DIFFERENT TYPESPhenomenologyEthnographyGrounded theoryCase studyBiography
PHENOMENOLOGY The descriptive study of how individuals experience a phenomenon.Foundational question:What is the meaning, structure, and essence of the livedexperience of this phenomenon by an individual or by manyindividuals?
RESEARCHER:Gain access to: Individual´s life worlds. Experiences Conducts Depth Interviews.Searches: Invariant structures. (Essence of experience) Commonalities across individuals.Should write a report: Provides rich description. “Vicarious experience“.
ETHNOGRAPHY RESEARCH The discovery and description of the culture of a group of people. Foundational question: What are the cultural characteristics of this group of people?
Originates:Discipline of Anthropology. (Culturecentred)Culture:System of sharedbeliefs, values, practices, language, norms, rituals, andmaterial things that group members use to understand theirworld.Micro cultures and Macro cultures.
TYPESETHNOLOGY:The comparative study of culturalgroups.ETHNOHISTORY:The study of the cultural past of agroup of people.
OTHER TERMS: Ethnocentrism (i.e., judging others based on your cultural standards). Emic perspective (i.e., the insiders perspective) Emic terms (i.e., specialized words used by people in a group). Etic perspective (i.e., the external, social scientific view). Etic terms (i.e., outsiders words or specialised words used by social scientists). Going native (i.e., identifying so completely with the group being studied that you are unable to be objective). Holism (i.e., describing the group as a whole unit, in addition to its parts and their interrelationships).Report provides:Rich Holistic description of the culture under study.
CASE STUDY The detailed account and analysis of one or more cases. Foundational question: What are the characteristics of this single case or of these comparison cases? A case is a bounded system (e.g., a person, a group, an activity, a process).
CLASIFICATION(According to Robert Stake) Intrinsic case study (where the interest is only in understanding the particulars of the case). Instrumental case study (where the interest is in understanding something more general than the case). Collective case study (where interest is in studying and comparing multiple cases in a single research study).
Methods of Data Collection Interviews. Observation. Documents. Questionnaires.Report provides:a rich (i.e., vivid and detailed)and holistic (i.e., describes thewhole and its parts) descriptionof the case and its context.
GROUNDED THEORY The fourth major approach to qualitative research. the development of inductive, "bottom-up," theory that is "grounded" directly in the empirical data Foundational question: What theory or explanation emerges from an analysis of the data collected about this phenomenon?
CARACTHERISTICS Fit (i.e., Does the theory correspond to real-world data?), Understanding (i.e., Is the theory clear and understandable?), Generality (i.e., Is the theory abstract enough to move beyond the specifics in the original research study?), Control (i.e., Can the theory be applied to produce real- world results?).
The grounded theory process is "complete" whentheoretical saturation occurs (i.e., when no newconcepts are emerging from the data and the theoryis well validated).Report provides:Detailed and clear description of the grounded theory.
BIOGRAPHYA study of a single individual and his or her experiences as told to the researcher or as found in the documentsand archival materials (Denzin, 1989). Broadly includebiographies, autobiographies, life histories, and oralhistories. The researcher investigates the life of oneindividual, often collecting data primarily throughinterviews and documents of many types(e.g., diaries, family histories