Researcher and teachers begun to undesrtand that L2 learning is: Creative process / constructive system/ conscoiusly testing hypothesis / make sense of the TLgThru sources of knowledge (to provide order to ss Lg system) Communicative Target Lg Native Lg Functions Lg in Life/ general universe people
CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS ERROR ANALYSIS compares languages to A procedure for analyzing SLg determine potential errors data which begins with the and identify what needs to errors that learners make and be learned and what does attempts to explain them. not.A priori or strong view: will Sought to predict and sees predict learning outcomes error primarily as a result ofA posterior or weak view : L1interference will help explain learning outcomes, especially errors. 1950s, Robert Lado, Selinker and Gass (1980s)
EA Corder (1981) suggested to deal with errorsThe best way to investigating L2 is by collecting evidence of learners LgReasons for focusing on errors:1. They are notorious features2. Use for teachers to what errors learners make3. Learners can learn/ discover from errors (self correction)
Errors are learners attempt to come closer to the target languageCorder= four (4) stages of error
Productive errors are Receptive or those which occur in interpretive errors are the language learners those which result in utterances. the listeners misunderstanding of the speakers intentions.
Certain forms which are acceptable in some situations are not acceptable in others. For example, young women in their late teens and beyond do not like to be referred to as girls , in English, preferring the term women instead. pragmatic errors.
I like take taxi but my Since the harvest was friend said so not that good, was rain a lot we should be late for last year. school. The harvest was good If I heard from him I last year, because will let you know. plenty of rain.
An error can vary in magnitude It can cover a phoneme, a morpheme, a word, a phrase, a sentence, or even a paragraph GLOBAL ERROR LOCAL ERROR is one which involves "the is one which affects "a overall structure of a particular element." sentence" Richards, et al. (1985:123)
omission of some required element addition of some unnecessary or incorrect element selection of an incorrect element misordering of elements.
OMISSION ADDITION Elements pronunciation A part of speech * I thinks and * The books is here *A strange thing happen to instead of I think and The me yesterday book is here ,
Selection Ordering pronunciation Pronunciation fignisicant instead of Morphology significant Syntax (Morphological) Vocabulary Hes get upping now word order She is oldest than me Hes a dear to me friend,
T/ers should correct mistakes the second the are made. Ss always prefer to be correction instantly . Every activity has a time for correction (fluency and accuracy) Which is better Self-/ peer/ teachers correction When to correct , How to correct and who to correct.
Missing word Wrong word WW Omit Grammar gr Word order WO Interference I Spelling S Punctuation P Tense T Coherence coh
How is feedback provided 1. Orally 2. Written Types of feedback Affective (kinesthetic) and Cognitive (linguistic)1.Positive= I Like it /I understand2.Negative= I don’t like it / msn not clear (try again)3.Neutral= Waiting/ still processing (try again)