Borrowings loan• The borrowing of words • The loan of expression and idioms• EX: • EX:
INTERFERENCE LEVELS The effect can be on any aspect of language
LANGUGAGE TRANSFER• Newmark and Reibel (1968) adult learner does not substitute what he knows in the NL for the TL; instead: to fill in his gaps, he refers for help to what he already knows• What these authors qualify as "ignorance“ (hypothesis)• propose more and better training.
TRANSFER AS A CONSTRAINT• In the d/ment of Lg, leading them to non-target-like productions• broadly speaking, l/s make hypotheses which are constrained by the use of L1 influence• This hypothesis testing process. (Schachter, 1983). lt is both:• Facilitating• limiting conditions
TRANSFER AS A PROCESS• Wode (1986) transfer as a cognitive process issue• The notion of "interlingual identification“• L/s have a common psycholinguistic reference frame to perceive similarities between Lgit can lead to a learning process(Kohn, 1986).• (creative transformation)• (meaningful output) or a production process
NEGATIVE TRANSFERwhen speakers and writers transfer items that are not the same in both languages. EX: False cognates. Mr. Well WEL-COME PEOPLE
POSITIVE• When learning from situation assists leaning in a another• unit or structure of both languages is the same, linguistic interference can result in correct language production. EX: True cognates.
Posititve tranfers• When learning from situation assists leaning in a another (+) – Recognizes common features – Consciously links info – Sees the value of using previously learned items (Schunk, 19996 b)
Effective ways to promote positive transfer Provide Teach subject opportunitiesmatter in contexts. for distributed Teach subject practice matter in meaningful. Provideopportunities to Promote positive practice , attitudes toward subject matter applications Employ informed instruction: concept or strategy. (Paris et al., 1982). The scaffolding strategies
MECHANISM CONSCIOUS UNCONSCIOUS Learners or Learners may notunskilled translators realize that themay sometimes structures andguess when internal rules of theproducing speech or languages intext in a second question arelanguage. different.
MULTIPLE ACQUIRED LANGUAGETransfer can also occur between acquired languages, when people are learning two anguages simultaneously theymay assume that a structure orinternal rule from one languageis the same in the otherlanguage.
Theory of Contrastive Analysis ..” Gass & Selinker, p72• the systematic study of a pair of languages with a view to identifying their structural differences and similarities the greater the differences between the two languages………• the more negative transfer can be expected.
Practice• Find out what the differences are between pairs of languages• On the basis of 1, you can predict areas in which L2 learners will have difficulties and those where they won’t
Theory Interference Theory INTF Proactive• This refers to the idea that • the prior existence of old forgetting occurs because memories makes it harder the recall of certain items to recall newer memories interferes with the recall of and dubbed this effect other items. • relates to a negative effect of prior interference on the recall of a second task