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Cybernetic Serendipity, reloaded

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2015.10.25 NATC International Symposium at the Tokyo Univ. of Art Campus (Yokohama, Basha Michi).
With Jasia Reichardt, curator of the 1968 ICA exhibition "Cybernetic Serendipity".

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Cybernetic Serendipity, reloaded

  1. 1. Cybernetic Serendipity, reloaded 2015.10.25 NACT International Symposium Dominique Chen (Dividual Inc. / NPO Commonsphere)
  2. 2. Agenda / 議題 1) to layout an overview of the history of Cybernetics
 サイバネティクスの歴史の概観を提示 2) to image the future (and desirable) state of Cybernetic Serendipity
 未来の(望ましい)サイバネティック・セレンディピティを イメージする
  3. 3. Mechanical Computation Algorithm Internet Smart phones Media Communication Governance Cybernetics
  4. 4. kybernetes
  5. 5. cyber - org(anism) punk sex space war
  6. 6. Cybernetic Serendipity realized by the Internet and penetrated in the Society
  7. 7. Cybernetics is acting as a feedback system for Humanity サイバネティクスは人類に対するフィードバッ クシステムとして作動している
  8. 8. reviewing the subject: Cybernetics 解題:サイバネティクス • computational control of systems related to human being
 人間に関係するシステムの計算機的制御 • “How can man and machine can coexist?”
 人間と機械はどのように共存できるのか? heteronomous system (von Neumann) autonomous system (Wiener) principle matching (identical) fitting (coherence) mode of organization input/output
 mapping function operational closure,
 behavior specific to the system mode of interaction world defined by instruction and representation emergence of meaning F. Varela : “Autonomie et Connaissance – Essai sur le Vivant” (Eds. du Seuil, Paris, 1988), P222
  9. 9. New and Old Problem
  10. 10. ‫الهند‬ ‫بحساب‬ ‫والتفريق‬ ‫الجمع‬ ‫
كتاب‬ Algoritmi de numero Indorum (825)
  11. 11. Alan Turing John von Neumann Norbert Wiener
  12. 12. “It is the purpose of Cybernetics to develop a language and techniques that will enable us indeed to attack the problem of control and communication in general, but also to find the proper repertory of ideas and techniques to classify their particular manifestations under certain concepts. “ Norbert Wiener
 Human Use of Human Being (1950) p17
  13. 13. milestones of Cybernetics discussions
 サイバネティクスの標石 • N.Wiener and the Macy Conference: 
 Von Neumann, Wiever, Shannon • Heinz von Foerster : Observing Systems (Observing Observation) • Maturana=Varela : Autopoiesis theory (Life systems) • Ernst von Glasersfeld: Radical Constructivism • N. Luhmann : Social System Sociology • E. Thompson : Enactivism theory • all deal with the problem of evolving system of communication
 すべてコミュニケーション・システムの進化と関係する
  14. 14. • TECHNIUM by Kevin Kelly
 
 modern cybernetic comprehension of technology
 現代におけるサイバネティックな技術論
  15. 15. reviewing the subject: Serendipity 解題:セレンディピティ • Happy Accidents / Chance Discoveries
 幸せな邂逅 / 機会の発見 • Nowadays Happy C.S. includes: • Greater accessibility to knowledge base via Search Engines, Wikipedia, Open Educational Resources, Q&A • Greater matching of social and personal opportunities: Social Networking Services, Crowdfunding, Crowdsourcing, Market place, Open Source Software / Content
  16. 16. reviewing the subject: Serendipity 解題:セレンディピティ • some momenta of UnHappy Accidents
 不幸せな邂逅のいくつかの事例 • Facebook+Twitter : Arab Spring ~ DAESH (IS) • E. Snowden case : PRISM (NSA / Five Eyes) • Flash Crash of 2.45 (2010) : High Frequency Trading Algorithms of Wall Street 高頻度取引アルゴリズム • Ad Tech’s influence on users minds (e.g. Facebook experiment) 広告技 術がユーザーの意識に及ぼす影響(Facebook実験など) • Accidental Bombing by Assault Drones 爆撃ドローンによる誤爆 
  17. 17. “At present nothing prevents our thinking of this. We may dream of the time when the machine à gouverner may come to supply - whether for good or evil - the present obvious inadequacy of the brain when the latter is concerned with the customary machinery of politics. ” Père Dubarle, 
 cited in : Norbert Wiener
 Human Use of Human Being (1950) p180
  18. 18. “Its real danger, however, is the quite different one that such machines, though helpless by themselves, may be used by a human being or a block of human beings to increase their control over the rest of the human race or that political leaders may attempt to control their populations by means not of machines themselves but through political techniques as narrow and indifferent to human possibility as if they had, in fact, been conceived mechanically.” Norbert Wiener
 Human Use of Human Being (1950) p181
  19. 19. “The great weakness of the machine - the weakness that saves us so far from being dominated by it - is that it cannot yet take into account the vast range of probability that characterizes the human situation.” Norbert Wiener
 Human Use of Human Being (1950) p181
  20. 20. “The same methods that today just manipulate what we want to buy could tomorrow be used to control which news outlets we follow, whose opinions we trust, and even which politicians we vote for. ” Murray Shanahan 
 The Technological Singularity (2015)
  21. 21. Cybernetic Serendipity? Cybernetic Complexity? Cybernetic Uncertainty? Cybernetic Chaos?
  22. 22. Media information technologies have changed the human perception of reality メディア技術は人間の現実の知覚を
 変容してきた
  23. 23. What is the state of expression in the information society? 情報社会における表現の状況とは?
  24. 24. “Nous ne manquons pas de communication, au contraire nous en avons trop, nous manquons de création. Nous manquons de résistance au présent. La création de concepts fait appel en elle- même à une forme future, elle appelle une nouvelle terre et un peuple qui n’existe pas.” G. Deleuze, F.Guattari
 「Qu’est-ce que la Philosophie」(1996)
  25. 25. [Leonardo Magazine, 2001]
  26. 26. • The media reception of Cybernetic Serendipity was on the whole extremely favorable. In a review symptomatic of much press coverage, the Evening Standard enthused: "Where in London could you take a hippy, a computer programmer, a ten- year-old schoolboy and guarantee that each would be perfectly happy for an hour without you having to lift a finger to entertain them?" [7] The Guardian agreed that it "lured into Nash House people who would never have dreamed of attending an ICA exhibition before" [8]. Cybernetic Serendipity promised fun for the whole family, not just an elite of art connoisseurs. “Children, scientists and the simply curious could spend fascinated hours in this world of computer art" [9]. The press celebrated the exhibition as an event that "guaranteed to fascinate anyone from toddling age to the grave" [10]. Even the writer in The Lady felt compelled to urge that "one must go to the present exhibition at the INSTITUTE OF CONTEMPORARY ARTS ... not to understand in the least what is going on but to experience that particular tingle which is inherent in an act of threshold-crossing” [11]. Art critic Jonathan Benthall declared that Cybernetic Serendipity would be remembered as a "landmark," not least due to its "breeziness and catholicity” [12]. Others agreed: "For breaking new ground, revealing new fields of experiment, seminal importance, sheer hard work and enormous organization, the exhibition Cybernetic Serendipity… is arguably the most important exhibition in the world at the moment” [13]. According to Brent McGregor, “the status of the event was such that Umberto Eco came from Italy to view its wonders” [14]
  27. 27. • (…) to make chance discoveries in the course of using cybernetic devices, or, as the Daily Mirror put it at the time, to use computers “to find unexpected joys in life and art”.
  28. 28. transformation of expression / 表現行為の変容 • Evolution of authorship 
 作者性の変化 • massively online multiple authorship & 
 derivative creation
 作者の集団化と派生創作 • => OpenSourceSoftware, Wiki, Git/GitHub, CC, SNS • computational creation using big data
 ビッグデータを利用した計算機による創作
  29. 29. https://stateof.creativecommons.org/
  30. 30. Git http://git-scm.com/
  31. 31. 分散バージョン管理 Distributed version control diagram
  32. 32. Data is the medium, and History is recorded by, and within the network
  33. 33. œuvre X œuvre D œuvre K œuvre L œuvre M œuvre J œuvre N œuvre Q œuvre P œuvre A œuvre H œuvre I œuvre E œuvre F œuvre G œuvre B œuvre C “coopération entre les cerveaux” “脳の協働” (Gabriel Tarde)
  34. 34. Présent 現在 consommation 消費 Auteurs 作者 Lecteurs 読者
  35. 35. Auteurs 作者 Lecteurs 読者 Future 未来 coopération 協働
  36. 36. Auteurs 作者 Lecteurs=Editeurs 読者=編集者 Future 未来 coopération 協働
  37. 37. Lecteurs=Editeurs 読者=編集者 Lecteurs=Editeurs 読者=編集者 Future 未来 coopération 協働
  38. 38. Créateurs クリエイター Créateurs クリエイター Future 未来 coopération 協働
  39. 39. Créateurs クリエイター Créateurs クリエイター Future 未来 conversation 会話
  40. 40. Man=Machine System
  41. 41. “Bio is the New Digital” Nicholas Negroponte
 cited in: Joi Ito (ed) (2015) 
 Before/After Internet: Human Evolution on the Net
  42. 42. “A being that never had to face these biological inconveniences, whether it was a technologically enhanced human or an AI, would lack the basis for truly understanding human suffering. ” Murray Shanahan 
 The Technological Singularity (2015)
  43. 43. “Is there a compromise position between conservative anthropocentrism and posthuman fundamentalism? ” Murray Shanahan 
 The Technological Singularity (2015)
  44. 44. Cybernetics is a tool to actively observe and construct human essences
 
 サイバネティクスは能動的に人間の本質を観察し、 かつ構築する方法
  45. 45. Perspective for a Happier Cybernetic Serendipity
 より幸福なサイバネティック・セレンディピティへの展望 • Cybernetics as Philosophy of the Information Era
 情報時代の哲学としてのサイバネティクス • Digital Literacy : how to increase our autopoietic aspect (i.e. creativity) of each psychic system (read: “human”)
 デジタル・リテラシー:個別の心的システム(人間)の自己創出性(創造 性)をどう増幅するか • create means of Creative Communication, not mechanical communication
 機械的なコミュニケーションではなく、創造的なコミュニケーションの方法 を作ること
  46. 46. Fear leads to obscurantism , precaution does not. And enthusiasm leads to creation.
  47. 47. Happy Cybernetic Serendipity!
  48. 48. Before/After Internet: Human Evolution on the Net
 ネットで進化する人類:ビフォア/アフター・インターネット(KADOKAWA)
 Joi Ito, Kevin Slavin, Dominique Chen, Sputniko!, Hiroya Tanaka, Naotaka Fujii (2015) 10/28(水) 刊行予定
  49. 49. The Technological Singularity
 シンギュラリティ
 Murray Shanahan (MIT Press, 2015) 2016年1月
 邦訳版刊行予定
  50. 50. Cybernetic Serendipity, reloaded 2015.10.25 NACT International Symposium Dominique Chen (Dividual Inc. / NPO Commonsphere)

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