Classification The process of dividing objects or concepts into logically hierarchical classes, subclasses, and sub-subclasses based on the characteristics they have in common and those that distinguish them. Definition from ODLIS at http://lu.com/odlis/odlis_c.cfm#classification
Why do we need to Classify? Because a resource can only physically be in one location!
Benefits of Classification Works are shelved by classification number. It provides a sort of codified subject heading that reflects what the item is “about” so that items are housed together with other items “about” the same subject. Keeping like items together serves the browsing interests of library patrons.
Classification Systems Dewey Decimal System Library of Congress Dublin Core Others
The Library of CongressClassification System 26 letters form main classes Each class is divided by 2nd alphabet, then arithmetically Each of the schedules is developed independently, so there are few common patterns of number building Used for larger collections Easier to assign unique call numbers
The Dewey Decimal ClassificationSystem Relative location system Universal notation based on the use of the decimal system 10 main classes Arabic numerals Various mnemonic aids and standard subdivisions Useful for libraries with 20,000 or fewer volumes
Choosing between the systems Size of the collection Knowledge level of the users Source of the classification numbers Networking obligations May always make exceptions Dewey “does it” for most school libaries
Dewey Decimal Classification(DDC) A hierarchical system for classifying books and other library materials by subject, first published in 1876 by the librarian and educator Melvil Dewey, who divided human knowledge into 10 main classes, each of which is divided into 10 divisions, and so on. In Dewey Decimal call numbers, Arabic numerals and decimal fractions are used in the class notation (example: 996.9). http://www.flickr.com/photos/metabrilliant/3583184475/sizes/m/
Classifying using DDC Determine the subject of the information package Generally one classification number is assigned to an item, whereas one to six (or more) subject headings may be needed to fully reflect content beyond the primary subject area. Classification will be based only on the primary facet of an item, whatever is considered most significant in placing the item within the collection.
Remember Select a classification number based on the “field of study” or discipline and not “subject” Consider the use of the item Example: a book about horses can be located in the discipline of zoology (study of the anatomy of the horse-599.725), animal husbandry (breeding-636.1), or even in sports (horse racing-798.4).
Conundrum Should two copies of the same item be located in two different places in the library? Kaplan and Riedling give an emphatic NO I say “it depends” Consider the needs of your users Remember there are no cataloging police
Dewey Decimal Classification(DDC) Abridged vs unabridged – Most school libraries use abridged Unabridged is much more specific (more numbers to the right of the decimal point) Guide contains tables, explanations, subject index to help you determine the number http://www.flickr.com/photos/75905404@N00/423936278/sizes/m/
The 14th Abridged Edition of theDDC Based on the full edition Shorter notation (able to divide numbers from the full edition at the prime--’--) Easier to remember Less expensive
One key concept The Dewey system relates subjects to disciplines Subjects are listed alphabetically in the relative index Under each subject the relative index lists the various disciplines under which the subject may be found
How to locate a Dewey Number Consult the DDC Relative Index under the subject area Enter the schedules at the number identified from the index Study the outline and scan the schedules to identify possible numbers But there are easier ways …
Suggested DDC nos. can befound in: Selection tools Reviews Publishers’ and vendors’ catalogs Sears List of Subject Headings Cataloging in Publication (CIP) in book – provided by most publishers = full catalog card information on title page verso; should always be verified with source (created early in publication cycle) Your own catalog for similar items
What if An item has more than one subject? If one subject is applied to another, class with the subject acted upon Use the classification number for the subject receiving fuller treatment With 2 subjects given equal treatment, class in the number coming first in the schedules (but check the schedule) With 3 subjects, class in the first higher number that covers them all
Call Number A unique code printed on a label affixed to the outside of an item in a library collection. Assigned by the cataloger, the call number is also displayed in the bibliographic record that represents the item in the library catalog, to identify the specific copy of the work and give its relative location on the shelf.
Components of a Call Number Top line may be a special location reference In a school library you may see REF for reference materials AV for audiovisuals MM for multimedia PRO for professional Check spine labels of other library items for uniformity
Components of a Call Number Second line is the classification number Third line is the book number, Cutter number or shelf mark In school libraries, the book number is typically the first 3 letters of the author’s last name Sometimes see years added for a possible fourth line to indicate edition
Local Decisions Biographies B, 92 or 920 Don’t use author’s last name unless it is an autobiography Developed in each MC to assist its particular users Find out what they are – look for written record in a cataloging guide (“local authority file”) or check similar materials
Are all Dewey books nonfiction? NO! NO! NO! Dewey can be used to organize all types of materials 800s are literature but we usually shelve our popular fiction/picture books alphabetically by author Dewey is used for poetry, plays, joke books, folk and fairy tales More accurate to say that the Dewey section includes INFORMATIONAL items
What “Dewey” do about fiction? Fiction materials are given call numbers too! Fiction F or FIC +1st 3 letters of the author’s last name Picture Books Everybody (or Easy) E +1st 3 letters of author’s last name Story Collection SC + 1st 3 letters of author’s last name
Order of DDC Numbers DDC numbers are arranged in decimal number order. After the decimal point, look at each decimal place one at a time and put those numbers in order. Unless they are the same, you will not need to look at the next place.Mortimer, M. (2000). Learn Dewey Decimal Classification. Lanham, MD.: The Scarecrow Press.
An Example of DDC NumberOrder 348.003 348.01 348.02 348.022 348.14 348.141 348.675 348.74 348.744
Shelf Arrangement Nonfiction materials are shelved in number order The lower numbers are on the left The numbers increase as you move to the right The numbers increase from the top shelf to the bottom shelf This is very similar to how we read words on a page
Shelf Arrangement Numbers increase from top to bottom Numbers increase from left to right http://www.flickr.com/photos/katerba/1522085378/sizes/m/
Some issues with Dewey The nature of the classification system itself The unfamiliarity of the system to most users The complexity of the way some numbers are assigned It’s not like Barnes & Noble! How does a system like this relate to information on the web? Tagging Key words
One very creative use of theDDCThe Library Hotel, New York Cityhttp://www.libraryhotel.com/dewey-decimal-system/i10 floors, one for each of the 10 main Dewey classesEach room includes books on the topics from the Dewey classExample: 9th floor is history (900s)One room is 20th century history, one is Asian history, etc.