Key Concepts:    Describe the histological similarities and differences     of the blood vessels    Explain the pattern ...
Pulmonary Circuit: From the “Right Heart” to theLungsSystemic Circuit: From the “Left Heart” toEverywhere Else65 -70% in v...
1.   Tunica interna or intima     (endothelium + c.t.)2.   Tunica media (muscle +     c.t.) Much more smooth     muscle in...
   Artery walls thicker (more    muscle and elastic fibers),    smaller lumen   Additional: internal &    external elast...
elastic arterieslarge vein                                      muscular arteriesmedium-sized vein                        ...
Largest, conducting arteries – lead                      directly from heart, subject to high                      pressur...
 2 - 9 mm                   ~ 4 mmExternal and internal   External and internaljugular, brachial &     carotids, brachia...
 ~ 10-50 µm                           ~ 30 µm               Remember: RBC ~ 7 µm
Fig 20.4   The smallest   Only vessels that allow    exchange       Diffusion or active transport   Precapillary Sphin...
Fig 19.3   Simple squamous    epithelium; This kind of    epithelium is sometimes    called an endothelium    because it ...
Only endotheliumCapillaries         Variably permeable                       ~ 8 µm                           Characteriz...
    Resemble fenestrated     capillaries, yet    1.   Wider than typical capillaries    2.   irregular shapes    3.   hav...
Postcapillary venuleVenuleVeinThin wallLarge lumenLow pressureLow velocityValves
Why are valves found in    veins but not in    arteries?
Pulmonary &Systemic Circulations
Right ventricle intopulmonary trunk topulmonary arteries tolungsReturn by way of 4pulmonary veins to leftatrium
Systemic Circulation                            Left common                            2  carotidBrachiocephalic        3 ...
Right Common Carotid                         Left Common Carotid Right Subclavian Brachiocephalic Trunk                   ...
   Common carotid (2)   Vertebral Artery (2)       Through the transverse        foramina   Basilar Artery (1)       ...
   = Ring of vessels    surrounding pituitary gland -    supplies cerebrum and    cerebellum   Brain can receive blood f...
Arteriovenous malformations(AVM) are masses of abnormalblood vessels which grow in thebrain.
Dynamic angio
   Sclerosis = hardening
   Difference Between    Right and Left??   Subclavian   Axillary   Brachial       Radial       Ulnar
Ulnar Artery                         Radial Artery              Superficial Palmar ArchBody Worlds
Descending aorta          Thoracic aorta          Abdominal aortaAbdominal aorta  Common iliac  External iliac    Femoral
Bronchial arteries - supply bronchi   and lungsPericardial arteries - supply   pericardiumMediastinal arteries - supply  m...
Celiac trunk - 3 branches – to liver,    gallbladder, esophagus, stomach,    duodenum, pancreas, and spleenSuperior mesent...
   An aneurysm is a    bulging or ballooning    of an artery.   Often asymptomatic if    it grows slowly   Weakness in ...
   Common Iliac A. and    V.   External Iliac A. & V.   Femoral A. & V.   Popliteal A. & V.       Anterior Tibial    ...
   Mostly parallels    arterial circulation   Veins are more    superficial in limbs   Major exception in the    abdome...
Median cubital v.                 Basilic v.                                 Cephalic v.See Fig. 20.18
Portal Systems3 exceptions: from artery to    capillary to artery (or venule) to    capillary to vein   Hypophysis   Liv...
   Venous return from the intestine is carried    to the liver vial the Portal Vein   Most nutrients (not fat) are carri...
Portal vein
   Page 562   ↑ BP in legs   Venous dilation   Pooling   May be painful and/or    thrombogenic
During fetal life, all oxygen andnutrition comes not from theintestine and lungs, but fromthe placenta.The fetus has diffe...
No blood coming from placentaDuctus venosus becomes ligamentum  venosus (=ligamentum teres)Foramen ovale closes & becomes ...
Patent foramen ovale
Chapter20 bloodvesselsmarieb
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Chapter20 bloodvesselsmarieb

  1. 1. Key Concepts: Describe the histological similarities and differences of the blood vessels Explain the pattern and names of the major arteries and veins of the pulmonary & systemic circulations Describe the circulatory changes that occur at birth. Developed by John Gallagher, MS, DVM
  2. 2. Pulmonary Circuit: From the “Right Heart” to theLungsSystemic Circuit: From the “Left Heart” toEverywhere Else65 -70% in veins (= bloodreservoir); lumen is larger than incorresponding arteries30-35% in heart, arteries andcapillariesN.B. The chambers pump thesame VOLUME, approx 35 cc.
  3. 3. 1. Tunica interna or intima (endothelium + c.t.)2. Tunica media (muscle + c.t.) Much more smooth muscle in arteries3. Tunica externa or adventitia (thick layer of c.t.)4. Vasa vasorum (p 588)
  4. 4.  Artery walls thicker (more muscle and elastic fibers), smaller lumen Additional: internal & external elastic membranesArtifacts when fixing slides: Arterial walls contract; endothelium cannot contract: pleated appearance Veins collapse in fixation
  5. 5. elastic arterieslarge vein muscular arteriesmedium-sized vein arterioles venules capillaries Arteries – ALWAYS carry blood away from heart Veins – ALWAYS return blood to heart, contain about 2/3 bodys blood at any given time
  6. 6. Largest, conducting arteries – lead directly from heart, subject to high pressuresSuperior & inferior Pulmonary trunk & aortavena cava and their and their major branchestributaries
  7. 7.  2 - 9 mm  ~ 4 mmExternal and internal External and internaljugular, brachial & carotids, brachial &femoral veins femoral arteries
  8. 8.  ~ 10-50 µm  ~ 30 µm Remember: RBC ~ 7 µm
  9. 9. Fig 20.4 The smallest Only vessels that allow exchange  Diffusion or active transport Precapillary Sphincters regulate flow and blood pressure
  10. 10. Fig 19.3 Simple squamous epithelium; This kind of epithelium is sometimes called an endothelium because it does not face the world outside the body Continuous, fenestrated, or sinusoids  Permit increasing exchange Capillary Beds (plexuses) Capillary flow
  11. 11. Only endotheliumCapillaries Variably permeable  ~ 8 µm Characterized by circular fenestrations or pores that penetrate the endothelium -permit exchange of larger molecules. somewhat permeable Intestinal mucosa, choroid plexus,Most body regions endocrine glands, kidneys
  12. 12.  Resemble fenestrated capillaries, yet 1. Wider than typical capillaries 2. irregular shapes 3. have longer, larger pores 4. thinner (or no) basement membrane Blood movement very slow Exchange of larger molecules, i.e., proteins Found in the liver, bone A lymphocyte traversing a fenestrated sinusoid. marrow, spleen
  13. 13. Postcapillary venuleVenuleVeinThin wallLarge lumenLow pressureLow velocityValves
  14. 14. Why are valves found in veins but not in arteries?
  15. 15. Pulmonary &Systemic Circulations
  16. 16. Right ventricle intopulmonary trunk topulmonary arteries tolungsReturn by way of 4pulmonary veins to leftatrium
  17. 17. Systemic Circulation Left common 2 carotidBrachiocephalic 3 Left subclavian1 trunk
  18. 18. Right Common Carotid Left Common Carotid Right Subclavian Brachiocephalic Trunk Left Subclavian
  19. 19.  Common carotid (2) Vertebral Artery (2)  Through the transverse foramina Basilar Artery (1)  Through foramen magnum Circle of Willis
  20. 20.  = Ring of vessels surrounding pituitary gland - supplies cerebrum and cerebellum Brain can receive blood from carotid or vertebral or basilar aa.  Collateral circulation  (significance?)
  21. 21. Arteriovenous malformations(AVM) are masses of abnormalblood vessels which grow in thebrain.
  22. 22. Dynamic angio
  23. 23.  Sclerosis = hardening
  24. 24.  Difference Between Right and Left?? Subclavian Axillary Brachial  Radial  Ulnar
  25. 25. Ulnar Artery Radial Artery Superficial Palmar ArchBody Worlds
  26. 26. Descending aorta Thoracic aorta Abdominal aortaAbdominal aorta Common iliac External iliac Femoral
  27. 27. Bronchial arteries - supply bronchi and lungsPericardial arteries - supply pericardiumMediastinal arteries - supply mediastinal structuresEsophageal arteries - supply esophagusPaired intercostal arteries- thoracic wallSuperior phrenic arteries - supply diaphragm
  28. 28. Celiac trunk - 3 branches – to liver, gallbladder, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, pancreas, and spleenSuperior mesenteric– to pancreas and duodenum, small intestine and colonPaired suprarenal - to adrenal glandsPaired renal – to kidneysPaired gonadal – to testes or ovariesInferior mesenteric – to terminal colon and rectumPaired lumbar – to body wall
  29. 29.  An aneurysm is a bulging or ballooning of an artery. Often asymptomatic if it grows slowly Weakness in the C.T. wall of the aorta Rupture = ? Treatment is synthetic support of the aorta
  30. 30.  Common Iliac A. and V. External Iliac A. & V. Femoral A. & V. Popliteal A. & V.  Anterior Tibial  Posterior Tibial Dorsal Pedal A.  Pulse checking Great Saphenous V.  Used for coronary bypasses  Longest vessel
  31. 31.  Mostly parallels arterial circulation Veins are more superficial in limbs Major exception in the abdomen  Portal Circulation
  32. 32. Median cubital v. Basilic v. Cephalic v.See Fig. 20.18
  33. 33. Portal Systems3 exceptions: from artery to capillary to artery (or venule) to capillary to vein Hypophysis Liver In kidney nephrons
  34. 34.  Venous return from the intestine is carried to the liver vial the Portal Vein Most nutrients (not fat) are carried by the portal vein Fig. 20.21 (a) Portal vein enters the liver at the hilus
  35. 35. Portal vein
  36. 36.  Page 562 ↑ BP in legs Venous dilation Pooling May be painful and/or thrombogenic
  37. 37. During fetal life, all oxygen andnutrition comes not from theintestine and lungs, but fromthe placenta.The fetus has differentcirculatory pathways toaccommodate these differentneeds.These pathways must changeAT the time of birth. Figure 20.24
  38. 38. No blood coming from placentaDuctus venosus becomes ligamentum venosus (=ligamentum teres)Foramen ovale closes & becomes fossa ovaleDuctus arteriosus closes and becomes ligamentum arteriosumUmbilical vein and arteries degenerate
  39. 39. Patent foramen ovale

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