Types of research and theoretical perspective of researchZuleima YañezYessica Serna
According to Kerlinger (1986), research can be conducted as exploratory, explanatory or descriptive.
Exploratory research is about putting one’s self deliberately in a place- again and again- where discovery is possible and broad, usually (but not always) nonspecialized interest can be pursued’’ Stebbins (2001)Exploratory research
Explanatory research has the aim of finding relationships among variables from theory based expectations whereas descriptive research aims to describe a situation or context. Malhotra & Grover (1998).Explanatory research
- According to Best and Kahn (2006), descriptive research is to find general attributes in the present condition.Itprovides systematic information about social phenomenaobserving and describing.Descriptive research
Theoretical perspective “The philosophical stance informing the methodology and thus providing a context for the process and grounding its logic and criteria methods and linking the choice and use of methods to the desired outcomes” (Crotty, 1998).
Although they are related, they are not the same.Each one is the base for the next one- Epistemology: theory of knowledge- Theoretical perspective: philosophical position- Methodology: strategies for conducting a research
Some types of theoretical perspectives- Positivism- Interpretivism- Critical inquiry
- The only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge.- Researcher should be objective.- Quantitative data- Aim: offers explanations using scientific sciences. Objectivism (epistemology) Positivism (theoretical perspective) Survey research (methodology) Statistical analysis (method) (taken from Crotty, 1998)Positivism
Interpretivism- The methods of natural science are seen as inappropriate for study of people’s behavior.- The focus of interpretivism is not numbers; it is words.- Qualitative dataConstructionismInterpretivismEtnographyParticipantObservation (Crotty,1998)
Critical Inquiry- Related to interpretivism- This takes a critical look at society and tries to identify inequities and ways to remedy them.- Promotes democracy making differences in different contexts- The goal of critical inquiry is emancipation of the oppression.
Crotty, M. (1998). The Foundations of Social Research: Meaning and Perspective in the Research Process. London: SAGE Publications Ltd. Kerlinger, E. (1986). Foundations of behavioral research (3rd 4.). New York: Holt, Rinehart &Winston Malhotra, M. & Grover, V. (1998). An Assessment of Survey Research in POM:from constructs to theory. Journal of Operations Management, vol. 16: 17, pp. 407-425 Crotty, M., (1998), The Foundations of Social Research: Meaning and Perspective in the Research Process, Allen and Unwin Best, J. W., & Kahn, J. V. (2006). Research in education. (10th ed.). Boston: Allyn Bacon Blaxter. L.., Hughes. C, and Tight. M (2001) How to research. 3 ed. Buckingham: Open University Press.