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Politics, Education, and Religion                       Chapter 11
Outline Politics and Government Pluralism and the Power Elite Perspective Other sources of Money in Politics Education...
Politics Politics-methods and tactics intended to influence government policy; attitudes and activities related   Origin...
Politics Authoritarianism-system of government by and for a  small number of elites that doesn’t include representation  ...
American Political System Voter turnout varies over time, but the U.S. has comparatively low voter turnout rates…why?   ...
Who Rules America?          Pluralism-system of political           power in which many           individuals and groups ...
Who Rules America? Special interest groups-organizations that raise and spend money to influence elected officials and/or...
Who Rules America? 527 Committees-organizations used by supporters of  candidates and special interests to avoid campaign...
Education Education-process by which a society transmits knowledge, values, and expectations to its members so they can f...
Education and Inequality Tracking-placement of students in educational programs of study (ex. college prep or remedial) t...
Studies of Education Symbolic Interactionist-Pygmalion in the Classroom:  teacher Expectation and Pupils’ Intellectual  D...
Present and Future of Education Charter schools-public schools run by private entities to give parents greater control ov...
Present and Future of Education School vouchers-payments from the government to parents whose kids attend failing public ...
Religion Religion-any institutionalized system of shared beliefs and rituals that identify a relationship between the sac...
Functions/Dysfunctions of Religion 1. Shapes behavior by providing morals, values, norms    10 Commandments, fasting, co...
Religion in America Religiosity-regular practice of religious beliefs,  measured in terms of frequency of attendance at  ...
Religious Affiliation Trends Fundamentalism-the practice of emphasizing literal interpretation of texts and a “return” to...
Are we Secular? Secular-nonreligious; separating church and state and  not endorsing any religion Government and busines...
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Soc. 101 real world ch. 11

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Soc. 101 real world ch. 11

  1. 1. Politics, Education, and Religion Chapter 11
  2. 2. Outline Politics and Government Pluralism and the Power Elite Perspective Other sources of Money in Politics Education and its functions Studies of education Trends in education Religion and its functions Trends in religion Secular?
  3. 3. Politics Politics-methods and tactics intended to influence government policy; attitudes and activities related  Originated in ancient Greece Government-formal, organized agency that exercises power and control in modern society through the creation and enforcement of laws  Power-ability to impose one’s will on others  Authority-legitimate, non-coercive exercise of power
  4. 4. Politics Authoritarianism-system of government by and for a small number of elites that doesn’t include representation of regular citizens  Dictatorship or totalitarian rule (control every aspect) Monarchy-government by a king or queen, with succession of rulers kept within the family  Absolute-complete authority over subjects  Constitutional-powers limited by parliament or other governing body Democracy-political system in which all citizens have the right to participate  Majority rule, civil liberties, human rights, equality
  5. 5. American Political System Voter turnout varies over time, but the U.S. has comparatively low voter turnout rates…why?  Top answer: too busy  Some voters don’t vote because they are disenfranchised Disenfranchised-stripped of voting rights temporarily or permanently  Felons  Regular citizens-Florida 2000  Solutions-increase access to disabled, make absentee voting easier, keeping the polls open longer
  6. 6. Who Rules America?  Pluralism-system of political power in which many individuals and groups have equal access to resources and the mechanisms of power  Power elite-(C. Wright Mills) relatively small number of people who control the economic, political, and military institutions of a society  Know each other  .0026% of population-tend to be white, upper-class males  “Bohemian Grove”
  7. 7. Who Rules America? Special interest groups-organizations that raise and spend money to influence elected officials and/or public opinion  Corporate organizations, lobbies, PACs, 527s  Money wins elections: 95% of House races went to candidate who spent most on race Political Action Committees (PACs)-raises money to support the interests of a select group  Over 4,000 PACs  Primary source of campaign contributions
  8. 8. Who Rules America? 527 Committees-organizations used by supporters of candidates and special interests to avoid campaign finance laws  there are no limits on contributions donors can make to 527s  $550 million spent in the 2004 election The role of the media in politics increased with the inventions of the TV in 1948 and the internet Candidates must spend money on the media: gain coverage on an issue or buy advertisements “Sound bytes” Opinion leaders-high-profile people whose interpretation of events influences the public  Oprah Winfrey
  9. 9. Education Education-process by which a society transmits knowledge, values, and expectations to its members so they can function  Formal education began in ancient Greece  Modern mass education traced back to Enlightenment  Current public high school graduation rate about 70%  Georgia: 54%  Iowa: 93%  Functions of education include transmission of knowledge, obedience to rules, and respect for authority
  10. 10. Education and Inequality Tracking-placement of students in educational programs of study (ex. college prep or remedial) that determine the types of classes students take  Happens early in educational career Education benefits everyone, but not everyone equally-inequality in education mirrors inequality in society Hidden curriculum-values or behaviors students learn indirectly over the course of their schooling  “Rules, routines, regulations”  Can create a submissive and obedient workforce
  11. 11. Studies of Education Symbolic Interactionist-Pygmalion in the Classroom: teacher Expectation and Pupils’ Intellectual Development-conclusion-teachers’ attitudes about students unintentionally influenced their academic performance Conflict-Savage Inequalities-Kozol-because schools are funded by property taxes, kids in poor neighborhoods are trapped in poor schools, which reinforces inequality Functionalist-The Credential Society-Collins- educational inequality is preparation for occupational inequality later in life
  12. 12. Present and Future of Education Charter schools-public schools run by private entities to give parents greater control over their kids’ education  More flexible than public schools-free from district governance  Students have comparable or slightly lower test scores than conventional schools Homeschooling-education of children by their parents at home  academic achievement above that of public school students-can be customized to needs
  13. 13. Present and Future of Education School vouchers-payments from the government to parents whose kids attend failing public schools  Pay 75-90% of tuition generally  Take funds away from public schools to be used at private schools  May blur line between church and state Distance learning-any educational course or program in which the teacher and the students do not meet together in the classroom; increasingly available over the internet
  14. 14. Religion Religion-any institutionalized system of shared beliefs and rituals that identify a relationship between the sacred and the profane  Belief-a proposition or idea held on the basis of faith  Ritual-a practice based on religious beliefs  Sacred-the holy, divine, or supernatural  Profane-the ordinary, mundane, or everyday
  15. 15. Functions/Dysfunctions of Religion 1. Shapes behavior by providing morals, values, norms  10 Commandments, fasting, confessing sins, etc… 2.Gives meaning to our lives  Each religion answers the fundamental questions (Ex. What is the meaning of life) according to a larger plan 3. Provides the opportunity to come together with others Religions can also be divisive-sexist, anti-homosexual, etc… Can also be agents for social justice:  Liberation theology-movement within the Catholic church to understand Christianity from the perspective of the poor and oppressed, with a focus on fighting injustice
  16. 16. Religion in America Religiosity-regular practice of religious beliefs, measured in terms of frequency of attendance at worship services and the importance of religious beliefs to an individual  Extrinsic religiosity-public display of commitment  Church attendance  Intrinsic religiousity-personal relationship to divine  More religiosity among women, older Americans, in the South
  17. 17. Religious Affiliation Trends Fundamentalism-the practice of emphasizing literal interpretation of texts and a “return” to a time of greater religious purity  Provides a return to tradition  1990-2001-those identifying as fundamentalist tripled Evangelical-term describing conservative Christians who emphasize converting others to their faith  1990-2001-those identifying as evangelicals quadrupled Unchurched spirituality-spiritual but not religious  May adopt different aspects of different religions  Expressed individually-not through organized group
  18. 18. Are we Secular? Secular-nonreligious; separating church and state and not endorsing any religion Government and business form holiday schedules around Christian holidays-even though 15% of Americans don’t observe them Every president has been Christian Every president since Eisenhower has been advised by Reverend Billy Graham

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