Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2:The Appendicular SkeletonAppendicular Skeleton =Everything that is not the AxialSkeleton, i.e., p...
The GirdlesPectoral Girdle   Supports the Arms   Clavicle and ScapulaPelvic Girdle   Supports the Legs   Pelvis      I...
Clavicle (collarbone) Manubrium to Acromion Frequently fractured
Scapula (shoulder blade) Glenoid Spine Acromion Acromioclavicular  joint                       Origin of biceps brach...
The Arm   Synonym: Upper limb       Upper Arm = Brachium       Forearm = Antebrachium   Humerus, Radius and   Ulna   Car...
Humerus Head Greater and Lesser Tubercles Intertubercular Sulcus    Biceps tendon Coronoid Fossa Olecranon Fossa Trochlea...
Radius                    Ulna  Head, neck, shaft          Olecranon  Insertion of biceps        Trochlear notch  brachii:...
Carpus = Wrist                           Scaphoid is frequentlyFour Proximal              fractured   Scaphoid, lunate,  ...
Five fingersHand = Manus                     Labeled 1-5                                 Thumb = Pollex = digit 1         ...
The Girdles Pectoral Girdle     Supports the Arms     Clavicle and Scapula Pelvic Girdle     Supports the Legs     Pel...
Pelvis = os coxae = hip bone = (innominate bone)Three bones: Ilium, Ischium, PubisAnterior and posterior iliac spinesmeet ...
More Pelvis Articular Surface for Articulation with Sacrum Difference between male and female Pelvic (or pubic) symphysis ...
The leg AKA Lower Limb Femur Patella Tibia/fibula Tarsus Foot
Femur  Head and fovea capitus     Articulate with pelvis  Neck (“fx pelvis”)  Greater and Lesser  Trochanters  Shaft  Lat...
Patella = knee cap  Sesamoid Bone  Enclosed in the tendon of  the quadriceps group of  muscles                            ...
Tibia = shin bone Lateral and medial condyles    Intercondylar eminence Tibial tuberosity Inferior articular surface Medi...
Fibula  Head  Shaft  Lateral malleolus      (= ankle bone)  Not weight bearing      Frequent fxInterosseous Membrane
Tarsus (7 bones)Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate                         TalusNavicularCuboidCunieform (3)              C...
Foot           Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate                                    Dancer’s fxMetatarsals (1-5)Phalanges ...
Fractures (a review)   Bleeding       Then clot   Periosteal reaction       Fibroblasts       Osteoblasts   Callus    ...
“Hip” fracture“Grandma fell and broke her hip.”    More accurately, “Grandma broke     her femoral neck and then fell.” ...
Douglas Iris
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Chapter8 appendicularskeletonmarieb

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Chapter8 appendicularskeletonmarieb

  1. 1. Chapter 8, Bones, Part 2:The Appendicular SkeletonAppendicular Skeleton =Everything that is not the AxialSkeleton, i.e., pelvis and limbsGoal: Learn and locate the bones and Developed bymarkings of the appendicular skeleton John Gallagher, MS, DVM
  2. 2. The GirdlesPectoral Girdle Supports the Arms Clavicle and ScapulaPelvic Girdle Supports the Legs Pelvis Ilium, ischium, pubic bone
  3. 3. Clavicle (collarbone) Manubrium to Acromion Frequently fractured
  4. 4. Scapula (shoulder blade) Glenoid Spine Acromion Acromioclavicular joint Origin of biceps brachii muscle: Inferior and Superior Coracoid Process Angles Supraglenoid tubercle
  5. 5. The Arm Synonym: Upper limb  Upper Arm = Brachium  Forearm = Antebrachium Humerus, Radius and Ulna Carpus (wrist) Hand (manus)
  6. 6. Humerus Head Greater and Lesser Tubercles Intertubercular Sulcus  Biceps tendon Coronoid Fossa Olecranon Fossa Trochlea Medial and Lateral Epicondyles
  7. 7. Radius Ulna Head, neck, shaft Olecranon Insertion of biceps Trochlear notch brachii: Coronoid Process  Radial Tuberosity Ulnar Styloid Process Radial Styloid ProcessInterosseous Membrane(between radius and ulna)Note how the two bones cancross“Funny bone”
  8. 8. Carpus = Wrist Scaphoid is frequentlyFour Proximal fractured Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiformFour Distal Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
  9. 9. Five fingersHand = Manus Labeled 1-5 Thumb = Pollex = digit 1 Two phalangeal bonesFive metacarpal bones (1-5) Fingers = phalanges = digits 2-5 Three phalangeal bones Proximal, middle, distal
  10. 10. The Girdles Pectoral Girdle  Supports the Arms  Clavicle and Scapula Pelvic Girdle  Supports the Legs  Pelvis (os coxae)
  11. 11. Pelvis = os coxae = hip bone = (innominate bone)Three bones: Ilium, Ischium, PubisAnterior and posterior iliac spinesmeet to form the iliac crestGreater and Lesser SciaticNotchesIschial TuberosityAcetabulum  Acetabular fossaObturator Foramen
  12. 12. More Pelvis Articular Surface for Articulation with Sacrum Difference between male and female Pelvic (or pubic) symphysis  Fibrocartilage  Stretches at childbirth (Relaxin)
  13. 13. The leg AKA Lower Limb Femur Patella Tibia/fibula Tarsus Foot
  14. 14. Femur Head and fovea capitus  Articulate with pelvis Neck (“fx pelvis”) Greater and Lesser Trochanters Shaft Lateral and medial condyles and epicondyles Intercondylar fossa Patellar Surface
  15. 15. Patella = knee cap Sesamoid Bone Enclosed in the tendon of the quadriceps group of muscles “Skyline” MRI of patella
  16. 16. Tibia = shin bone Lateral and medial condyles  Intercondylar eminence Tibial tuberosity Inferior articular surface Medial malleolus  (= ankle bone)Interosseous Membrane
  17. 17. Fibula Head Shaft Lateral malleolus  (= ankle bone) Not weight bearing  Frequent fxInterosseous Membrane
  18. 18. Tarsus (7 bones)Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate TalusNavicularCuboidCunieform (3) Calcaneus
  19. 19. Foot Cute Tillie Never Could Cooperate Dancer’s fxMetatarsals (1-5)Phalanges (3 per toeexcept big toe)Longitudinal Arches Medial and lateralTransverse Arch
  20. 20. Fractures (a review) Bleeding  Then clot Periosteal reaction  Fibroblasts  Osteoblasts Callus  New bone “collar” Remodeling
  21. 21. “Hip” fracture“Grandma fell and broke her hip.”  More accurately, “Grandma broke her femoral neck and then fell.”  Sometimes the fx is at the intertrochanteric lineDiabetes, hypertension,osteoporosis25% die from complications in firstyear mostly related to immobility:  Anesthesia  Muscle Atrophy  Pneumonia  Decubitus ulcers  Depression and disorientation
  22. 22. Douglas Iris

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