Soc. 101 rw ch. 7


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Soc. 101 rw ch. 7

  1. 1. Chapter 7
  2. 2. Outline What is deviance? Deviance across Cultures Theories Stigma and Deviant Identity Crime and Punishment Demographics Deterrence and Punishment
  3. 3. Deviance Deviance-behavior, trait, belief, or other characteristic that violates a norm and causes a negative reaction in a particular group  Must be serious enough to get a negative reaction (salad fork at dinner or eating w/ hands?)  Definitions of deviance are constructed from cultural, historical, and situational norms
  4. 4. Deviance Across Cultures In sociological study, the term “deviance” is used to make a social judgment, not a moral one Modern America-most crime is punished with imprisonment, but that requires funds-rare until 19th century Amish-meidung-shunning those who violate norms- temporary Many cultures have practiced banishment-Russia, Native Americans, British prisoners, etc… Colonial America-Branding-not only painful, but marked offender
  5. 5. Body Modification Although branding is no longer a method of punishment in U.S., it’s now coming back as body decoration  Michael Jordan and Emmitt Smith  Extension of tattoos Body modification practiced by many if not most Americans on some level  Ex.: Corsets, Botox, haircuts, shaving legs, plastic surgery, etc…
  6. 6. Which can we say is deviant?
  7. 7. Theories of Deviance Functionalism What’s the function of deviance? Durkheim-  1. Deviance can help society clarify its moral boundaries  2. Provide social cohesion Conflict Theory Inequalities are present in our definitions of deviance Rules are applied unequally and punishments for rule violators are unequally distributed Strain theories
  8. 8. Theories of Deviance Structural Strain Theory-(Merton) argument that in an unequal society, the tension or strain between socially approved goals and an individual’s ability to meet those goals through socially approved means will lead to deviance as individuals reject either the goals, the means, or both Goals/means
  9. 9. Theories of Deviance Structural Strain Theory-modes of adaptation Conformity-those that obey; aren’t deviant Innovators-accept society’s approved goals, but not means Ritualists- have given up hope of achieving society’s approved goals, but still operate according to approved means Retreatists-(ex. dropouts or hermits)-reject both society’s approved goals and the means by which to achieve them Rebels-reject society’s approved goals and means and instead create and work toward their own (sometimes revolutionary) goals using new means
  10. 10. Symbolic Interactionism Interactionists focus on definitions of deviance Differential Association-Edwin Sutherland- hypothesis that we learn to be deviant through our associations and interactions with deviant peers  We learn from others Labeling Theory-Howard Becker-idea that deviance is a consequence of external judgments (labels) which both modify the individual’s self-concept and change the way others respond to the labeled person  Deviant labels can exert powerful effects on self-image, treatment by others, and social policies
  11. 11. Labeling Theory Primary deviation-the act or attitude that causes one to be labeled What are the consequences of labeling? Secondary deviation-the deviant identity or career that develops as a result of a being labeled deviant Tertiary deviation-the rejection of the stigma of a deviant identity Self-fulfilling prophecy-(Merton) an inaccurate statement or belief which, by altering the situation, becomes accurate, a prediction that causes it to become true
  12. 12. Stigma and Deviant Identity Stigma-(Goffman)any physical or social attribute that devalues a person or group’s identity-may exclude those who are devalued from normal social interaction  Greek “tattoo”-something shameful about the bearer  Physical, tribal and moral stigmas Passing-concealing stigmatizing information  Denying/hiding the identity that will be stigmatized In-group orientation-orientation away from mainstream society
  13. 13. Crime Crime-violation of a norm that has been codified into law (you could be arrested and imprisoned for breaking it the law) Uniform Crime Report-(UCR) official measure of crime in the U.S.; FBI’s tabulation of every crime  Murder, rape, aggravated assault, robbery, burglary, larceny theft, motor vehicle theft, arson  Track patterns Violent crime-violence is either the objective or means to an end (murder, rape, aggravated assault, robbery)
  14. 14. Crime Violent crime-violence is either the objective or means to an end (murder, rape, aggravated assault, robbery)  Dramatic 44% drop in homicide rates between 1991 and 2000 Property crime-crime that did not involve violence (burglary, larceny theft, motor vehicle theft and arson)  Occur more frequently than violent crime  Larceny theft most common crime  Burglary and motor vehicle theft trail far behind
  15. 15. Crime and Demographics Even numerical data can be clouded by preconceived notions of criminal types and stereotypes Class-police concentrate on urban areas White-collar crime-crime committed by a high- status individual in the course of her or his occupation  Ex. Fraud, embezzlement, insider trading… Age-the younger the population, the more likely its members are to commit crimes (steady since 1935)  Desistance-tendency to age out of crime over the life course
  16. 16. Crime and Demographics Gender-males more likely to commit crime  Males account for 80% of all violent crime arrests  Messerschmidt-women’s lower crime rate explained by their lower status in the power hierarchy  1992-2002-women’s arrest rates rose by 18%-men’s declined by 4% Race-African-Americans 12% of population/37% of violent crime and 31% of property crime  Class variables and self-fulfilling prophecy (labels)
  17. 17. Deterrence and punishment Deterrence-approach to punishment that relies on the threat of harsh penalties to discourage people from committing crimes  California’s “three strikes” law Retribution-emphasizes retaliation or revenge  Capital punishment-the death penalty Incapacitation-seeks to protect society from criminals by imprisoning them or executing them Rehabilitation-attempts to reform criminals as part of their penalty
  18. 18. Positive Deviance Deviance is a judgment of a cultural place and time, and acts that are judged to be deviant at one time may later be seen as normal or even celebrated as heroic  Rosa Parks  Three soldiers who airlifted survivors of the My Lai massacre in Vietnam (pg. 189)  Hugh Thompson, Lawrence Colburn, and Glenn Andreota