></ul>Average person in U.S. spends 9 hrs/wk in an automobile. 70% of surface in Los Angeles is either roads, parking garages or lots
  23. 25. Local issues with transportation <ul><li>MTD suspends trolley proposal </li></ul><ul><li>MTD considers annexing Savoy: bus service, higher property taxes & no public vote </li></ul><ul><li>Funding for area road projects </li></ul><ul><li>“ shovel ready projects” - stimulus </li></ul>
  24. 26. http://olympiandriveproject.com/site10/
  25. 27. Problems Associated With Unplanned Growth <ul><li>Air Pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As traffic increases, so does air pollution. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy Efficiencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automobiles are inefficient transportation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralized cities—longer commutes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single family homes less efficient. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Problems Associated With Unplanned Growth <ul><li>Loss of Farmland </li></ul>Loss of Open Space Death of Central City <ul><ul><li>Land converted to urban uses at rate of over 1 million acres/year </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Problems Associated With Unplanned Growth <ul><li>Water / Air Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Space - Typical mall has parking lot that is 4x larger than the space taken up by the building </li></ul><ul><li>Floodplain Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many cities located on floodplains. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Problems Associated With Unplanned Growth <ul><li>Other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building on fault lines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building in dry, fire prone areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hurricane prone areas… </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. Land-Use Planning Principles <ul><li>Effective Land-Use Planning should evaluate: </li></ul><ul><li>needs and wants of a population </li></ul><ul><li>land characteristics and value </li></ul><ul><li>various solutions to land uses before changes are made </li></ul>
  30. 32. Land-Use Planning Principles <ul><li>1. Evaluate and record unique features. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Preserve unique cultural or historical features. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Conserve open space </li></ul><ul><li>4. Plan for mixed uses in close proximity. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Plan variety of transportation options. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Set limits and managed growth patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Encourage development in areas of existing infrastructure. </li></ul>
  31. 33. Mechanisms For Implementing Land-Use Plans <ul><li>Establish state or regional planning agencies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local govt ’s have narrow view and don’t want to give up power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purchase land or use rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoning — Designating land for specific uses. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. Special Urban Planning Issues <ul><li>Urban Transportation Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conserve energy and land resources. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide efficient / inexpensive transportation both within city and to suburbs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce urban pollution. </li></ul></ul></ul>Redevelopment of Inner City Areas <ul><li>Urban Recreation Planning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Until recently, most urban parks were considered uneconomical use of the land </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 35. Smart Growth <ul><li>Smart Growth – growth without sprawl </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Growth Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix land uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take advantage of compact designs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create walkable neighborhoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foster distinctive, attractive neighborhoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserve open space and critical areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthen development of existing areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide variety of transportation choices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use native plants for landscaping </li></ul></ul>
  34. 36. Federal Government Land-Use Issues Recreation - Conflicts develop because some activities cannot occur in the same place at the same time Both groups argue they pay taxes, thus “own” the land and have a right to use it. Snowmobiles in Yellowstone
  35. 37. <ul><li>Historically, where was a good place to build a city? What are two factors that prompted the rural to urban population shift? </li></ul><ul><li>What land and personal factors lead to abandoning the central city for the suburbs? </li></ul><ul><li>What is urban sprawl and what are 3 reasons for it? </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to recognize the 9 problems with unplanned growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Why is land-use planning often difficult to implement? </li></ul><ul><li>What is smart growth? How can it be achieved? </li></ul>Points to Know