Chapter22 respiratorymarieb


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Chapter22 respiratorymarieb

  1. 1. Ch. 22: The Respiratory SystemExplain the microscopicand gross anatomy of therespiratory system.Identify the pleuralcavities, its membranesand the muscles ofventilation. Developed by John Gallagher, MS, DVM
  2. 2. Respiratory system tasks 1° Functions:  Gas Transport Understand this  Gas Exchange formula! O2 and CO2 via diffusion  Acid-Base Balance CO2 + H2O ⇌ H2CO3 ⇌ H+ + HCO3- 2 ° Functions:  Moistening and warming/cooling  Particulate/pathogen removal
  3. 3. Respiratory Epithelium (review ch. 4) Histology? Pseudo… Mucus produced by numerous goblet cellsDefense by means of •filtering hairs •turbinates •ciliary escalator (mucociliary blanket) •sticky mucus
  4. 4. Respiratory System starts at the naresMajor FunctionsUpper respiratory system:1. Air conditioning (warming)2. Defense against pathogens3. Gas TransportLower respiratory system:1. Speech & other respiratory sounds2. Gas exchange (ventilation)3. Maintenance of homeostasis, e.g. pH
  5. 5. Upper Respiratory System1. Nose2. Nasal Cavity3. Paranasal sinuses4. Pharynx
  6. 6. Upper Respiratory System1) Nose external and internal nares = Nostrils Nose Hairs = vibrissae Alar cartilages on the nose Paranasal Sinuses  Fig 7.11 p 165
  7. 7. Upper Respiratory System• 2. Nasal Cavity• Nasal Conchae:  Superior, middle and inferior  Other name: “Turbinate bones” because they create ______  Advantage ?• nasal septum• hard palate, soft palate
  8. 8. Upper RespiratorySystem3. Paranasal Sinuses Named after their bones  Frontal  Ethmoid  Sphenoid  Maxillary Fig. 7.11, p 165
  9. 9. Upper RespiratorySystem4) PharynxShared passageway for respiratory and digestive systems  nasopharynx - part above uvula and posterior to internal nares  oropharynx – portion visible in mirror when mouth is wide open fauces = the opening uvula - posterior edge of soft palate  laryngopharynx – between the hyoid bone & the esophagus
  10. 10. Fig. 22.3
  11. 11. Nasopharynx OropharynxLaryngopharynx
  12. 12. Lower Respiratory C3System = Anything inferior C4to the Pharynx C5 C6 C7Larynx: Cartilaginous cylinder (from C4- C7)Made up of 9 cartilages – 3 large unpaired (know these!) Thyroid, Cricoid, and Epiglottis – 3 small paired (involved in construction of voice box)
  13. 13. Larynx (AKA voice box)Hyoid BoneEpiglottisThyroid Cartilage  Adam’s AppleCricoid CartilageVocal Folds Vocal cord stroboscopy
  14. 14. Larynx, cont’dThe pitch of sound is from tension of the elastic fibers ofthe vocal folds  Resonance from shape of pharynx and mouthThe glottis is the opening between the vocal folds Vocal FoldsInnervation via laryngeal nerves video  Branches of CN X  Left recurrent laryngeal nerve loops around aorta
  15. 15. Trachea (AKA windpipe)Passageway to lungsEpithelial Lining ?16 -20 incomplete hyaline cartilage rings (C-shaped) - completed by trachealis muscle.Carina is the site of branching to left and right primary bronchi (AKA tracheal bifurcation)
  16. 16. Tracheal BlockageHeimlich Maneuver orabdominal thrust or Tracheostomy
  17. 17. From Bronchi to Lungs: TheBronchial Tree p 645  1 (main) bronchi (enter lungs at hilus, complete cartilage rings)  2 bronchi (from now on cartilage plates)  3 bronchi  BronchiolesFig 24.11  Terminal bronchioles Conducting portion  Respiratory bronchioles  Alveolar ducts Respiratory  Alveolar sacs portion Note: Sympathetic stimulation (epinephrine) causes bronchodilation
  18. 18. The Respiratory Zone p 646Alveoli are site of gas exchangeClose association with capillariesLots of elastic fibers in alveolar wall
  19. 19. Alveoli (singular: alveolus)Alveolar cells1. Type I cells – respiratory epitheliocytes2. Type II cells – septal cells – produce surfactant, which prevents collapse of alveoli3. Alveolar Macrophages – dust cells – phagocytic
  20. 20. SEM of alveoli
  21. 21. Respiratory MembraneDifferent from respiratory epitheliumSuper thin. Made up of 4 layers:1. endothelium of capillary2. basement membrane of capillary endothelium3. basement membrane of epithelium of alveolus4. epithelium of alveolus
  22. 22. EmphysemaChronic progressiveenlargement of alveoliaccompanied bydestruction of theirwall and decrease insurface area forexchangeDue to prolongedexposure to respiratoryirritants (??)
  23. 23. LungsSituated in Pleural (thoracic, chest) CavitySubdivided into lobes (each supplied by 2 bronchus)Right lung: 3 lobes (rel. broad and short) LeftLeft lung: 2 lobes (long and narrow)Right and left lung separated by the mediastinumLung hilus
  24. 24. Pleural Cavities and Membranes Two cavities separated by mediastinum Lining of cavities  Parietal Pleura  Visceral Pleura  Pleural Cavity pleurisy Pneumothorax, (hemothorax, pyothorax, pleural effusion)
  25. 25. Pleural Cavities and Membranes, cont’d Fig 21.13
  26. 26. Pneumothorax
  27. 27. Ventilation Inspiration = Inhalation Expiration = Exhalation Respiratory Muscles Neural Control:  Medulla  Chemoreceptors (fig. 22.17) Carotid bodies Aortic bodies
  28. 28. Respiratory MusclesDiaphragm: depresses on contraction  inhalationExternal intercostals: elevate ribs  inhalationInternal intercostals: depress ribs  active exhalation(Accessory muscles - serratus anterior, scalenes, pectoralis minor, sternocleidomastoid, internal and external obliques, transverse abdominus, rectus abdominus)
  29. 29. Pulmonary Embolism Causes for development of emboli in veins of legs: Immobilization Trauma Long surgeries Oral contraceptives Obesity Cigarette smoking Hypertension