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Error analysis


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Error analysis

  1. 1. Dolly Ramos G
  2. 2. <ul><li>In the 1950s, American linguist Robert Lado began to study errors systematically and developed theories about errors— contrastive analysis . </li></ul><ul><li>Why focus on what is wrong rather than what is right. </li></ul><ul><li>(Corder 1981)Three reasons for L/ers Errors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More evident/ how much ss have learnt(STAGE d/v) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful for teachers & researcher learners can learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners discover errors (strategies) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Mistake : Random performance slip caused by fatigue, excitement, etc. Readily self-corrected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Error : Systematic deviation by learners who have not yet mastered the rules. More difficult to correct. Indication of learner’s attempt to figure out the L2 system </li></ul></ul>Second Language Acquisition
  4. 4. <ul><li>Interlingual – based on cross-linguistic comparisons (early stages) Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Intralingual – based on language being learned (more advance stages) overgeneralization </li></ul><ul><li>Sociolinguistic/ pragmatic </li></ul><ul><li>Context of Learning: </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher/classroom/ material </li></ul><ul><li>(induced errors, false concepts, misleading explanation) </li></ul><ul><li>Untutored (sociolinguistic) </li></ul>Put a attention!! I Buyed a good book yesterday
  5. 5. <ul><li>Productive errors are those which occur in the language learner's utterances. </li></ul><ul><li>Receptive or interpretive errors are those which result in the listener's misunderstanding of the speaker's intentions. </li></ul>Errors are made by: Children = transitional errors L2 learners= unwanted error Native Adults= Slips
  6. 6. <ul><li>Certain forms which are acceptable in some situations are not acceptable in others. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, young women in their late teens and beyond do not like to be referred to as girls , in English, preferring the term women instead. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> pragmatic errors. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>A priori or strong view: comparison between languages will predict learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>A posterior or weak view: comparison between languages will help explain learning outcomes, especially errors. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>A procedure for analysing second language data which begins with the errors that learners make and attempts to explain them. It uses the target language as the point of comparison. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Errors are learners attempt to come closer to the target language </li></ul><ul><li>Corder= four (4) stages of error </li></ul><ul><li>Ramdom = vaguely aware of the lg system </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent = start recognizing (backsliding) </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic = lg is approximate to Tlg(self correct) </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilization = less erros. Mastered the Tlg </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li> GLOBAL ERROR </li></ul><ul><li>LOCAL ERROR </li></ul><ul><li>is one which involves &quot;the overall structure of a sentence&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>is one which affects &quot;a particular element.&quot; Richards, et al. (1985:123) </li></ul>An error can vary in magnitude It can cover a phoneme, a morpheme, a word, a phrase, a sentence, or even a paragraph
  11. 12. <ul><li>I like take taxi but my friend said so not that we should be late for school. </li></ul><ul><li>If I heard from him I will let you know. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the harvest was good, was rain a lot last year. </li></ul><ul><li>The harvest was good last year, because plenty of rain. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>  omission of some required element </li></ul><ul><li>addition of some unnecessary or incorrect element </li></ul><ul><li>selection of an incorrect element </li></ul><ul><li>misordering of elements. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>OMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>ADDITION </li></ul><ul><li>pronunciation </li></ul><ul><li>A part of speech </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>*A strange thing happen to me yesterday </li></ul><ul><li>Elements </li></ul><ul><li>* I thinks and * The books is here </li></ul><ul><li>instead of I think and The book is here , </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ordering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation </li></ul><ul><li>Morphology </li></ul><ul><li>Syntax </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>She is oldest than me </li></ul><ul><li>pronunciation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fignisicant instead of significant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Morphological) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He's get upping now </li></ul></ul><ul><li>word order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He's a dear to me friend , </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Correcting mistakes the second the are made. </li></ul><ul><li>Students often appreciate instant correction. </li></ul><ul><li>Think about the activity fluency and accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Self-/ peer/ teachers correction </li></ul><ul><li>You are the monitor, take a notes, use the board </li></ul><ul><li>when, where and how </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Missing word </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong word WW </li></ul><ul><li>Omit </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar gr </li></ul><ul><li>Word order WO </li></ul><ul><li>Interference I </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling S </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuation P </li></ul><ul><li>Tense T </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Fossilization: </li></ul><ul><li>The relatively permanent incorporation of incorrect linguistic forms into a person’s second language competence. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to: + and – affective and cognitive feedback </li></ul><ul><li>“ cryogenation” and backslide </li></ul><ul><li>Internal factors </li></ul><ul><li>External factors </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>How is feedback provided </li></ul><ul><li>1. Orally </li></ul><ul><li>2. Written </li></ul><ul><li>Types of feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Affective (kinesthetic) and Cognitive (linguistic) </li></ul><ul><li>1.Positive= I Like it /I understand </li></ul><ul><li>2.Negative= I don’t like it / msn not clear (try again) </li></ul><ul><li>3.Neutral= Waiting/ still processing (try again) </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>A priori or strong view: comparison between languages will predict learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>A posterior or weak view: comparison between languages will help explain learning outcomes, especially errors. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Researcher and teachers begun to undesrtand that L2 learning was: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative / constructive process/ intelligent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant hypothesis testing/ make sense </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Thru sources of knowledge (to provide order to ss Lg system) </li></ul>Target Lg Lg in general Life Native Lg universe Communicative Functions